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Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 2 • Date March-April 2014

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 0000501
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  • IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 0000601
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 0100203
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  • Introduction to the issue on biophotonics

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 0200204
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  • Common-Path Optical Coherence Tomography Using a Conical-Frustum-Tip Fiber Probe

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6800407
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    We demonstrated an in-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography (OCT) system using a conical-frustum-tip fiber probe. The probe had a circularly truncated conical shape to increase reflection of reference light while preserving focus without additional lens components. We analyzed the intensity of reference light back-reflected from the probe using a ZEMAX simulation, and the optimal height of the conical-frustum lens was 1.0 μm. Compared to various other types of conical-frustum-tip fiber probes, the probe in this paper showed the best lateral resolution with a relatively high reflectivity. Experimental results are compared to simulations. This conical-frustum-tip probe provided a 3.7 times larger reflectivity than a conventional conical lens. Due to the increased reflection, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an OCT image was enhanced by up to 5.6 dB. Furthermore, the lateral resolution was less than 4.4 μm as verified by B-scan profiles of a resolution target card. This probe can be utilized as a forward-viewing endoscopic probe to enhance OCT image quality through an increase in SNR, sensitivity, a small size, and effective focusing without additional lens components. View full abstract»

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  • Label-Free Optical Imaging of Lymphatic Vessels Within Tissue Beds IN VIVO

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6800510
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (711 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Lymphatic vessels are a part of the circulatory system in vertebrates that maintain tissue fluid homeostasis and drain excess fluid and large cells that cannot easily find their way back into venous system. Due to the lack of noninvasive monitoring tools, lymphatic vessels are known as forgotten circulation. However, the lymphatic system plays an important role in diseases such as cancer and inflammatory conditions. In this paper, we start to briefly review the current existing methods for imaging lymphatic vessels, mostly involving dye/targeting cell injection. We then show the capability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for label-free noninvasive in vivo imaging of lymph vessels and nodes. One of the advantages of using OCT over other imaging modalities is its ability to assess label-free blood flow perfusion that can be simultaneously observed along with lymphatic vessels for imaging the microcirculatory system within tissue beds. Imaging the microcirculatory system including blood and lymphatic vessels can be utilized for imaging and better understanding pathologic mechanisms and the treatment technique development in some critical diseases such as inflammation, malignant cancer angiogenesis, and metastasis. View full abstract»

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  • High Resolution Phase-Sensitive Magnetomotive Optical Coherence Microscopy for Tracking Magnetic Microbeads and Cellular Mechanics

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6800907
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    We present a real-time multimodal near-infrared imaging technology that tracks externally-induced axial motion of magnetic microbeads in single cells in culture. The integrated multimodal imaging technique consists of phase-sensitive magnetomotive optical coherence microscopy (MM-OCM) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM). MPM is utilized for the visualization of multifunctional fluorescent and magnetic microbeads, while MM-OCM detects, with nanometer-scale sensitivity, periodic displacements of the microbeads induced by the modulation of an external magnetic field. Magnetomotive signals are measured from mouse macrophages, human breast primary ductal carcinoma cells, and human breast epithelial cells in culture, and validated with full-field phase-sensitive microscopy. This methodology demonstrates the capability for imaging controlled cell dynamics and has the potential for measuring cell biomechanical properties, which are important in assessing the health and pathological state of cells. View full abstract»

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  • High-Accuracy Retinal Layer Segmentation for Optical Coherence Tomography Using Tracking Kernels Based on Gaussian Mixture Model

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6801010
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Ophthalmology requires automated segmentation of retinal layers in optical coherence tomography images to provide valuable disease information. Sensitive extraction of accurate layer boundaries stable against local image quality degradation is necessary. We propose and demonstrate a powerful, accurate segmentation method with high stability and sensitivity. The method uses an intelligent tracking kernel and a clustering mask based on the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). Combining these concepts yields robust, degradation-free tracking with highly sensitive pixel classification. The kernel extracts boundaries by moving and matching its double faces with locally clustered images generated by GMM clustering. The cluster-guided motion of the kernel enables sensitive classification of structures on a single-pixel scale. This system targets seven major retinal boundaries. Then, using peak detection, additional two simple boundaries are easily grabbed in regions where their distinct features emerge sufficiently in the limited space remaining after the previous segmentation. Using these hybrid modes, successful segmentation of nine boundaries of eight retinal layers in foveal areas is demonstrated. A 0.909 fraction of a pixel difference appears between boundaries segmented manually and using our algorithm. Our method was developed for use with low-quality data, allowing its application in various morphological segmentation technologies. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced Self-Phase Modulation Enables a 700–900 nm Linear Compressible Continuum for Multicolor Two-Photon Microscopy

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6800108
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    The spectral band of 100-fs pulses limits its simultaneous and efficient excitation in multicolor two-photon microscopy. By pumping the pulses from the 100-fs Ti:Sapphire oscillator through the highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber, we demonstrate that a 700-900 nm linear compressible continuum can be generated due to enhanced self-phase modulation. Such a continuum is linearly compressed to 57 fs at the objective focus by a grating pair. The two-photon imaging of three-color labeled bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells shows that the compressed continuum not only simultaneously excites the three fluorescent dyes, but also enhances the signal over 20 times compared with that of uncompressed case. This study shows its potential to promote the fluorescence signal level by using fiber continuum in multicolor two-photon microscopy. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced Fiber Soliton Sources for Nonlinear Deep Tissue Imaging in Biophotonics

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6800311
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    Optical imaging plays a major role in both basic biological research and clinical diagnostics, providing noninvasive or minimally invasive microscopic imaging capability to investigate biological tissues. Optical image acquisition through significant depths of biological tissues, however, presents a major challenge since tissue is extremely heterogeneous and the strong scattering of the various tissue components has restricted high-resolution optical imaging to superficial layers. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has significantly extended the penetration depth of high-resolution optical imaging, particularly for in vivo applications. Multiphoton imaging critically depends on ultrafast technologies, particularly pulsed excitation sources. In this paper, the basics of deep tissue MPM and its improvements utilizing soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) are reviewed. Wavelength tunable, high-energy soliton generation through SSFS in large-mode-area (LMA) fibers and photonic crystal rods is presented. The application of these solitons to MPM enables noninvasive imaging in biological tissues with unprecedented depth. The main characteristics of the excitation source for deep tissue MPM, such as wavelength, pulse energy, and repetition rate, are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Imaging With the Use of a Scattering Lens

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6800213
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    “Turbidity” caused by multiple light scattering distorts the propagation of waves, and thus undermines optical imaging. For example, translucent biological tissues exhibiting optical turbidity have posed limitations on the imaging depth and energy transmission. Here, we introduce a novel method called turbid lens imaging (TLI) that records a transmission matrix of a scattering medium charactering the input-output response of the medium. The knowledge of this transmission matrix allows one to find an incident wave out of the distorted transmitted wave. Therefore, it converts the highly complex medium into a useful imaging optics. We demonstrate that the image distortion by a scattering medium can be eliminated by the use of the transmission matrix and a clean object image can be retrieved as a result. We extend TLI for imaging through a multimode optical fiber, which is also a scattering medium, and demonstrate an endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber itself as a lens. In addition, we show that TLI removes the pixelation artifact in using an image fiber bundle and improve spatial resolution. Our method of making use of multiple light scattering will lay a foundation for advance optical bioimaging methods. View full abstract»

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  • Sparse Recovery Methods Hold Promise for Diffuse Optical Tomographic Image Reconstruction

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6800609
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (703 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The sparse recovery methods utilize the ℓp-norm-based regularization in the estimation problem with 0 ≤ p ≤ 1. These methods have a better utility when the number of independent measurements are limited in nature, which is a typical case for diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction problem. These sparse recovery methods, along with an approximation to utilize the ℓ0-norm, have been deployed for the reconstruction of diffuse optical images. Their performance was compared systematically using both numerical and gelatin phantom cases to show that these methods hold promise in improving the reconstructed image quality. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced Motion Compensation Methods for Intravital Optical Microscopy

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6800709
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    Intravital microscopy has emerged in the recent decade as an indispensible imaging modality for the study of the microdynamics of biological processes in live animals. Technical advancements in imaging techniques and hardware components, combined with the development of novel targeted probes and new mice models, have enabled us to address long-standing questions in several biology areas such as oncology, cell biology, immunology, and neuroscience. As the instrument resolution has increased, physiological motion activities have become a major obstacle that prevents imaging live animals at resolutions analogue to the ones obtained in vitro. Motion compensation techniques aim at reducing this gap and can effectively increase the in vivo resolution. This paper provides a technical review of some of the latest developments in motion compensation methods, providing organ specific solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Review: Tissue Optical Clearing Window for Blood Flow Monitoring

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6801112
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    The tissue optical clearing (TOC) technique could significantly improve the biomedical optical imaging depth, but most current investigations are limited to in vitro studies. For in vivo applications, the TOC method must provide a rapid treatment process, sufficient transparency, and safety for animals, which makes it more difficult. Recently developed innovative optical clearing methods for in vivo use show great potential for enhancing the contrast and resolution of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) for blood flow monitoring. This paper gives an overview of recent progress in the use of TOC for vascular visualization with LSCI. First, the principle of TOC-induced improvement of LSCI and a quantitative analysis method for evaluating the improvement are described briefly. Second, the paper introduces transparent windows, including various skin windows and a cranial window, that permit LSCI to monitor dermal or cortical blood flow, respectively, with high resolution and contrast. Third, preliminary investigations of the safety of TOC demonstrate that the transparent skin window is switchable, which enables LSCI to repeatedly image blood flow. However, research on in vivo TOC is currently less advanced than that on in vitro TOC. Future work should focus on developing a highly effective, safe method and extending its applications. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Mixing Interferometry for Biomedical Signals Sensing

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6900108
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Self-mixing interferometry is a noncontact method well suited for measuring a variety of biological signals, like blood pressure wave at wrist and thorax (the optical stethoscope), blood velocity in vein and in external circulation, THz echoes from skin, ear drum vibration, and oculomotor reflex measurements. In this review, after presenting the underlying theory and the main developments of self-mixing, we analyze the applications to biosignal measurement reported so far, and illustrate potentialities and perspectives of the technique. View full abstract»

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  • Photonic Sensing of Electrophysiological Activity for Wearable Applications

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6900909
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    Photonic biosensors, featuring small size, lightweight, and remote sensing ability through optical fibers, show huge potential for wearable bioelectric applications. Electro-optic (EO) devices have high-input impedance and can achieve small-driving voltages, just what is required for a sensor targeting bioelectric activity monitoring. This paper proposes a multi-parameter bioelectric acquisition platform with a photonic sensor based on EO methods, and electronic circuitry for signal conditioning, filtering and amplification. The core sensing technology is based on a Lithium Niobate Mach-Zehnder interferometer modulator, which responds to the bioelectric signal by modulating the input light intensity. The photonic sensor performance was compared with standard acquisition systems. Results have shown that the developed sensor is reliable and allows multi-parameter acquisition with acceptable gain (from 1 to 4 mV/μV), sensitivity (minimum detected field of 20 μV), frequency content, and clinical relevance. View full abstract»

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  • Bioconjugation Strategies for Label-Free Optical Microcavity Sensors

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6900213
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    Whispering gallery mode optical microcavities have significantly impacted the field of label-free optical biodetection. By combining the evanescent field generated by the microcavity with biomimetic surface chemistries, it is now possible to use the microcavities as not only biosensors, but as analytical tools to explore fundamental chemical and physical interactions of biomolecules and biomaterials. Here, we review the recent advancements of these applications from a surface chemistry perspective. For example, surface chemistries can be generated from a standard coating perspective, where active molecules, such as laser or fluorescent dyes can be embedded in a biomaterial matrix. Alternatively, direct and reverse grafting techniques can be used to tether biomolecules of interest to the surface to tune the surface properties (hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, protein adsorption, cell adhesion, etc.). Finally, we discuss how to apply advancements in biomimetic chemistry from other sensor approaches to these devices to continue the development of new analytical tools. All of these developments rely on a firm understanding of how proper surface chemistries can be merged with whispering gallery mode optical microcavities to achieve not just a platform, but a precisely defined tool for a given application. View full abstract»

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  • Hollow-Core Coaxial Fiber Sensor for Biophotonic Detection

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6900409
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    In this paper, a photonic biosensor based on a hollow-core coaxial fiber is presented and discussed. The sensor is aimed to detect the presence of specific biomarkers in a complex human compound, e.g., serum, urine, saliva, cell lysate. The target detection occurs through a biological binding that alters the mode confinement of the Bragg structure. A generic (suboptimal) structure is designed by using the transfer matrix method. The sensor performances are shown in terms of confinement losses. For spherical protein of 5 nm, the confinement loss is increased of 1.213 dB/m. Furthermore, a parametric analysis is performed, which drives toward the possible optimization of the fiber. From a practical point of view, the joint application of selective molecular functionalization of fiber interfaces, and multilayer fiber “rolling” technique are believed to enable for the realization of the sensor. View full abstract»

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  • Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation (Low-Power Laser Therapy)

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7000306
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    Monochromatic (laser) and quasimonochromatic (LED) radiation in the red-to-near infrared optical region both in CW and pulsed modes is used to treat in a nondestructive fashion various soft-tissue and neurologic conditions. Cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal enzyme of mitochondrial respiratory chain, is considered as the photoacceptor. The mechanisms of photobiomodulation on cellular level are based on the electronic excitation of CuA and CuB chromophores in cytochrome c oxidase molecule. As the result, the redox status of cytochrome c oxidase molecule as well as its functional activity is modulated. The primary reactions in mitochondria switch on a set of secondary biochemical reactions (light-sensitive retrograde mitochondrial signaling) with endpoint as gene expression in the nucleus. Also, two specific topics are discussed and reviewed: patch-clamp studies in connection with optical stimulation of nerves and differences in CW and pulsed light action mechanisms when biological objects are irradiated. View full abstract»

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  • Revisiting Indocyanine Green: Effects of Serum and Physiological Temperature on Absorption and Fluorescence Characteristics

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7000409
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    Indocyanine green (ICG) remains as the only near infrared dye approved by the FDA. Despite its long history of usage in clinical medicine, a systematic study of the effects of serum proteins at physiologically relevant levels and temperature on absorption and fluorescence characteristics of ICG has been missing. We incubated ICG at concentrations in the range of 0.6-25.8 μM in McCoy's 5a cell culture medium, without and with supplemental fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 5% and 10% levels. Our analyses of absorption and fluorescence spectra indicate that the peak absorbance of ICG associated with its monomeric form increases in the presence of FBS. For example, at ICG concentration of 25.8 μM, the monomer absorbance is increased by nearly 100% in the presence of 10% FBS. Similarly, there is an increase in the relative fluorescence quantum yield of ICG, by as much as nearly 3.5 times in the presence of FBS. When incubated at 37 °C, the presence of FBS in the cell culture medium helps maintain the monomeric absorption of ICG and sustain the increased fluorescence emission. We offer explanations to describe the possible photophysical mechanisms underlying the observed effects and discuss the importance of these results to in-vivo applications of ICG. View full abstract»

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  • Quantification of Thermal Lensing Using an Artificial Eye

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7000108
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    Recent experiments have concluded that it is possible to interrupt the vision of human subjects using infrared (IR) light through an effect known as thermal lensing. While these experiments successfully demonstrated the influence of thermal lensing on an Amsler grid target, little has been done to quantify the amount of visual disruption resulting from this phenomenon. Therefore, an artificial eye system was configured to better quantify the refractive power of the thermal lens generated within the human eye. The influence of 1319 nm energy with power levels from 220 to 630 mW and exposure durations between 0.25 and 1.00 s was evaluated based on changes induced within a visible probe beam (542 nm). Results showed up to a -2.0 D blur could be induced in human subjects using these energy levels. Results also established a relationship between the peak IR power and exposure durations used to determine the strength of the thermal lens. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Spatiotemporal Fluorescent Detection Measurements Using Embedded Waveguide Sensors

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7000207
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    Integrated waveguide biosensors, when combined with fluorescent labeling, have significantly impacted the field of biodetection. While there are numerous types of waveguide sensors, the fundamental excitation method is fairly consistent: the evanescent field of the waveguide excites a fluorophore whose emission is detected, either directly via imaging or indirectly via a decrease in power transfer. Recently, a sensor device was demonstrated which is able to back-couple the emitted light into the waveguide, allowing the signal to be detected directly. However, this previous work focused on the development of an empirical model, leaving many theoretical questions unanswered. Additionally, the results from the novel back-coupling route were not compared with the results from the more conventional imaging technique. In this study, we develop finite difference time domain simulations to predict the sensor's performance both in air and aqueous environments. We also perform complementary experiments to verify the modeling, measuring the fluorescence coupled into the waveguide, and radiated perpendicular to the waveguide. Finally, we performed spatiotemporal measurements of the fluorescence on the waveguide. Utilizing these measurements, we are able to measure the fluorescent decay rate of the fluorescent dye at arbitrary points along the length of the waveguide. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling Light Scattering in Tissue as Continuous Random Media Using a Versatile Refractive Index Correlation Function

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7000514
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    Optical interactions with biological tissue provide powerful tools for study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. When optical methods are used in applications involving tissue, scattering of light is an important phenomenon. In imaging modalities, scattering provides contrast, but also limits imaging depth, so models help optimize an imaging technique. Scattering can also be used to collect information about the tissue itself providing diagnostic value. Therapies involving focused beams require scattering models to assess dose distribution. In all cases, models of light scattering in tissue are crucial to correctly interpreting the measured signal. Here, we review a versatile model of light scattering that uses the Whittle-Matérn correlation family to describe the refractive index correlation function Bn(rd). In weakly scattering media such as tissue, Bn(rd) determines the shape of the power spectral density from which all other scattering characteristics are derived. This model encompasses many forms such as mass fractal and the Henyey-Greenstein function as special cases. We discuss normalization and calculation of optical properties including the scattering coefficient and anisotropy factor. Experimental methods using the model are also described to quantify tissue properties that depend on length scales of only a few tens of nanometers. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Detection of a Capillary Grid Spatial Pattern in Epithelium by Spatially Resolved Diffuse Reflectance Probe: Monte Carlo Verification

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7000609
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    We performed a large scale Monte Carlo verification of possibility of detecting the capillary grid spatial pattern in surface tissues such as mucosal epithelium or epidermis with very thin (optically nonsignificant) stratum corneum by a spatially resolved diffuse reflectance probe. Our results confirm the hypothesis that a spatially resolved, steady-state, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can potentially identify absorption inhomogeneities located at the depth of 0.5-1.0 of the transport mean free path ls' = 1/μs', which is the range of capillary loops locations within epithelium. The modulation depth depends significantly on an inhomogeneity's absorption, depth of the inhomogeneity, a bulk reduced scattering coefficient, and the size of the defect. The optical clearing technique can be used to lower the scattering in surface tissues and subsequently increase the transport mean free path, which can lead to increase in the sensitivity of the method. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated IVUS-OCT Imaging for Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7100108
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (518 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the diagnosis of atherosclerosis, biomedical imaging techniques such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been developed. The combined use of IVUS and OCT is hypothesized to remarkably increase diagnostic accuracy of vulnerable plaques. We have developed an integrated IVUS-OCT imaging apparatus, which includes the integrated catheter, motor drive unit, and imaging system. The dual-function imaging catheter has the same diameter of current clinical standard. The imaging system is capable for simultaneous IVUS and OCT imaging in real time. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments on rabbits with atherosclerosis were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the integrated intravascular imaging modality. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers published in the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics fall within the broad field of science and technology of quantum electronics of a device, subsystem, or system-oriented nature.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
John Cartledge
Queen's University