By Topic

Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov/Dec 1993

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • Electrostatic painting of plastics using metal backing

    Page(s): 1053 - 1057
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB)  

    This work explains theoretically and experimentally the fundamental differences between spraying metal and plastic panels electrostatically. Mechanisms of charge dissipation from plastic surfaces are discussed and a simple method is proposed for determining the electrostatic sprayability of plastic substrates. Using a 1-D analytical model, it is shown that the effect of charge accumulation can be minimized by appropriately placing a grounded metal backing behind the plastic substrate. Experiments were conducted in a spray booth environment and the results showed good agreement with those predicted theoretically. Special metal backings with indentations and gaps were used to study the effect of a mismatch between the plastic substrate and its metal backing on the quality of the paint finish View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Permanent-magnet synchronous motors: a comprehensive approach to cogging torque suppression

    Page(s): 1141 - 1149
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    Torque ripple minimization in permanent-magnet synchronous motors is traditionally achieved either by special motor design or by an adequate control of the driver. Due to motor-driver interactions, the choice of driver or motor design must consider the respective performance of each. The approach presented provides appropriate current shapes for driving a given motor without torque ripple and/or appropriate back-EMF shapes for a given current or voltage supply. Reluctance torque, due to the interaction between the rotor magnets and the stator slots, is also taken into consideration View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Automating the rubber compounding process

    Page(s): 1226 - 1231
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB)  

    The human element in the process of rubber compounding has been, and will continue to be, the most critical component in assuring the quality and consistency of the final product. Yet despite the reliance on an experienced and insightful operator, the rubber-compounding process, which in the past has stubbornly defied automation efforts, is now undergoing a re-examination. Advancements in the field of process automation and batch-control management are forging important inroads into the industry. It is in the compounding stage of the rubber-fabrication process that the successful greenfield plant installation utilizing integrated machine control and process control addressed in this work was undertaken. The automation objectives, equipment, system architecture, unit management, and recipe management are discussed View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Charge limits in corona charging of distorted liquid droplets

    Page(s): 1058 - 1061
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)  

    The efficiency of electrostatic painting depends strongly on the amount of charge on a single paint droplet. The saturation corona charging for a spherical droplet has been theoretically estimated by Pauthenier. However, in many industrial and agricultural applications, the droplets being charged become substantially distorted. The results of numerical estimations of the charge limit, due to a DC corona discharge, on conducting droplets distorted by an electric field are presented. The finite-element method (FEM) and the separation-of-variables method for the Laplace equation have been used as modeling tools. In general it is found that a distorted droplet can exceed the Pauthenier charge limit View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A fault location technique for rural distribution feeders

    Page(s): 1170 - 1175
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB)  

    This work presents a digital fault location technique for rural distribution feeders, using the voltage and current data at a single location. Rural distribution feeders include single-phase, two-phase, and three-phase laterals off a main three-phase primary distribution feeder. The fault location scheme presented here attempts to account for the multiphase laterals, the unbalanced conditions, and the unsymmetrical nature of distribution feeders by continually updating voltage and current vectors at set locations within the system. The updated voltage and current vectors are the estimates of the 60-Hz phasor quantities obtained using a recursive optimal estimation algorithm. The distance to the fault is then estimated using a method based on the apparent impedance approach and the updated voltage and current vectors. Another consideration is the ability to determine the fault location on a lateral. A simulation of an actual rural distribution feeder using the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) is used to test the approach View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The control of high-speed variable-reluctance generators in electric power systems

    Page(s): 1106 - 1109
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB)  

    This work studies the control of a direct-current (DC) electric power system that is sourced by a variable-reluctance generator. The power system includes the generator and its switching inverter, a filtering capacitor, a distribution network and an electrical load. The network comprises a series resistor and inductor, while the load comprises a parallel resistor, capacitor and power sink. The voltage at the load is regulated by adjusting the rotor angles at which the inverter switches. Both steady-state and transient performance are considered. Simulations are provided to illustrate performance View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A three-phase sine wave inverter system using multiple phase-shifted single-phase resonant inverters

    Page(s): 1076 - 1083
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB)  

    Two novel systems for synthesizing three-phase sine waves with a combination of two units, using multiple phase-shifted single-phase resonant inverters, are proposed. The first system has the advantages of both a high-frequency resonant inverter and a high-frequency AC link. The second system has the advantage of a high-frequency resonant inverter. The structure and operating principles of both proposed systems are described and their features are compared with those of a conventional 12-step inverter. The simulated and experimental results show that the proposed systems have excellent characteristics and give high-quality output waveforms View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Lightning arrester failure and ferroresonance on a distribution system

    Page(s): 1189 - 1195
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB)  

    Since 1987 the Upper Peninsula Power Company (UPPCO) has been experiencing a large number of lightning arrester failures on a portion of their distribution system in southern Marquette County, Michigan, USA. It was in the area of the US Navy's extremely low frequency (ELF) antenna, where the distribution system had been reconfigured so that the transformers were connected line-to-line in order to eliminate interference from the antenna. A study determined that the system was susceptible to ferroresonance during single line faults under lightly loaded conditions and that the overvoltages experienced could be causing the lightning arrester failures. This conclusion was further strengthened by a statistical study which compared the actual number of failures to an expected number of failures, given the systems loading condition and fault rate View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Optimal synchronous pulsewidth modulation with a trajectory-tracking scheme for high-dynamic performance

    Page(s): 1098 - 1105
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB)  

    Synchronous pulse-width modulation (PWM) based on precalculated and stored optimal pulse patterns could be a superior method for the control of high-power inverters operated at low switching frequency. The technique has rarely been applied in practice owing to its poor dynamic performance. A novel feedforward control technique eliminates this decisive drawback: the space vector of the machine currents is forced to track a precalculated optimal trajectory in the steady-state and under the transient operating conditions commanded by the drive control system. Undesired transients caused by the pulse-width modulator are avoided. Experimental results obtained from a 30 kW AC drive are presented View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analysis of field oriented control for permanent magnet hysteresis synchronous motors

    Page(s): 1156 - 1163
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    A microprocessor implementation of the field-oriented control scheme for the permanent magnet (PM) hysteresis synchronous motor is reported. The basic principle is to decouple the torque-current component from the flux-current component so that these two components can be independently controlled. A d-q axis model of the PM hysteresis synchronous motor is presented, and the field-oriented control obtained from the basic machine model. A control scheme that decouples the stator current components and orients it to the rotor frame is described. A scheme for detecting the rotor position is proposed. A software package based on the Intel 8086 microprocessor has been developed. A sine PWM voltage source inverter is used in the experimental work. The test results validate the theoretical steady state and dynamic performances of the laboratory prototype motor View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Hybrid phase arm power module with nonlinear resonant tank

    Page(s): 1062 - 1068
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB)  

    A soft switching concept for a phase arm module, suitable for switching frequencies in the ultrasonic range, is introduced. Apart from series smoothing capacitors on the supply the only additional components to the switches and diodes of the phase arm is a parallel nonlinear resonant tank. A major feature is that the installed switching power of the semiconductors is close to 1 p.u. pulse-width modulation (PWM), as obtained through control of the saturation depth of the saturating inductor View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analysis and design of a parallel resonant converter with the resonating capacitor on a tertiary winding

    Page(s): 1069 - 1075
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)  

    A parallel resonant converter with the resonating capacitor placed on a tertiary winding is analyzed using the state-space approach. The general solutions are derived. Based on the analysis, design curves are plotted with variations in the normalized load current. A design procedure is presented by means of a design example. Experimental results obtained from a converter delivering 650 W at 12 V output are presented to verify the analysis View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • State feedback control of current-type PWM AC-to-DC converters

    Page(s): 1090 - 1097
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB)  

    A control method for current-type PWM AC-to-DC converters that realizes a sinusoidal AC input current and unity power factor is discussed in detail. In such converters, an LC filter placed on the AC side may cause a resonant problem, especially in the transient condition. To overcome this problem, state feedback control is introduced, and a control strategy suitable for DC-output current control as well as AC-side current control is proposed. Circuit parameters and feedback coefficients in the AC-side current control system are optimized on the basis of an analysis in which the system is treated as a sampled-data system. A method of investigating parameters in the DC-side current control system is shown. To confirm the effectiveness of the control strategy and the validity of the analytical results, an experimental investigation of the basic characteristics of the system is made. As an example, this system is applied to controlling the current waveform in the reactor. The experimental results for this application are also included View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design and control system of inverter-driven permanent magnet synchronous motors for high torque operation

    Page(s): 1150 - 1155
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)  

    This work describes a current vector control method for permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors suitable for high-torque operation. The current phase angle is controlled according to load conditions in order to use the reluctance torque effectively. Characteristics such as torque, efficiency, power capability and so on are greatly improved by this control method in comparison with the conventional control method. The performance characteristics are greatly affected by the motor parameters, which depend on the rotor configurations and permanent magnet geometries. The available maximum torque and power capability are also examined for the several types of PM motor, taking into consideration the inverter capacity. The tendency toward magnetic saturation and demagnetization of the permanent magnet is also examined View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Harmonic filter design using actual recorded data

    Page(s): 1176 - 1183
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (596 KB)  

    This work presents a study of a harmonic filter design that minimizes harmonic distortion caused by harmonic sources such as drives. Several types of shunt harmonic filters are presented. The analysis includes the basic principles, the application of the Z-bus method and the economic aspects affecting the harmonic filter design. Offline steady state simulation programs, namely, V-HARM and HARMFLO, are used to model loads, to study variation of the harmonics, and to evaluate the effect of harmonic filters at various buses in the system. Several existing utility systems are used as test cases to check the performance of the filter. The major objectives in this study are (i) to improve the power factor, (ii) to reduce current and voltage distortion to standard limits, and (iii) to reduce resonance problems at other buses, if any. The transient analysis of harmonic filters using the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP), which is essential to determine proper ratings of the filter components, is also reported View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Exploring simplified, reliable, maintainable power systems for Space Station Freedom

    Page(s): 1212 - 1225
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1508 KB)  

    Because virtually all of Space Station Freedom's operational systems depend on electric power, a power system which supplies power of sufficient quality, reliability, and availability is absolutely essential to its safety and success. The constraints associated with launching, on-orbit maintenance, and limited power capacity imply that low mass, small volume, high maintainability, and high efficiency are also key design objectives. A conceptual design study demonstrating that the design, operating, and maintenance philosophies developed in the industrial and commercial power systems environment are far more appropriate to a quasi-permanent, maintainable, multipurpose facility such as the station than the principles NASA has traditionally applied to one-shot space missions is presented. The study developed a power system that promises essentially the same performance as the NASA-developed baseline design while reducing weight, volume, losses, and maintenance and logistical requirements. It also showed that the blind application of design ground rules supposedly intended to ensure high reliability and availability can actually have the opposite effect View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Harmonics and transient overvoltages due to capacitor switching

    Page(s): 1184 - 1188
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB)  

    This work presents a study of the steady-state and transient effects of power factor correction capacitors on the utility and on the customer. In the presence of harmonic-producing loads, capacitors used for power factor correction can cause parallel or series resonance problems which tend to increase the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the voltage and current waveforms. The cases studied in this work considers the addition of a power factor correction capacitor, in the presence of downstream harmonic loads and at the harmonic load site. In both cases the resonance created by the addition of the capacitor caused the harmonic distortion of the voltage and current waveforms to increase. Another problem is transient overvoltages created by switching the capacitor. A case study is reported where the operation of a semiconductor controlled motor drive is effected by transient overvoltages View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Control of synchronous reluctance machines

    Page(s): 1110 - 1122
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1036 KB)  

    This work develops a comprehensive approach to the control of inverter-fed synchronous reluctance machines (SYNCREL), based on the machine's ideal model. From the theory a control simulation is designed. Simulation and experimental results are presented. The effects of saturation and iron losses are briefly considered View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Distribution customer power quality experience

    Page(s): 1204 - 1211
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)  

    There has been a significant increase in the number of disturbance-producing loads and sensitive loads being utilized, resulting in increased customer complaints being directed at utilities. BC Hydro is taking a proactive approach in determining its own power quality by monitoring voltage disturbances and harmonic levels dictated by a power quality survey program. The authors present and discuss in detail some of the key objectives of the power quality program. A methodology for quantifying power quality as experienced by customers in a graphical form are presented. Several detailed case studies are presented to illustrate the methodology. Algorithms for estimating the duration and magnitude of the various types of power supply disturbances are developed and illustrated View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Parameter identification of an induction machine with regard to dependencies on saturation

    Page(s): 1135 - 1140
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (452 KB)  

    This work first illustrates the basic dependencies of induction machine parameters on flux and current and describes them by simple equations. Differences of the magnetizing currents at single-phase and three-phase excitation are considered. A novel identification technique accurately determines all parameters and their dependencies on saturation from a few easy-to-perform offline measurements. It has been designed for use on traction drives with direct self control during system startup. The method has been automated and is well suited for application in the field. Optimal operating points for quasi-stationary operation are derived from the identified parameter dependencies and compared to practical measurements View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Prediction of electrical behavior in deteriorating induction motors

    Page(s): 1239 - 1243
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB)  

    Methods for the prediction of electrical behavior in deteriorating induction machines are surveyed. Generally, these procedures require the assumption of a specific motor speed. The electrical operating parameters are then calculated using a model developed for this purpose. These models normally allow an arbitrary number of winding deterioration processes to be simulated on the stator and/or rotor. Forms of deterioration might include high- or low-impedance leakage between phases, between coils in a single phase, or between a phase and ground. In this work, experimental data for a three-phase, wound rotor induction motor with stator deterioration is compared with the predictions of a specific model of that motor. Procedures are then developed for the prediction of deterioration trends in classes of motors. One application of such an analysis would be in the generation of databases required to design and develop performance monitoring, deterioration detection, or deterioration classification systems for critical motor installations without the need to develop a predictive model for each motor type View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A large-capacity GTO inverter with low-loss snubber circuits

    Page(s): 1084 - 1089
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)  

    A large-capacity inverter using high-power gate turn-off (GTO) thyristors that can be used instead of a cycloconverter in AC drives is presented. With the techniques of multiple configuration and GTO series connection, the inverter capacity is increased effectively. High conversion efficiency is obtained by using low-loss snubber circuits for GTOs. It is confirmed that the low-loss snubber circuits using energy recovery units (ERUs) have good performance in pulse-width modulated (PWM) operation. High-energy recovery efficiency is obtained, especially in leading operation (turn-on operation when freewheeling diodes conduct). These snubber circuits have superior ability for clamping overvoltage at GTO turn-off. A 2750 kVA inverter with low-loss snubber circuits using high-power GTOs has been fabricated and evaluated View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Protecting load devices from the effects of low-side surges

    Page(s): 1196 - 1203
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB)  

    Wherever lightning and poor utility power system grounds exist, distribution secondary systems are subjected to high-voltage surges due to lightning current seeking ground through low-voltage circuits. Utilities are becoming aware of this low-side surge phenomena and are taking measures to protect their distribution transformers' secondary windings. These measures can increase the voltage stress at the customer service entrance. If any ground paths exist on the customer side of the service entrance, surges can penetrate further into the customer's system and damage loads. Damage caused by low-side surges can be avoided if properly coordinated arresters are installed at the transformer secondary, at the service entrance, and at load devices. This work describes the secondary surge phenomena and the importance of protecting the service entrance and critical load devices effectively, especially when the transformer secondary is protected. A properly coordinated and effective protection scheme is described and recommended View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • New mercury-gap ring-collector system for double-armature generators

    Page(s): 1129 - 1134
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB)  

    A mercury-gap ring collector (MGRC) for supplying current to the rotating armature of the double-armature synchronous generator is presented. The MGRC can be considered as a valid alternative to conventional collector rings with solid brushes. It offers several advantages over sliding contacts with carbon brushes, especially when the machine has high rating currents and high rotating speed. The design of a prototype is presented; the experimental tests are reported, and the MGRC is compared with a conventional carbon brush collector View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Practices for solving end-user power quality problems

    Page(s): 1164 - 1169
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)  

    One of the primary tasks of utility personnel responsible for customer's power quality concerns is to identify whether disturbances are generated within the customer's facility or on the transmission and distribution system. Advances in both instrumentation and troubleshooting methodology have made it possible to make these determinations with greater accuracy and less investment of time. Techniques are discussed which have proved useful in conducting power quality investigations. Case study examples illustrate how these techniques have been put into practice by utility power quality groups. The first example is concerned with sodium lamp problems amd the second with variable speed drive nuisance tripping View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlton E. Speck