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Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE

Issue 3 • Date Third Quarter 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • Editorial: Third Quarter 2013, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials

    Page(s): 959 - 962
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A Survey of Energy-Efficient Compression and Communication Techniques for Multimedia in Resource Constrained Systems

    Page(s): 963 - 972
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Advances in wireless multimedia communication technologies enable new types of pervasive and ubiquitous applications such as mobile health care, environmental monitoring, facility monitoring and traffic surveillance. Among different factors concerned, energy efficiency is one of the most challenging issues in multimedia communication due to the resource constraints, and the requirements for high bandwidth and low transmission delay. In this survey, we provide a broad picture of the state-of-the-art energy efficient techniques that have been proposed in wireless multimedia communication for resource-constrained systems such as wireless sensor networks and mobile devices. Following the essential stages required for multimedia communication, we categorize these techniques into two groups: multimedia compression techniques and multimedia transmission techniques. In the first group, we introduce the state-of-the-art compression algorithms and perform analyses and evaluations on energy efficiency in applying these compression algorithms to resource-constrained multimedia transmission systems. In the second group, we will further categorize the energy efficient transmission techniques into two sub-categories according to their different communication architectures. We review both cross-layer communication, including Unequal Error Protection (UEP), and independent-layer communication, focusing on Routing, MAC, and Physical layer protocols. We present the basic problem statement and objectives of these techniques, and survey multiple potential approaches that have been reported in the literature. Our focus in this survey is to provide insight into different research directions to improve energy efficiency in wireless multimedia communication protocols for future developments. View full abstract»

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  • On Interference Avoidance Through Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) Based on OFDMA Mobile Systems

    Page(s): 973 - 995
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1529 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The widely accepted OFDMA air interface technology has recently been adopted in most mobile standards by the wireless industry. However, similar to other frequency-time multiplexed systems, their performance is limited by inter-cell interference. To address this performance degradation, interference mitigation can be employed to maximize the potential capacity of such interference-limited systems. This paper surveys key issues in mitigating interference and gives an overview of the recent developments of a promising mitigation technique, namely, interference avoidance through inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC). By using optimization theory, an ICIC problem is formulated in a multi-cell OFDMA-based system and some research directions in simplifying the problem and associated challenges are given. Furthermore, we present the main trends of interference avoidance techniques that can be incorporated in the main ICIC formulation. Although this paper focuses on 3GPP LTE/LTE-A mobile networks in the downlink, a similar framework can be applied for any typical multi-cellular environment based on OFDMA technology. Some promising future directions are identified and, finally, the state-of-the-art interference avoidance techniques are compared under LTE-system parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Stochastic Geometry for Modeling, Analysis, and Design of Multi-Tier and Cognitive Cellular Wireless Networks: A Survey

    Page(s): 996 - 1019
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1858 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For more than three decades, stochastic geometry has been used to model large-scale ad hoc wireless networks, and it has succeeded to develop tractable models to characterize and better understand the performance of these networks. Recently, stochastic geometry models have been shown to provide tractable yet accurate performance bounds for multi-tier and cognitive cellular wireless networks. Given the need for interference characterization in multi-tier cellular networks, stochastic geometry models provide high potential to simplify their modeling and provide insights into their design. Hence, a new research area dealing with the modeling and analysis of multi-tier and cognitive cellular wireless networks is increasingly attracting the attention of the research community. In this article, we present a comprehensive survey on the literature related to stochastic geometry models for single-tier as well as multi-tier and cognitive cellular wireless networks. A taxonomy based on the target network model, the point process used, and the performance evaluation technique is also presented. To conclude, we discuss the open research challenges and future research directions. View full abstract»

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  • Auction Approaches for Resource Allocation in Wireless Systems: A Survey

    Page(s): 1020 - 1041
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (950 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As wireless systems evolve with new mobile technologies, they tend to become complicated in terms of architectures and managements. Auction theory, as a subfield of economics and business management, has been introduced to provide an interdisciplinary technology for radio resource allocation (e.g., subchannels, time slots, and transmit power levels) in the wireless systems. By using various auction approaches, such radio resources are efficiently allocated among users and providers of services in the systems. Participants (i.e., users and providers) of an auction have their own strategies that follow the incentives and rules brought by the auction. Auction methods are widely employed in areas such as cognitive radio, cellular networks, and wireless mesh networks. This paper gives a comprehensive survey of recent auction approaches (i.e., auction-based applications and mechanisms) applied in wireless and mobile systems. First, auction theory and different types of auction are introduced. The motivation of using auction in wireless systems is given. Then, the reviews of auction approaches applied in the single-hop and multi-hop wireless networks are provided. Finally, the open research issues are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Resource Reservation Schemes for IEEE 802.11-Based Wireless Networks: A Survey

    Page(s): 1042 - 1061
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    IEEE 802.11-based wireless technology is widely applied in many areas, supporting communications where wired devices are not available. However, providing satisfactory QoS is still a challenging topic in 802.11-based wireless networks because of the problems such as error-prone wireless channel condition, power consumption, short of centralised facility, mobility as well as channel contention. For addressing these issues, one feasible solution can be to implement resource reservation for the sessions that require QoS assurances. The responsibility of resource reservation scheme is to make sure that QoS-sensitive sessions get sufficient bandwidth in order to sustain their high performance. Difficulties are already identified for designing resource reservation schemes in both network and MAC layers. However, there is no profound investigation outcome for this kind of QoS mechanism. Therefore, in this paper, we intend to produce a comprehensive survey of resource reservation approaches for IEEE 802.11-based wireless networks. The associated research works are summarised and also classified. Moreover, both the drawbacks and the merits of each kind of resource reservation scheme are highlighted. View full abstract»

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  • Game Theory Applications in CSMA Methods

    Page(s): 1062 - 1087
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    As a mathematical tool, game theory has been used for the analysis of multi-agent systems. Wireless networks are typical examples of such systems, in which communicating nodes access the channel through the CSMA method influencing the other neighboring nodes' access. Different games were examined to model such an environment and investigate its challenging issues. This research reviews different CSMA games presented for wireless MAC and classifies them. Advantages and shortcomings of these games will be recounted and some open research directions for future research, supported. View full abstract»

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  • Spectrum Decision in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Survey

    Page(s): 1088 - 1107
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2349 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Spectrum decision is the ability of a cognitive radio (CR) to select the best available spectrum band to satisfy secondary users' (SUs') quality of service (QoS) requirements, without causing harmful interference to licensed or primary users (PUs). Each CR performs spectrum sensing to identify the available spectrum bands and the spectrum decision process selects from these available bands for opportunistic use. Spectrum decision constitutes an important topic which has not been adequately explored in CR research. Spectrum decision involves spectrum characterization, spectrum selection and CR reconfiguration functions. After the available spectrum has been identified, the first step is to characterize it based not only on the current radio environment conditions, but also on the PU activities. The second step involves spectrum selection, whereby the most appropriate spectrum band is selected to satisfy SUs' QoS requirements. Finally, the CR should be able to reconfigure its transmission parameters to allow communication on the selected band. Key to spectrum characterization is PU activity modelling, which is commonly based on historical data to provide the means for predicting future traffic patterns in a given spectrum band. This paper provides an up-to-date survey of spectrum decision in CR networks (CRNs) and addresses issues of spectrum characterization (including PU activity modelling), spectrum selection and CR reconfiguration. For each of these issues, we highlight key open research challenges. We also review practical implementations of spectrum decision in several CR platforms. View full abstract»

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  • Spectrum Assignment in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Comprehensive Survey

    Page(s): 1108 - 1135
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2506 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cognitive radio (CR) has emerged as a promising technology to exploit the unused portions of spectrum in an opportunistic manner. The fixed spectrum allocation of governmental agencies results in unused portions of spectrum, which are called "spectrum holes" or "white spaces". CR technology overcomes this issue, allowing devices to sense the spectrum for unused portions and use the most suitable ones, according to some pre-defined criteria. Spectrum assignment is a key mechanism that limits the interference between CR devices and licensed users, enabling a more efficient usage of the wireless spectrum. Interference is a key factor that limits the performance in wireless networks. The scope of this work is to give an overview of the problem of spectrum assignment in cognitive radio networks, presenting the state-of-the-art proposals that have appeared in the literature, analyzing the criteria for selecting the most suitable portion of the spectrum and showing the most common approaches and techniques used to solve the spectrum assignment problem. Finally, an analysis of the techniques and approaches is presented, discussing also the open issues for future research in this area. View full abstract»

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  • A Survey on Machine-Learning Techniques in Cognitive Radios

    Page(s): 1136 - 1159
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    In this survey paper, we characterize the learning problem in cognitive radios (CRs) and state the importance of artificial intelligence in achieving real cognitive communications systems. We review various learning problems that have been studied in the context of CRs classifying them under two main categories: Decision-making and feature classification. Decision-making is responsible for determining policies and decision rules for CRs while feature classification permits identifying and classifying different observation models. The learning algorithms encountered are categorized as either supervised or unsupervised algorithms. We describe in detail several challenging learning issues that arise in cognitive radio networks (CRNs), in particular in non-Markovian environments and decentralized networks, and present possible solution methods to address them. We discuss similarities and differences among the presented algorithms and identify the conditions under which each of the techniques may be applied. View full abstract»

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  • A Survey on Biologically Inspired Algorithms for Computer Networking

    Page(s): 1160 - 1191
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    Biologically Inspired Algorithms (BIAs), processes that mimic how organisms solve problems, offer a number of attributes well suited to addressing challenges presented by future computer networking scenarios. Such future networks will require more scalable, adaptive and robust designs to address the dynamic changes and potential failures caused by high heterogeneity and large scale networks. A variety of biological algorithms demonstrate characteristics desirable to network design, and significant effort has been placed on analyzing and developing the corresponding BIAs and applying them to computer networking applications. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of BIAs for the computer networking field, in which different BIAs are organized and explored based on their: (1) biological source; (2) mathematical model; (3) major application; (4) advantages to corresponding "classic" approach; (5) limitations and border conditions; and (6) potential directions for future applications. The paper also compares performance amongst each type of BIA, and compares BIAs that are inspired by different biological sources but are applicable to similar networking applications. The paper concludes by offering a framework for understanding the application of BIAs to problems in the computer networking space. View full abstract»

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  • A Survey on Human Activity Recognition using Wearable Sensors

    Page(s): 1192 - 1209
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Providing accurate and opportune information on people's activities and behaviors is one of the most important tasks in pervasive computing. Innumerable applications can be visualized, for instance, in medical, security, entertainment, and tactical scenarios. Despite human activity recognition (HAR) being an active field for more than a decade, there are still key aspects that, if addressed, would constitute a significant turn in the way people interact with mobile devices. This paper surveys the state of the art in HAR based on wearable sensors. A general architecture is first presented along with a description of the main components of any HAR system. We also propose a two-level taxonomy in accordance to the learning approach (either supervised or semi-supervised) and the response time (either offline or online). Then, the principal issues and challenges are discussed, as well as the main solutions to each one of them. Twenty eight systems are qualitatively evaluated in terms of recognition performance, energy consumption, obtrusiveness, and flexibility, among others. Finally, we present some open problems and ideas that, due to their high relevance, should be addressed in future research. View full abstract»

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  • On Energy Efficiency in Collaborative Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Network: A Review

    Page(s): 1210 - 1222
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    Energy-efficiency in target tracking applications has been extensively studied in the literature of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). However, there is little work which has been done to survey and summarize this effort. In this paper, we address the lack of these studies by giving an up-to-date State-of-the-Art of the most important energy-efficient target tracking schemes. We propose a novel classification of schemes that are based on the interaction between the communication subsystem and the sensing subsystem on a single sensor node. We are interested in collaborative target tracking instead of single-node tracking. In fact, WSNs are often of a dense nature, and redundant data that can be received from multiple sensors help at improving tracking accuracy and reducing energy consumption by using limited sensing and communication ranges. We show that energy-efficiency in a collaborative WSN-based target tracking scheme can be achieved via two classes of methods: sensing-related methods and communication-related methods. We illustrate both of them with several examples. We show also that these two classes can be related to each other via a prediction algorithm to optimize communication and sensing operations. By self-organizing the WSN in trees and/or clusters, and selecting for activation the most appropriate nodes that handle the tracking task, the tracking algorithm can reduce the energy consumption at the communication and the sensing layers. Thereby, network parameters (sampling rate, wakeup period, cluster size, tree depth, etc.) are adapted to the dynamic of the target (position, velocity, direction, etc.). In addition to this general classification, we discuss also a special classification of some protocols that put specific assumptions on the target nature and/or use a "non-standard" hardware to do sensing. At the end, we conduct a theoretic comparison between all these schemes in terms of objectives and mechanisms. Finally, we give some recommendations tha- help at designing a WSN-based energy efficient target tracking scheme. View full abstract»

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  • On the Vital Areas of Intrusion Detection Systems in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 1223 - 1237
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    This paper surveys recently proposed works on Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) in WSNs, and presents a comprehensive classification of various IDS approaches according to their employed detection techniques. The three main categories explored in this paper are anomaly detection, misuse detection, and specification-based detection protocols. We give a description of existing security attacks in WSNs and the corresponding proposed IDS protocols to tackle those attacks. We analyze the works with respect to the network structure of WSNs. In addition, we highlight various critical shortcomings that IDSs currently have and define future research tracks for IDSs in wireless sensor networks. Though a few restricted survey works on this topic have already been done, we feel that there is a great need of performing a detailed and comprehensive study on the vital aspects so that the IDS in WSN could be analyzed from all the `need-to-know' angles. Thus, the paper's main aim is to include the most recent advancements in this area as well as to predict the future course of research so that the general as well as expert readers could be greatly benefited. View full abstract»

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  • Providing Source Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Page(s): 1238 - 1280
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    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of numerous small nodes that can sense, collect, and disseminate information for many different types of applications. One of these applications is subject tracking and monitoring, in which the monitored subjects often need protection. For instance, a WSN can be deployed to monitor the movement of a panda in a national park. The panda needs protection from different adversaries, such as hunters and poachers. An adversary might trace the messages in the WSN to find the source node that sensed the panda, with the final aim of killing the panda. Hence the question is: how do we hide the location of the source node from the adversary? This question is relevant in several of the scenarios related to this application, such as patient monitoring and battlefield surveillance. In other words, the problem is to provide privacy to the source node: source location privacy. In this paper, we provide a survey of the state of the art in source location privacy. We first discuss the key concepts in source location privacy, such as anonymity, unobservability, safety period, and capture likelihood. Then, we present an overview of the solutions that provide source location privacy within a WSN, in relation to the assumptions about the adversary's capabilities. In particular, we summarize the concepts and solutions, which are categorized based on the core techniques used to provide source location privacy. We mention the limitations of the algorithms as found in the literature, classify the solutions based on their approach, and provide an overview of the assumptions on the adversarial capabilities related to each solution. View full abstract»

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  • A Survey of Indoor Inertial Positioning Systems for Pedestrians

    Page(s): 1281 - 1293
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1343 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the continual miniaturisation of sensors and processing nodes, Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) systems are becoming feasible options for indoor tracking. These use inertial and other sensors, often combined with domain-specific knowledge about walking, to track user movements. There is currently a wealth of relevant literature spread across different research communities. In this survey, a taxonomy of modern PDRs is developed and used to contextualise the contributions from different areas. Techniques for step detection, characterisation, inertial navigation and step-and-heading-based dead-reckoning are reviewed and compared. Techniques that incorporate building maps through particle filters are analysed, along with hybrid systems that use absolute position fixes to correct dead-reckoning output. In addition, consideration is given to the possibility of using smartphones as PDR sensing devices. The survey concludes that PDR techniques alone can offer good short- to medium- term tracking under certain circumstances, but that regular absolute position fixes from partner systems will be needed to ensure long-term operation and to cope with unexpected behaviours. It concludes by identifying a detailed list of challenges for PDR researchers. View full abstract»

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  • A Review on Distributed Application Processing Frameworks in Smart Mobile Devices for Mobile Cloud Computing

    Page(s): 1294 - 1313
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (497 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The latest developments in mobile devices technology have made smartphones as the future computing and service access devices. Users expect to run computational intensive applications on Smart Mobile Devices (SMDs) in the same way as powerful stationary computers. However in spite of all the advancements in recent years, SMDs are still low potential computing devices, which are constrained by CPU potentials, memory capacity and battery life time. Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) is the latest practical solution for alleviating this incapacitation by extending the services and resources of computational clouds to SMDs on demand basis. In MCC, application offloading is ascertained as a software level solution for augmenting application processing capabilities of SMDs. The current offloading algorithms offload computational intensive applications to remote servers by employing different cloud models. A challenging aspect of such algorithms is the establishment of distributed application processing platform at runtime which requires additional computing resources on SMDs. This paper reviews existing Distributed Application Processing Frameworks (DAPFs) for SMDs in MCC domain. The objective is to highlight issues and challenges to existing DAPFs in developing, implementing, and executing computational intensive mobile applications within MCC domain. It proposes thematic taxonomy of current DAPFs, reviews current offloading frameworks by using thematic taxonomy and analyzes the implications and critical aspects of current offloading frameworks. Further, it investigates commonalities and deviations in such frameworks on the basis significant parameters such as offloading scope, migration granularity, partitioning approach, and migration pattern. Finally, we put forward open research issues in distributed application processing for MCC that remain to be addressed. View full abstract»

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  • On Accelerating Content Delivery in Mobile Networks

    Page(s): 1314 - 1333
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    Owing to the imminent fixed mobile convergence, Internet applications are frequently accessed through mobile devices. Given limited bandwidth and unreliable wireless channels, content delivery in mobile networks usually experiences long delay. To accelerate content delivery in mobile networks, many solutions have been proposed. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of most relevant research activities for content delivery acceleration in mobile networks. We first investigate the live network measurements, and identify the network obstacles that dominate the content delivery delays. Then, we classify existing content delivery acceleration solutions in mobile networks into three categories: mobile system evolution, content and network optimization, and mobile data offloading, and provide an overview of available solutions in each category. Finally, we survey the content delivery acceleration solutions tailored for web content delivery and multimedia delivery. For web content delivery acceleration, we overview existing web content delivery systems and summarize their features. For multimedia delivery acceleration, we focus on accelerating HTTP-based adaptive streaming while briefly review other multimedia delivery acceleration solutions. This paper presents a timely survey on content delivery acceleration in mobile networks, and provides a comprehensive reference for further research in this field. View full abstract»

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  • A Survey of Power-Saving Techniques on Data Centers and Content Delivery Networks

    Page(s): 1334 - 1354
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    How to reduce power consumption within individual data centers has attracted major research efforts in the past decade, as their energy bills have contributed significantly to the overall operating costs. In recent years, increasing research efforts have also been devoted to the design of practical power-saving techniques in content delivery networks (CDNs), as they involve thousands of globally distributed data centers with content server clusters. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey on existing research works aiming to save power in data centers and content delivery networks that share high degree of commonalities in different aspects. We firstly highlight the necessities of saving power in these two types of networks, followed by the identification of four major power-saving strategies that have been widely exploited in the literature. Furthermore, we present a high-level overview of the literature by categorizing existing approaches with respect to their scopes and research directions. These schemes are later analyzed with respect to their strategies, advantages and limitations. In the end, we summarize several key aspects that are considered to be crucial in effective power-saving schemes. We also highlight a number of our envisaged open research directions in the relevant areas that are of significance and hence require further elaborations. View full abstract»

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  • Mobile Social Networks: Architectures, Social Properties, and Key Research Challenges

    Page(s): 1355 - 1371
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (721 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobile social networks (MSNs) are mobile communication systems focusing not only on the behaviour but also on the social needs of the users. In a broader view all mobile systems used by people in their everyday lives can be characterized as MSNs, since all interactions taking place follow social rather than random patterns. Whether the deployed communication system takes into account the social background of the underlying network, depends on its form and capabilities. This article presents a review of the relevant work published in MSNs. Initially the basic architectures and components are summarized. Then the basic social properties of the network, as found in the key literature, are extensively examined. These properties are the main source of inspiration for new MSN protocols and applications, especially for non centralized systems. Finally the key research problems and the open issues in the area are presented, including future applications and privacy concerns. View full abstract»

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  • Vehicular Networks for a Greener Environment: A Survey

    Page(s): 1372 - 1388
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    Researchers are looking for solutions that save the environment and money. Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) offer promising technology for safety communications. Thus, researchers try to integrate certain applications into existing research. The current survey critically examines the use of vehicular communication networks to provide green solutions. We discuss the current implementations of technology and provide a comparison from the communication perspective. This paper is meant to motivate researchers to investigate a new direction in which a network of vehicles is used to enhance total fuel and power consumption, gas emissions, and-as a result-budgets. Moreover, open issues and research directions that have only been slightly addressed, if at all, are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Standardized Protocol Stack for the Internet of (Important) Things

    Page(s): 1389 - 1406
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (765 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have witnessed the Fixed Internet emerging with virtually every computer being connected today; we are currently witnessing the emergence of the Mobile Internet with the exponential explosion of smart phones, tablets and net-books. However, both will be dwarfed by the anticipated emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), in which everyday objects are able to connect to the Internet, tweet or be queried. Whilst the impact onto economies and societies around the world is undisputed, the technologies facilitating such a ubiquitous connectivity have struggled so far and only recently commenced to take shape. To this end, this paper introduces in a timely manner and for the first time the wireless communications stack the industry believes to meet the important criteria of power-efficiency, reliability and Internet connectivity. Industrial applications have been the early adopters of this stack, which has become the de-facto standard, thereby bootstrapping early IoT developments with already thousands of wireless nodes deployed. Corroborated throughout this paper and by emerging industry alliances, we believe that a standardized approach, using latest developments in the IEEE 802.15.4 and IETF working groups, is the only way forward. We introduce and relate key embodiments of the power-efficient IEEE 802.15.4-2006 PHY layer, the power-saving and reliable IEEE 802.15.4e MAC layer, the IETF 6LoWPAN adaptation layer enabling universal Internet connectivity, the IETF ROLL routing protocol enabling availability, and finally the IETF CoAP enabling seamless transport and support of Internet applications. The protocol stack proposed in the present work converges towards the standardized notations of the ISO/OSI and TCP/IP stacks. What thus seemed impossible some years back, i.e., building a clearly defined, standards-compliant and Internet-compliant stack given the extreme restrictions of IoT networks, is commencing to become reality. View full abstract»

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  • Transition from IPv4 to IPv6: A State-of-the-Art Survey

    Page(s): 1407 - 1424
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (731 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the process of Internet evolution, the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 has become inevitable and fairly urgent. IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) has finally exhausted the global IPv4 address space, which leaves the community no choice but pushes forward the IPv6 transition process. IPv4 and IPv6 networks both will exist during the transition period, while the two are not compatible in nature. Therefore it is indispensable to maintain the availability, as well as to provide the inter-communication ability of IPv4 and IPv6. Years ago a series of transition techniques were actually proposed. However, because of their technical immatureness, they failed to cover the solution space well. Some of these techniques were even obsoleted by IETF due to their flaws. This paper reconsiders the basic problems and key difficulties in IPv4-IPv6 transition, and introduces the principles of tunneling and translation techniques. Then the paper surveys the mainstream tunneling and translation mechanisms raised since 1998, especially the new mechanisms proposed recently, capturing the aspects of technical principles, pros and cons, scenarios and applicability. Recommendations on mechanism selection for different scenarios are provided. Moreover, the paper looks into the characteristics and transition requirements of practical ISP networks, and proposes the usage and deployment strategy of the transition mechanisms in both backbone and edge networks. View full abstract»

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  • Active Queue Management: A Survey

    Page(s): 1425 - 1476
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    Since its formal introduction to IP networks in 1993 as a viable complementary approach for congestion control, there has been a steady stream of research output with respect to Active Queue Management (AQM). This survey attempts to travel the trajectory of AQM research from 1993 with the first algorithm, Random Early Detection (RED), to current work in 2011. In this survey we discuss the general attributes of AQM schemes, and the design approaches taken such as heuristic, control-theoretic and deterministic optimization. Of interest is the role of AQM in QoS provisioning particularly in the DiffServ context, as well as the role of AQM in the wireless domain. For each section, example algorithms from the research literature are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Survey of Ethernet LAN Security

    Page(s): 1477 - 1491
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    Ethernet is the survivor of the LAN wars. It is hard to find an IP packet that has not passed over an Ethernet segment. One important reason for this is Ethernet's simplicity and ease of configuration. However, Ethernet has always been known to be an insecure technology. Recent successful malware attacks and the move towards cloud computing in data centers demand that attention be paid to the security aspects of Ethernet. In this paper, we present known Ethernet related threats and discuss existing solutions from business, hacker, and academic communities. Major issues, like insecurities related to Address Resolution Protocol and to self-configurability, are discussed. The solutions fall roughly into three categories: accepting Ethernet's insecurity and circling it with firewalls; creating a logical separation between the switches and end hosts; and centralized cryptography based schemes. However, none of the above provides the perfect combination of simplicity and security befitting Ethernet. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials is an online journal published by the IEEE Communications Society for tutorials and surveys covering all aspects of the communications field. Telecommunications technology is progressing at a rapid pace, and the IEEE Communications Society is committed to providing researchers and other professionals the information and tools to stay abreast.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Ekram Hossain, Ph.D., P.Eng.
Professor
University of Manitoba