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Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug. 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 66
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1 - 1210
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
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  • A Survey of Control Issues in PMSG-Based Small Wind-Turbine Systems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1211 - 1221
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1630 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the field of wind energy generation particular interest has been focused in recent years on distributed generation through small wind-turbines (power unit 200 kW) because of their limited size and lower environmental impact. The field of small generation was dominated by the use of asynchronous generators directly connected to the grid, while recently permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) with power converter, either partially or fully controlled, became popular. This paper reviews the control issues related to these small wind-turbine systems: generator torque control, speed/position estimation, pitch control, braking chopper control, dc/dc converter control, and grid converter control. Specific issues for small wind-turbines arise in the wind energy extraction optimization and limitation and in the innovative concept of “universal” wind-turbine operation, that leads these system to operate grid-connected, standalone or in load supporting mode. View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent Video Systems and Analytics: A Survey

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1222 - 1233
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (559 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent technology and market trends have demanded the significant need for feasible solutions to video/camera systems and analytics. This paper provides a comprehensive account on theory and application of intelligent video systems and analytics. It highlights the video system architectures, tasks, and related analytic methods. It clearly demonstrates that the importance of the role that intelligent video systems and analytics play can be found in a variety of domains such as transportation and surveillance. Research directions are outlined with a focus on what is essential to achieve the goals of intelligent video systems and analytics. View full abstract»

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  • Software Engineering in Industrial Automation: State-of-the-Art Review

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1234 - 1249
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (756 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents one perspective on recent developments related to software engineering in the industrial automation sector that spans from manufacturing factory automation to process control systems and energy automation systems. The survey's methodology is based on the classic SWEBOK reference document that comprehensively defines the taxonomy of software engineering domain. This is mixed with classic automation artefacts, such as the set of the most influential international standards and dominating industrial practices. The survey focuses mainly on research publications which are believed to be representative of advanced industrial practices as well. View full abstract»

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  • Guest Editorial Special Section on Industrial Control Applications of FPGAs

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1250 - 1252
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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  • FPGA Implementation of a Hybrid Sensorless Control of SMPMSM in the Whole Speed Range

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1253 - 1261
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2217 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an FPGA-based (Field Programmable Gate Array) sensorless controller for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (SMPMSM). A hybrid sensorless controller combining the signal injection technique and a linearly compensated flux observer is proposed. Using a Delta-Sigma A/D converter and FPGA oversampling technique, this work realizes a high performance high frequency (HF) injection sensorless control method which needs lower HF current response and introduces lower acoustic noises. The linearly compensated flux observer, based on back electromotive force (EMF) is used for sensorless control in the high speed range. The flux observer exhibits high dynamic and steady-state performance and is robust to parameter variation. Using model-based design, with the tools of MATLAB/Simulink and Simulink HDL (hardware description language) Coder, the whole control system is designed and implemented in a single chip. Experimental results demonstrate that the developed sensorless controller has high performance in the whole speed range. View full abstract»

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  • FPGA-Based Dynamic Reconfiguration of Sliding Mode Current Controllers for Synchronous Machines

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1262 - 1271
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2266 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the concept of dynamic reconfiguration between two sliding mode current controllers for synchronous motor drives. The first one is a Direct Sliding Mode (DSM) current controller, which is based on a switching table synthesized via sliding mode theory. The second one is an Indirect Sliding Mode (ISM) current controller that computes a reference voltage vector via sliding mode theory. The computed reference voltage is then applied to the terminals of the synchronous machine through a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) process. This item studies and discusses the reconfiguration criteria and presents the main interest of using FPGA digital solutions for dynamic reconfiguration process implementation between the two sliding mode current controllers. Numerous experimental results are presented in order to confirm the interest and performances of the proposed reconfigurable sliding mode current controller. View full abstract»

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  • A Switching Control Strategy for the Reduction of Torque Ripple for PMSM

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1272 - 1279
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1942 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of a variable structure system predictive sequential switching control strategy, as applied to a permanent magnet synchronous machine. In the case of ac motor drives, in contrast to conventional vector control where the inverter is not taken into consideration by the controller, the proposed control integrates the inverter model and the inverter states. It allows obtaining faster torque dynamics than vector control algorithms. The main design specifications are a reduced switching frequency and simple hardware implementation. A predictive sliding mode controller has been developed, designed as finite-state machine, and implemented with a FPGA. This new logic FPGA torque and speed controller has been developed, analyzed, and experimentally verified. View full abstract»

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  • An Improved FPGA Implementation of Direct Torque Control for Induction Machines

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1280 - 1290
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2925 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel direct torque control (DTC) approach for induction machines, based on an improved torque and stator flux estimator and its implementation using field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA). The DTC performance is significantly improved by the use of FPGA, which can execute the DTC algorithm at higher sampling frequency. This leads to the reduction of the torque ripple and improved flux and torque estimations. The main achievements are: 1) calculating a discrete integration operation of stator flux using backward Euler approach; 2) modifying a so called nonrestoring method in calculating the complicated square root operation in stator flux estimator; 3) introducing a new flux sector determination method; 4) increasing the sampling frequency to 200 kHz such that the digital computation will perform similar to that of the analog operation; and 5) using two's complement fixed-point format approach to minimize calculation errors and the hardware resource usage in all operations. The design was achieved in VHDL, based on a Matlab/Simulink simulation model. The Hardware-in-the-Loop method is used to verify the functionality of the FPGA estimator. The simulation results are validated experimentally. Thus, it is demonstrated that FPGA implementation of DTC drives can achieve excellent performance at high sampling frequency. View full abstract»

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  • FPGA Implementation of Sliding-Mode-Control Algorithm for Scaled Bilateral Teleoperation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1291 - 1300
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1922 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an FPGA-based sliding-mode controller for scaled bilateral teleoperation. The control algorithm is derived by using the sliding-mode-control-based design approach. The applied design procedure replaces a discontinuous control with a continuous one. Thus, it guarantees chattering-free performance whilst retaining practical robustness regarding disturbances and provides easy model-free implementation. A high control rate is strongly required in order to achieve high-performance scaled bilateral teleoperation. Hence, the control algorithm is implemented by the FPGA. In order to design a sufficient logic circuit for the FPGA, general optimization approaches are presented that aim to minimize hardware resources and to optimize the control rate. The design applies high-level programming language (LabVIEW) for rapid prototyping. The presented algorithms were validated by the 2-DoF laboratory bilateral teleoperation system. View full abstract»

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  • FPGA Implementation of ADALINE-Based Speed Controller in a Two-Mass System

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1301 - 1311
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1754 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents the application of an adaptive neural controller used for speed control of electrical drives with elastic joint. The described project is realized in CompactRIO controller (cRIO-real-time embedded controller with reconfigurable input and output modules) equipped with an FPGA chip. The proposed speed controller is based on Adaptive Linear Neuron (ADALINE) model with on-line updated weights coefficients. The main advantages of the tested controller are simplicity and a reduced number of parameters for selection in the design process. Several stages of the real implementation are described. The two-mass drive system is modeled using the main processor of the cRIO, to emulate the real system, while the structure of the ADALINE model and its adaptation law are implemented in the FPGA module. Thus, hardware in the loop simulation is obtained. The obtained results present correct speed control with high dynamics and show the influence of the adaptation coefficient of the ADALINE-based controller on drive transients. Except for this the robustness of the proposed controller against changes of mechanical time constant of the load machine is presented. View full abstract»

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  • FPGA-Based Implementation of a Predictive Current Controller for Power Converters

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1312 - 1321
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1655 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Predictive control is generating considerable interest when it comes to implementing current control strategies in power converters. Remarkable accuracy and fast dynamic response are its main characteristics. However, this technique is computationally demanding compared to classic control schemes. This is particularly true in multilevel converters, where several variables of the system such as currents, switching frequency and neutral-point voltage balancing, to name a few, are controlled simultaneously. An important issue is to reduce the delay between the variable sampling and the instant at which the switching state is applied to the converter. Although DSP-based implementations have been proven to be an effective solution, the parallel nature of predictive controllers better fits with the architecture of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices. This paper presents a new approach to the FPGA-based implementation of a predictive current controller for a multilevel converter. This approach also aims to reduce the average switching frequency and obtain neutral-point voltage balancing. The switching state is applied in the same sampling period in which the controlled variables are measured thereby enhancing the dynamic response of the system. View full abstract»

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  • A Simple Implementation of Nonlinear-Carrier Control for Power Factor Correction Rectifier With Variable Slope Ramp on Field-Programmable Gate Array

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1322 - 1329
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1943 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an algorithm for implementing the nonlinear-carrier (NLC) control method for a single-phase power factor correction (PFC) rectifier without an input voltage-sensing circuit, an error amplifier in the current shaping loop, or other external control components. Unity power factor and low harmonic distortion are achieved by adapting NLC control with a variable slope ramp. This ramp is created through a slope comparison without any dividers. The proposed method not only achieves a high power factor, but also efficiently simplifies complexity of integrated circuit realization. A 400-W PFC boost rectifier is implemented to verify the performance of the proposed NLC control. The highest power factor reaches to 99.9% with input voltage of 120 V/60 Hz, and the lowest input current harmonic distortion is 4.267%. View full abstract»

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  • Controllable and Dimmable AC LED Driver Based on FPGA to Achieve High PF and Low THD

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1330 - 1342
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel bridgeless light-emitting diode (LED) driver with dimmable control is presented. By the proposed control circuit based on digital control using the field programmable gate array (FPGA), the total harmonic distortion (THD) and power factor (PF) of the proposed LED driver are significantly improved as compared with the traditional LED drivers. The proposed AC LED driver is capacitorless and inductorless in the main power stage, thereby causing the integrated circuit design to be easy to achieve and the life of the LED driver to be enhanced. In this paper, the basic operating principle of the LED driver is described in detail, along with some experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed LED driver. View full abstract»

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  • FPGA-Based Fast Detection With Reduced Sensor Count for a Fault-Tolerant Three-Phase Converter

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1343 - 1350
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1546 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fast fault detection (FD) and reconfiguration is necessary for fault tolerant power electronic converters in safety critical applications to prevent further damage and to make the continuity of service possible. The aim of this study is to minimize the number of the used additional voltage sensors in a fault tolerant three-phase converter. In this paper, first a practical implementation of a very fast FD scheme with reduced sensor number is discussed. Then, an optimization in this scheme is also presented to decrease the detection time. For FD, special time and voltage criterion are applied to observe the error in the estimated phase-to-phase voltages for a specific period of time. The proposed optimization is based on the fact that following a detectable fault, two line-to-line voltages will deviate from their respective estimated values. Fault detection is studied for a three-leg two-level fault tolerant converter. Control and FD systems are implemented on a single field-programmable gate array. First, hardware in the loop experiments are carried out to evaluate the implemented schemes. Then, fully experimental tests are performed. The results confirm good performance of the proposed detection schemes, the digital controller and the fault tolerant structure. It is shown that such methods can detect and locate a fault in a few tens of microseconds. In certain cases the optimized scheme can be faster up to 50%, and in the other cases they have the same detection time. View full abstract»

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  • FPGA v/s DSP Performance Comparison for a VSC-Based STATCOM Control Application

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1351 - 1360
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1579 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Digital signal processors (DSPs) and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are predominant in the implementation of digital controllers and/or modulators for power converter applications. This paper presents a systematic comparison between these two technologies, depicting the main advantages and drawbacks of each one. Key programming and implementation aspects are addressed in order to give an overall idea of their most important features and allow the comparison between DSP and FPGA devices. A classical linear control strategy for a well-known voltage-source-converter (VSC)-based topology used as Static Compensator (STATCOM) is considered as a driving example to evaluate the performance of both approaches. A proof-of-concept laboratory prototype is separately controlled with the TMS320F2812 DSP and the Spartan-3 XCS1000 FPGA to illustrate the characteristics of both technologies. In the case of the DSP, a virtual floating-point library is used to accelerate the control routines compared to double precision arithmetic. On the other hand, two approaches are developed for the FPGA implementation, the first one reduces the hardware utilization and the second one reduces the computation time. Even though both boards can successfully control the STATCOM, results show that the FPGA achieves the best computation time thanks to the high degree of parallelism available on the device. View full abstract»

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  • Model-Based Design Methodology for Rapid Development of Fuzzy Controllers on FPGAs

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1361 - 1370
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1803 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The complexity reached by current applications of industrial control systems has motivated the development of new computational paradigms, as well as the employment of hybrid implementation techniques that combine hardware and software components to fulfill system requirements. On the other hand, continuous improvements in field-programmable devices today make possible the implementation of complex control systems on reconfigurable hardware, although they are limited by the lack of specific design tools and methodologies to facilitate the development of new products. This paper describes a model-based design approach for the synthesis of embedded fuzzy controllers on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Its main contributions are the proposal of a novel implementation technique, which allows accelerating the exploration of the design space of fuzzy inference modules, and the use of a design flow that eases their integration into complex control systems and the joint development of hardware and software components. This design flow is supported by specific tools for fuzzy systems development and standard FPGA synthesis and implementation tools, which use the modeling and simulation facilities provided by the Matlab environment. The development of a complex control system for parking an autonomous vehicle demonstrates the capabilities of the proposed procedure to dramatically speed up the stages of description, synthesis, and functional verification of embedded fuzzy controllers for industrial applications. View full abstract»

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  • High-Level Synthesis for Accelerating the FPGA Implementation of Computationally Demanding Control Algorithms for Power Converters

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1371 - 1379
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1389 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent advances in power electronic converters highly rely on the development of new control algorithms. These implementations often require complex control architectures featuring microprocessors, digital signal processors, and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Whereas software implementations are feasible for most power electronics practitioners, FPGA implementations with ad-hoc digital hardware are often a challenging design task. This paper deals with the design and development of control systems for power converters using high-level synthesis tools. In particular, the Xilinx Vivado HLS tool is evaluated for the design of a computationally demanding application, the real-time load estimation for resonant power converters using parametric identification methods. The proposed methodology allows the designer to use a high-level description language, e.g., C, to describe the identification algorithm functionality, and the tool automatically generates the hardware floating-point data-path and the control unit. Besides, it allows a fast design-space exploration through synthesis directives, and pipelining and parallelization are automatically performed to meet timing constraints. The evaluation performed in the study-case control architecture shows a significant design complexity reduction. As a consequence, high-level synthesis tools should be considered as a new paradigm in accelerating digital design for power conversion systems. View full abstract»

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  • Guest Editorial Special Section on Information Technologies in Smart Grids

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1380 - 1383
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Supporting Business Workflows in Smart Grids: An Intelligent Nodes-Based Approach

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1384 - 1397
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1814 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an application of business intelligence (BI) for electricity management systems in the context of the Smart Grid domain. Combining semantic Web technologies (SWT) and elements of grid computing (GC), we have designed a distributed architecture of intelligent nodes, which are called power grid distributed nodes (PGDINs). This distributed architecture supports the majority of the grid management activities in an intelligent and collaborative way by means of distributed processing of semantic data. A node collaborative scheme is defined based on logical states that each node presents according to the events occurring in the grid. A specific BPEL business-workflow is formally defined for each logical state, based on the node's knowledge base (an electrical model) and the distributed data. The introduced core workflows allow the potential grid behavior to be predefined when a business requirement is triggered. Thus, this approach supports the grid to react and reach over again a stable state, which is defined as a working state that facilitates the provision of the required business tasks. We have validated our approach with the simulation of a well-known use case, the energy balancing verification, fed with real data from the Spanish electrical grid. View full abstract»

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  • Design, Planning and Management of a Hydrogen-Based Microgrid

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1398 - 1404
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1142 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Efficient energy generation and consumption is a key factor to achieve ambitious goals related to air pollution and climate change. Modern electricity networks can include different kind of sources, such as renewable energy sources (RES). Then, hybrid systems are obtained by combining several sources and storage types in the new concept called microgrid (MG). In order to draw the best performance from these hybrid systems, a proper design and operation is essential. The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed report to properly undertake the building and management of a hydrogen MG in a simple and reliable way to continue struggling for more comprehension on the MG operation modes and prevent the reported failures in the literature. The experimental platform developed will provide the valuable knowledge and solid guidelines for future test centers and demonstration plants. The MG, located in Seville, Spain, incorporates an electrolyzer, metal hydride storage, fuel cell, and a battery bank as main components. The developed MG laboratory has been successfully tested. The results indicate reliable operation incorporating the hydrogen and batteries as energy storage. View full abstract»

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  • An Intelligent Control Scheme to Support Voltage of Smart Power Systems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1405 - 1414
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1257 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The intelligent control of power systems is one of the main tasks for realizing a smart grid. Because of the high-dimensional dynamics and discrete control of power systems, realizing an optimal control to support system voltages is a hard combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, a new intelligent scheme based on a genetic learning progress for optimal voltage control is proposed. This learning control scheme combines the genetic algorithm (GA) with a memory which saves knowledge accumulated from past experiences. In each run of search by GA, past experiences in memory is exploited to speed up the searching of GA and improve the quality of the solutions while the knowledge in memory is also refined by the new solutions. With the help of this learning capability, a fast and self-healing voltage control is realized and the control performance can be improved gradually over time. A case study on the New England 39-bus power system showed that the purposed learning control can successfully prevent the system from voltage instability and at the same time a fast and adaptive system response is provided. View full abstract»

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  • A Self-Organizing Architecture Based on Cooperative Fuzzy Agents for Smart Grid Voltage Control

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1415 - 1422
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1196 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The massive pervasion of distributed generators in modern smart grids makes hierarchical voltage control paradigms unsuitable. Fuzzy logic and fuzzy agent based architecture is considered to be a promising research approach to address voltage control problem in smart grids. Following the said approach, this paper proposes decentralized and non-hierarchal voltage control architecture based on cooperative fuzzy agents. Similarly to self-organizing biological populations, the voltage control is achieved by the local interaction of fuzzy agents as that of the theory distributed consensus. This allows control agents to decide that when reactive power flow injection in the network is more useful in case of global network conditions. Simulation results obtained on the 30 bus IEEE test network are presented and discussed in order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed solution. View full abstract»

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  • Cosimulation Environment for Event-Driven Distributed Controls of Smart Grid

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1423 - 1435
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1749 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a cosimulation environment for “hardware in the loop” or “software in the loop” validation of distributed controls in a Smart Grid. The controls are designed using model-driven engineering with the IEC 61499 Function Block architecture. These are connected with plant models, for example, in Matlab/Simulink, through communication channels such as UDP or TCP sockets. This solution enables multi-closed-loop plant-controller simulation. The communication between plant and controller is event-driven. In order to perform a realistic simulation, the proposed solution takes into account computation and communication delays on the controller side in Function Blocks and compensates model time on the plant side in Matlab model accordingly. Causality and accuracy of the method have been formally addressed. This approach has been tested and demonstrated with several Smart Grid-related examples. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Knowledge in the IST (Information Society Technologies) field envisions a technology bifurcation in the field of intelligent automation systems and real-time middle-ware technologies in the next 5-10 years. The scope of the journal considers the industry’s transition towards more knowledge-based production and systems organization and considers production from a more holistic perspective, encompassing not only hardware and software, but also people and the way in which they learn and share knowledge. The journal focuses on the following main topics: Flexible, collaborative factory automation, Distributed industrial control and computing paradigms, Internet-based monitoring and control systems, Real-time control software for industrial processes, Java and Jini in industrial environments, Control of wireless sensors and actuators, Systems interoperability and human machine interface.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Kim F. Man
City University of Hong Kong