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Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 1 • Date Jan.-Feb. 2014

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  • Frontcover

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 0000101
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  • IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 0000201
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 0100102
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  • 2012–2013 List of Reviewers

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 9900103
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  • Introduction to the issue on graphene optoelectronics

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 0200103
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  • Q-Switching and Mode-Locking in Highly Doped Zr _{2} O _{3} –Al _{2} O _{3} –Er _{2} O _{3} -Doped Fiber Lasers Using Graphene as a Saturable Absorber

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 1100108
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (630 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The application of graphene as a saturable absorber (SA) for generating Q-switched and mode-locked pulses in a Zirconia-Erbium-doped fiber (Zr-EDF) laser is explored. Graphene-based SAs have a very wide operational range, which complements the extended operational bandwidth of the Zr-EDF. The Zr-EDF has an erbium concentration of about 4320 ppm, with absorption rates of 22.0 and 58.0 dB/m at 987 and 1550 nm. The system is capable of generating Q-switched pulses with pulsewidths and energies of 4.6 μs and 16.8 nJ, respectively, as well as peak powers of 3.6 mW at a repetition rate of 50.1 kHz. The Zr-EDF laser can also generate mode-locked pulses with pulsewidths, average output powers, pulse energies, and peak powers of 730 fs, 1.6 mW, 23.1 pJ, and 31.6 W, respectively, at a repetition rate of 69.3 MHz. Both the Q-switched and mode-locked output pulses are highly stable, allowing for their application in a multitude of real-world applications. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Analytical Time-Domain Models for Performance Optimization of Multilayer GNR Interconnects

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 3700108
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (785 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we are proposing novel analytical time domain models for side contact and top contact multilayer graphene nanoribbon (MLGNR) interconnects. Our proposed models give physical insights about the transient behavior of these MLGNRs. The proposed models have been verified with existing data as well as exhaustive simulation and exhibit excellent accuracy. Based on our analysis, we identify limiting factors that need to be considered for the design of optimum top contact MLGNRs that exceed the performance of copper and match that of side contact MLGNR interconnects. Finally, we compare the performance of our optimum top contact MLGNRs with optical interconnects to predict the future roadmap for next generation interconnect technology. View full abstract»

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  • Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Photodetectors With Different Coverage Ratios of Graphene Oxide

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 3800105
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (562 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It was found that the introduction of graphene oxide (GO) in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) tunneling diodes can improve the rectifying characteristic and responsivity when acting as a photodetector. In this paper, we tuned the coverage ratio of GO using different degrees of hydrophilic treatments. GO samples with different coverage ratios were compared to identify the role of GO in MIS tunneling diodes. We prove that the improvement is due to the negative fixed charge in the GO layer. It is interesting that the partial coverage of GO results in the best performance. View full abstract»

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  • Trilayered MoS _{\bf 2} Metal –Semiconductor–Metal Photodetectors: Photogain and Radiation Resistance

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 3800206
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    Trilayered MoS2 metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors (PDs) exhibit the photogain is up to 24 with high responsivity (~1.04 A/W). This is because photocarriers generated at the MoS2 between two Au electrodes drift toward the metal-semiconductor interfaces due to band bending under applied bias and are then trapped at the surface state sites at the Au/MoS2 interfaces, giving rise to the decrease in Schottky barrier height. Moreover, MoS2 MSM PDs show fast operation speed; as the contact spacing reduces from 8 to 4 μm, the rise time and fall time of PDs reduce from 70 to 40 μs and from 110 to 50 μs, respectively. Trilayered MoS2 MSM PDs can operate even after 2-MeV proton illumination with ~1011 cm-2 fluences, indicating the high radiation tolerance. This work demonstrates that trilayer MoS2 opens up a new dimension for 2-D nanomaterial applications in harsh electronics. View full abstract»

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  • The Potential of Graphene as an ITO Replacement in Organic Solar Cells: An Optical Perspective

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 4000107
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (783 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Graphene possesses innate potential to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent electrode in an organic solar cell device. From our transmittance study weighted with the air mass 1.5 global (AM1.5G) solar spectrum, it is found that a higher transparency may be obtained for up to four layers of graphene in comparison to ITO. Our findings suggest that replacing ITO with monolayer graphene in organic solar cells yields comparable performance. Due to the increased optical absorption, organic solar cells with four-layer graphene (with the same sheet resistance as ITO at 30 Ω/□) are capable of attaining at least 92% of the same organic photovoltaic device with an optimized ITO electrode for both normal and angular AM1.5G illumination. View full abstract»

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  • In-Plane Optical Absorption and Free Carrier Absorption in Graphene-on-Silicon Waveguides

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 4400106
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (645 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We experimentally study the in-plane optical absorption and free carrier absorption (FCA) in graphene-on-silicon waveguides using a pump-probe measurement over microsecond timescales. The silicon waveguide is fabricated using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible processes, and directly covered by a graphene layer. Saturable absorption in the graphene is observed at the beginning of the pump pulse followed by an increase in absorption. The increase in absorption builds up over several microseconds, and is experimental evidence that free carriers generated by the pump absorption in graphene can transfer into silicon waveguides. The FCA in silicon waveguides eventually dominates the optical loss, which reaches ~9 dB, after several microseconds. All-optical modulations of the probe light are thus demonstrated. There is also a large thermally induced change in waveguide effective refractive index because of the optical absorption in the graphene. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Graphene-Microfiber Waveguide for Chemical Gas Sensing

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 4400206
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6334 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Graphene has been attracting great interest as the basis of novel photonic devices and sensors due to its many unique optical and electric properties that are quite different from conventional film materials. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a novel hybrid graphene-microfiber waveguide structure and its application to chemical gas sensing for the first time to our knowledge. As the complex refractive index of the extremely thin graphene film (<;1 nm) can be easily modified by chemical gas molecules distributing on its surface, the transverse electric mode surface wave intensity is sensitive to gas concentration. Such an intensity modulation induced by gas molecules can be detected via the coupling of evanescent field between the graphene waveguide and the microfiber. A sensitivity of 0.31 dB/100 ppm and good reversibility are observed experimentally for acetone vapor gas sensing. It is believed that this hybrid waveguide structure could open a new window to realize a variety of graphene-based photonic sensors, for potential applications in the fields of biology, medicine, and chemistry. View full abstract»

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  • Graphene Covered on Microfiber Exhibiting Polarization and Polarization-dependent Saturable Absorption

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 4500107
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5109 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Graphene has attracted a lot of research interest, especially as a saturable absorber (SA). However, improvement on thermal damage threshold is critical for the SA. Here, graphene covered on the microfiber is developed for this purpose by use of the light-graphene interaction via the evanescent field of the guided mode in the microfiber. Such interaction is numerically studied by using the theory of the electromagnetic field. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that graphene covered on the upper surface of the microfiber can be used as a polarization-dependent SA as well as an optical polarizer. When the radius size of the microfiber is down to 0.8 μm, its polarization extinction ratio is up to ~27 dB. When the radius of microfiber is up to ~3 μm, a polarization-dependent SA can be obtained with high thermal damage threshold of ~975.82 MWcm-2 for p -polarization and ~1233.2 MWcm-2 for s-polarization, and its polarization-dependent modulation depth varies from ~10.25% to ~12.85%. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of Graphene-Based Transverse Magnetic and Electric Surface Plasmon Modes

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 4600106
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Dispersion properties and field distributions of graphene supported transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) surface plasmon (SP) modes in air-graphene-SiO2-Si structures have been investigated. The results show that graphene-based TM (TE) SPs are bound (lossy) modes, which decay into the air in the range of tens of micrometers (several thousand micrometers). In addition, when the thickness of the SiO2 layer is in the range of 200-300 nm, the influence of the Si substrate on the dispersion property is significant (negligible) for the TM (TE) modes. Furthermore, the effective indexes of the graphene TM (TE) modes increase with the increase (decrease) of the frequency. Compared with the traditional metal-based structures, graphene-based TM mode exhibits a better confinement but with a larger loss. The presented results are useful for the design of compact graphene-based optoelectronic devices. View full abstract»

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  • Graphene for Tunable Nanophotonic Resonators

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 4600204
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Local electro-optic modulation of nanophotonic structures is important for many applications. Here, we show that one can achieve efficient tunability of the nanostructures by coupling them to graphene. The easy electrical control of graphene allows a large modulation of these graphene-clad nanophotonic devices. We describe electrostatic tuning of a metallic as well as a dielectric resonator coupled to graphene. A large change, both in resonator linewidth and resonance frequency is observed. The experimental data match the theory very well indicating that the changes in the resonator are solely coming due to graphene. View full abstract»

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  • Graphene Photonics, Plasmonics, and Optoelectronics

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6000112
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    We review the characteristics of the optical excitations of graphene involving interband, intraband, and collective (plasmon) electronic excitations. We then discuss the different mechanisms by which photon energy can be converted to an electrical current in graphene. Finally, we review applications of graphene as transparent conductive screens, as photodetectors and light modulators at different wavelength ranges. View full abstract»

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  • Waveguide-Coupled Graphene Optoelectronics

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6000211
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (674 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An overview of waveguide-coupled graphene optoelectronics is provided. A review of the optical properties of graphene is first provided and a motivation for waveguide-coupled graphene optoelectronics is given. This motivation is largely based upon the increased interaction length that can be achieved using such geometries. A derivation of the optical absorption for graphene interacting with a guided waveguide mode wave is provided. Device concepts for waveguide-coupled graphene optoelectronic devices, including optical modulators, photodetectors, and polarizers operating in the near- and mid-infrared regimes, are then described. This discussion provides a specific emphasis on the effect of disorder on the expected performance and energy consumption of graphene-based optical modulators. Finally, an outlook for future areas of exploration is given. View full abstract»

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  • Controlled Light–Matter Interaction in Graphene Electrooptic Devices Using Nanophotonic Cavities and Waveguides

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6000311
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    Nanophotonic devices, such as waveguides and cavities, can strongly enhance the interaction of light with graphene. We describe techniques for enhancing the interaction of photons with graphene using chip-integrated nanophotonic devices. Transferring single-layer graphene onto planar photonic crystal nanocavities enables a spectrally selective, order-of-magnitude enhancement of optical coupling with graphene, as shown by spectroscopic studies of cavity modes in visible and infrared spectral ranges. We observed dramatically cavity-enhanced absorption, hot photoluminescence emission, and Raman scattering of the monolayer graphene. We also described a broad-spectrum enhancement of the light-matter interaction by coupling graphene with a bus waveguide on a silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuit, which enables a 6.2-dB transmission attenuation due to the graphene absorption over a waveguide length of 70 μm. By electrically gating the graphene monolayer coupled with a planar photonic crystal nanocavity, electrooptic modulation of the cavity reflection was possible with a contrast in excess of 10 dB. Moreover, a novel modulator device based on the cavity-coupled graphene-boron nitride-graphene capacitor was fabricated, showing a modulation speed up to 0.57 GHz. These results indicate the applications of graphene-cavity devices in high-speed and high-contrast modulators with low energy consumption. The integration of graphene with nanophotonic architectures promises a new generation of compact, energy-efficient, and ultrafast electrooptic graphene devices for on-chip optical communications. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Laser-Assisted Reduction of Graphene Oxide for Flexible, Large-Area Optoelectronics

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 6000410
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper reviews recent work on the development and use of a low-temperature, laser-based method for the efficient reduction of graphene oxide (GO) films. The method utilizes a laser beam for the in-situ and nonthermal reduction of solution-processed GO layers onto arbitrary substrates. Compared to other reduction techniques, it is single-step, facile, and can be performed at room temperature in ambient atmosphere without affecting the integrity of the either the graphene lattice or the physical properties of the underling substrate. Using this method, conductive layers of reduced GO with a sheet resistance down to ~700 Ω/sq, are obtained. This is much lower than sheet resistance values reported previously for GO layers reduced by chemical means. As a proof of concept, laser-reduced GO layers were successfully utilized as the transparent anode electrodes in flexible bulk-heterojunction OPVs and as the channel material in field-effect transistors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only example of an in-situ, postfabrication method for the reduction of GO and its implementation in fully functional opto/electronic devices. The nonthermal nature of the method combined with its simplicity and scalability, makes it very attractive for the manufacturing of future generation large-volume graphene-based opto/electronics. View full abstract»

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  • Coherent Four-Wave Mixing on Hybrid Graphene-Silicon Photonic Crystals

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 7500106
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    By placing monolayer graphene on silicon membrane, the effective Kerr coefficient of the hybrid media is enhanced 20 times compared to monolithic silicon. Optical four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon photonic crystal waveguide and a single mode cavity are observed at sub-milliwatt continuous wave input. This allows nonlinear functionalities including low power switching/gating, signal regeneration and parametric conversion, enhancing CMOS integrated photonic information processing on chips. View full abstract»

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  • Terahertz Frequency-Dependent Carrier Scattering Rate and Mobility of Monolayer and AA-Stacked Multilayer Graphene

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 8400108
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    We present the terahertz optical model for AA-stacked multilayer graphene and monolayer graphene considering various scattering mechanisms, such as the charged impurity scattering and surface polar optical phonon scattering. The ac/dc scattering rate and mobility of AA-stacked multilayer graphene are derived. We show that the mobility of AA-stacked multilayer graphene can be potentially higher than that of monolayer graphene if the sample has a large impurity density. We also show that the effective scattering rate is a function of frequency that cannot be captured by the simple Drude model. View full abstract»

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  • Device Concepts for Graphene-Based Terahertz Photonics

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 8500109
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    Graphene is establishing itself as a new photonic material with huge potential in a variety of applications ranging from transparent electrodes in displays and photovoltaic modules to saturable absorber in mode-locked lasers. Its peculiar bandstructure and electron transport characteristics naturally suggest graphene could also form the basis for a new generation of high-performance devices operating in the terahertz (THz) range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The region between 300 GHz and 10 THz is in fact still characterized by a lack of efficient, compact, solid state photonic components capable of operating well at 300 K. Recent works have already shown very promising results in the development of high-speed modulators as well as of bolometer and plasma-wave detectors. Furthermore, several concepts have been proposed aiming at the realization of lasers and oscillators. This paper will review the latest achievements in graphene-based THz photonics and discuss future perspectives of this rapidly developing research field. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Corrections to “Efficient High-Power Laser Diodes” [Jul/Aug 13 1501211]

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 9700101
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    There are errors in Section V-C of the above-title paper [ibid., vol. 19, no. 4, article no. 1501211, Jul./Aug. 2013]. The corrected text is given, as well as a correction for Fig. 9. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on solid-state lasers

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 9800101
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  • Special issue on superconducting quantum electronics and photonics

    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 9800201
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Aims & Scope

Papers published in the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics fall within the broad field of science and technology of quantum electronics of a device, subsystem, or system-oriented nature.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Luke F. Lester
Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University