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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 42
  • Front Cover

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2065 - 2066
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  • A Survey on Intrabody Communications for Body Area Network Applications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2067 - 2079
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (955 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The rapid increase in healthcare demand has seen novel developments in health monitoring technologies, such as the body area networks (BAN) paradigm. BAN technology envisions a network of continuously operating sensors, which measure critical physical and physiological parameters e.g., mobility, heart rate, and glucose levels. Wireless connectivity in BAN technology is key to its success as it grants portability and flexibility to the user. While radio frequency (RF) wireless technology has been successfully deployed in most BAN implementations, they consume a lot of battery power, are susceptible to electromagnetic interference and have security issues. Intrabody communication (IBC) is an alternative wireless communication technology which uses the human body as the signal propagation medium. IBC has characteristics that could naturally address the issues with RF for BAN technology. This survey examines the on-going research in this area and highlights IBC core fundamentals, current mathematical models of the human body, IBC transceiver designs, and the remaining research challenges to be addressed. IBC has exciting prospects for making BAN technologies more practical in the future. View full abstract»

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  • Classification of Epileptic Motor Manifestations and Detection of Tonic–Clonic Seizures With Acceleration Norm Entropy

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2080 - 2088
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2877 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, three triaxis accelerometers positioned on the wrists and the head of epileptic patients submitted to long-term video electroencephalographic monitoring as part of presurgical investigation are evaluated to characterize the different classes of motor manifestations observed during seizures. Quadratic discriminant classifiers are trained on features extracted from 1 or 4 s windows. It is shown that a simple rule applied to the acceleration norm entropy HnA produces the best performances compared to other classifiers trained on other feature sets. The simple rule is as follows with values given in bits: (0 <; HnA <; 1.34), no movement; (1.34 <; HnA <; 3.87), tonic manifestations; (3.87 <; HnA), tonic-clonic manifestations. For this classifier, features are extracted from 1 s windows and the misclassification rate is 11% evaluated on 5 607 s of epileptic motor manifestations obtained from 58 seizures in 30 patients. A quantile normalization can improve the results with features based on absolute power spectral density but performances are not as good as the ones obtained with HnA. Based on the classifier using only HnA, a simple tonic-clonic seizure detector is proposed and produces a 80% sensitivity with a 95% specificity. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-Field-of-View Framework for Distinguishing Tumor Grade in ER+ Breast Cancer From Entire Histopathology Slides

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2089 - 2099
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3445 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modified Bloom-Richardson (mBR) grading is known to have prognostic value in breast cancer (BCa), yet its use in clinical practice has been limited by intra- and interobserver variability. The development of a computerized system to distinguish mBR grade from entire estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) BCa histopathology slides will help clinicians identify grading discrepancies and improve overall confidence in the diagnostic result. In this paper, we isolate salient image features characterizing tumor morphology and texture to differentiate entire hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained histopathology slides based on mBR grade. The features are used in conjunction with a novel multifield-of-view (multi-FOV) classifier-a whole-slide classifier that extracts features from a multitude of FOVs of varying sizes-to identify important image features at different FOV sizes. Image features utilized include those related to the spatial arrangement of cancer nuclei (i.e., nuclear architecture) and the textural patterns within nuclei (i.e., nuclear texture). Using slides from 126 ER+ patients (46 low, 60 intermediate, and 20 high mBR grade), our grading system was able to distinguish low versus high, low versus intermediate, and intermediate versus high grade patients with area under curve values of 0.93, 0.72, and 0.74, respectively. Our results suggest that the multi-FOV classifier is able to 1) successfully discriminate low, medium, and high mBR grade and 2) identify specific image features at different FOV sizes that are important for distinguishing mBR grade in Hand E stained ER+ BCa histology slides. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of Optical Coherence Tomography for the Measurement of the Effects of Activators and Anticoagulants on the Blood Coagulation In Vitro

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2100 - 2106
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optical properties of human blood during coagulation was studied using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the parameter of clotting time derived from the 1/e light penetration depth (d1/e) vs. time was developed in our previous work. In this study, in order to know if a new optical coherence tomography test can characterize the blood coagulation process under different treatments in vitro, the effects of two different activators (calcium ions and thrombin) and anticoagulants, i.e., acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, a well-known drug aspirin) and melagatran (a direct thrombin inhibitor), at various concentrations are evaluated. A swept source OCT system with a 1300 nm center wavelength is used for detecting the blood coagulation process in vitro under a static condition. A dynamic study of the d1/e reveals a typical behavior due to coagulation induced by both calcium ions and thrombin, and the clotting time is concentration-dependent. Dose-dependent ASA and melagatran prolong the clotting times. ASA and melagatran have different effects on blood coagulation. As expected, melagatran is much more effective than ASA in anticoagulation by the OCT measurements. The OCT assay appears to be a simple method for the measurement of blood coagulation to assess the effects of activators and anticoagulants, which can be used for activator and anticoagulant screening. View full abstract»

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  • Far-Field RF Powering of Implantable Devices: Safety Considerations

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2107 - 2112
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Far-field RF powering is an attractive solution to the challenge of remotely powering devices implanted in living tissue. The purpose of this study is to characterize the peak obtainable power levels in a wireless myoelectric sensor implanted in a patient while maintaining safe local temperature and RF powering conditions. This can serve as a guide for the design of onboard electronics in related medical implants and provide motivation for more efficient power management strategies for implantable integrated circuits. Safe powering conditions and peak received power levels are established using a simplified theoretical analysis and Federal Communications Commission-established limits for radiating antennas. These conditions are subsequently affirmed and improved upon using the finite-element method and temperature modeling in bovine muscle. View full abstract»

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  • Safety Auxiliary Feedback Element for the Artificial Pancreas in Type 1 Diabetes

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2113 - 2122
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (692 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The artificial pancreas aims at the automatic delivery of insulin for glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes, i.e., closed-loop glucose control. One of the challenges of the artificial pancreas is to avoid controller overreaction leading to hypoglycemia, especially in the late postprandial period. In this study, an original proposal based on sliding mode reference conditioning ideas is presented as a way to reduce hypoglycemia events induced by a closed-loop glucose controller. The method is inspired in the intuitive advantages of two-step constrained control algorithms. It acts on the glucose reference sent to the main controller shaping it so as to avoid violating given constraints on the insulin-on-board. Some distinctive features of the proposed strategy are that 1) it provides a safety layer which can be adjusted according to medical criteria; 2) it can be added to closed-loop controllers of any nature; 3) it is robust against sensor failures and overestimated prandial insulin doses; and 4) it can handle nonlinear models. The method is evaluated in silico with the ten adult patients available in the FDA-accepted UVA simulator. View full abstract»

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  • EEG-Based Classification of Fast and Slow Hand Movements Using Wavelet-CSP Algorithm

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2123 - 2132
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (769 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) acquires brain signals, extracts informative features, and translates these features to commands to control an external device. This paper investigates the application of a noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG)based BCI to identify brain signal features in regard to actual hand movement speed. This provides a more refined control for a BCI system in terms of movement parameters. An experiment was performed to collect EEG data from subjects while they performed right-hand movement at two different speeds, namely fast and slow, in four different directions. The informative features from the data were obtained using the Wavelet-Common Spatial Pattern (W-CSP) algorithm that provided high-temporal-spatial-spectral resolution. The applicability of these features to classify the two speeds and to reconstruct the speed profile was studied. The results for classifying speed across seven subjects yielded a mean accuracy of 83.71% using a Fisher Linear Discriminant (FLD) classifier. The speed components were reconstructed using multiple linear regression and significant correlation of 0.52 (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient) was obtained between recorded and reconstructed velocities on an average. The spatial patterns of the W-CSP features obtained showed activations in parietal and motor areas of the brain. The results achieved promises to provide a more refined control in BCI by including control of movement speed. View full abstract»

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  • Controlling a Human–Computer Interface System With a Novel Classification Method that Uses Electrooculography Signals

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2133 - 2141
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electrooculography (EOG) signals can be used to control human-computer interface (HCI) systems, if properly classified. The ability to measure and process these signals may help HCI users to overcome many of the physical limitations and inconveniences in daily life. However, there are currently no effective multidirectional classification methods for monitoring eye movements. Here, we describe a classification method used in a wireless EOG-based HCI device for detecting eye movements in eight directions. This device includes wireless EOG signal acquisition components, wet electrodes and an EOG signal classification algorithm. The EOG classification algorithm is based on extracting features from the electrical signals corresponding to eight directions of eye movement (up, down, left, right, up-left, down-left, up-right, and down-right) and blinking. The recognition and processing of these eight different features were achieved in real-life conditions, demonstrating that this device can reliably measure the features of EOG signals. This system and its classification procedure provide an effective method for identifying eye movements. Additionally, it may be applied to study eye functions in real-life conditions in the near future. View full abstract»

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  • Noncontact Monitoring of Cardiorespiratory Activity by Electromagnetic Coupling

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2142 - 2152
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (959 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the method of noncontact monitoring of cardiorespiratory activity by electromagnetic coupling with human tissue is investigated. Two measurement modalities were joined: an inductive coupling sensor based on magnetic eddy current induction and a capacitive coupling sensor based on displacement current induction. The system's sensitivity to electric tissue properties and its dependence on motion are analyzed theoretically as well as experimentally for the inductive and capacitive coupling path. The potential of both coupling methods to assess respiration and pulse without contact and a minimum of thoracic wall motion was verified by laboratory experiments. The demonstrator was embedded in a chair to enable recording from the back part of the thorax. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Performance of Penetrating Microelectrodes Chronically Implanted in Cat Cortex

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2153 - 2160
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (930 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Penetrating microelectrode arrays with 2000 μm2 sputtered iridium oxide (SIROF) electrode sites were implanted in cat cerebral cortex, and their long-term electrochemical performance evaluated in vivo by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and current pulsing. Measurements were made from days 33 to 328 postimplantation. The CV-defined charge storage capacity, measured at 50 mV/s, increased linearly with time over the course of implantation for two arrays and was unchanged for one array. A modest decrease in 1 kHz impedance was also observed. These results suggest an ongoing increase in the apparent electrochemical surface area of the electrodes, which is attributed to electrical leakage pathways arising from cracking of Parylene insulation observed by SEM of explanted arrays. During current pulsing with a 0.0 V interpulse bias, the electrodes readily delivered 8 nC/phase in vitro, but some channels approached or exceeded the water reduction potential during in vivo pulsing. The charge injection capacity in vivo increased linearly with the interpulse bias (0-0.6 V Ag|AgCl) from 11.5 to 21.8 nC/ph and with pulse width (150-500 μs) from 8.8 to 14 nC/ph (at 0.0 V bias). These values are lower than those determined from measurements in buffered physiological saline, emphasizing the importance of in vivo measurements in assessing chronic electrode performance. The consequence of current leakage pathways on the charge-injection measurements is also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Optimization of Reaction Chamber and Detection System in Dynamic Labs-on-Chip for Proteins Detection

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2161 - 2166
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (413 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the lab-on-chip section for a protein assay is designed and optimized. To avoid severe reliability problems related to activated surface stability, a dynamic assay approach is adopted: protein-to-protein neutralization is performed while proteins diffuse freely in the reaction chamber. The related refraction index change is detected via an integrated interferometer. The structure is also design to provide a functional test of the reference protein solution, which is generally required for qualification for medical uses. View full abstract»

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  • A New Approach for Combining Knowledge From Multiple Coexpression Networks of MicroRNAs

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2167 - 2173
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (539 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that are known to have critical functions across various biological processes. Simultaneous activities of multiple miRNAs can be monitored from their expression profiles under various conditions. We often build up coexpression networks from such profiles. Unfortunately, due to the change of experimental setups (or conditions), the expression profiles do change, and consequently, the patterns of the coexpression networks vary. To obtain a robust functional relationship between miRNAs, by integrating different coexpression networks in a systems biology approach, we have to combine them properly. Here, we evaluate the state-of-the-art techniques and propose a novel integrative measure, and a corresponding methodology, that might be useful for identifying the dependence between coexpression and functional similarity. We establish the results by evaluating the expression profiles of miRNAs taken from bone marrow samples of patients with leukemia. The findings highlight the potential of the integrative algorithm in analyzing the expression profiles of miRNAs for further study. View full abstract»

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  • A Robust Reference Signal Generator for Synchronized Ventricular Assist Devices

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2174 - 2183
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2345 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) are blood pumps that offer an option to support the circulation of patients with severe heart failure. Since a failing heart has a remaining pump function, its interaction with the VAD influences the hemodynamics. Ideally, the heart's action is taken into account for actuating the device such that the device is synchronized to the natural cardiac cycle. To realize this in practice, a reliable real-time algorithm for the automatic synchronization of the VAD to the heart rate is required. This paper defines the tasks such an algorithm needs to fulfill: the automatic detection of irregular heart beats and the feedback control of the phase shift between the systolic phases of the heart and the assist device. We demonstrate a possible solution to these problems and analyze its performance in two steps. First, the algorithm is tested using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Second, the algorithm is implemented in a controller for a pulsatile and a continuous-flow VAD. These devices are connected to a hybrid mock circulation where three test scenarios are evaluated. The proposed algorithm ensures a reliable synchronization of the VAD to the heart cycle, while being insensitive to irregularities in the heart rate. View full abstract»

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  • Markerless Motion Capture and Measurement of Hand Kinematics: Validation and Application to Home-Based Upper Limb Rehabilitation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2184 - 2192
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dynamic movements of the hand, fingers, and thumb are difficult to measure due to the versatility and complexity of movement inherent in function. An innovative approach to measuring hand kinematics is proposed and validated. The proposed system utilizes the Microsoft Kinect and goes beyond gesture recognition to develop a validated measurement technique of finger kinematics. The proposed system adopted landmark definition (validated through ground truth estimation against assessors) and grip classification algorithms, including kinematic definitions (validated against a laboratory-based motion capture system). The results of the validation show 78% accuracy when identifying specific markerless landmarks. In addition, comparative data with a previously validated kinematic measurement technique show accuracy of MCP ± 10° (average absolute error (AAE) = 2.4°), PIP ± 12° (AAE = 4.8°), and DIP ± 11° (AAE = 4.8°). These results are notably better than clinically based alternative manual measurement techniques. The ability to measure hand movements, and therefore functional dexterity, without interfering with underlying composite movements, is the paramount objective to any bespoke measurement system. The proposed system is the first validated markerless measurement system using the Microsoft Kinect that is capable of measuring finger joint kinematics. It is suitable for home-based motion capture for the hand and, therefore, achieves this objective. View full abstract»

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  • Design and In Vivo Evaluation of a Robotized Needle Insertion System for Small Animals

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2193 - 2204
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7067 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The development of imaging devices adapted to small animals has opened the way to image-guided procedures in biomedical research. In this paper, we focus on automated procedures to study the effects of the recurrent administration of substances to the same animal over time. A dedicated system and the associated workflow have been designed to percutaneously position a needle into the abdominal organs of mice. Every step of the procedure has been automated: the camera calibration, the needle access planning, the robotized needle positioning, and the respiratory-gated needle insertion. Specific devices have been developed for the registration, the animal binding under anesthesia, and the skin puncture. Among the presented results, the system accuracy is particularly emphasized, both in vitro using gelose phantoms and in vivo by injecting substances into various abdominal organs. The study shows that robotic assistance could be routinely used in biomedical research laboratories to improve existing procedures, allowing automated accurate treatments and limited animal sacrifices. View full abstract»

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  • Bilinear Modeling of EMG Signals to Extract User-Independent Features for Multiuser Myoelectric Interface

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2205 - 2213
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1357 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, we propose a multiuser myoelectric interface that can easily adapt to novel users. When a user performs different motions (e.g., grasping and pinching), different electromyography (EMG) signals are measured. When different users perform the same motion (e.g., grasping), different EMG signals are also measured. Therefore, designing a myoelectric interface that can be used by multiple users to perform multiple motions is difficult. To cope with this problem, we propose for EMG signals a bilinear model that is composed of two linear factors:1) user dependent and 2) motion dependent. By decomposing the EMG signals into these two factors, the extracted motion-dependent factors can be used as user-independent features. We can construct a motion classifier on the extracted feature space to develop the multiuser interface. For novel users, the proposed adaptation method estimates the user-dependent factor through only a few interactions. The bilinear EMG model with the estimated user-dependent factor can extract the user-independent features from the novel user data. We applied our proposed method to a recognition task of five hand gestures for robotic hand control using four-channel EMG signals measured from subject forearms. Our method resulted in 73% accuracy, which was statistically significantly different from the accuracy of standard non-multiuser interfaces, as the result of a two-sample t-test at a significance level of 1%. View full abstract»

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  • The Biomechanical Effect of Notch Size, Notch Location, and Femur Orientation on Hip Resurfacing Failure

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2214 - 2221
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (762 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For hip resurfacing, this is the first biomechanical study to assess anterior and posterior femoral neck notching and femur flexion and extension. Forty-seven artificial femurs were implanted with the Birmingham hip resurfacing (BHR) using a range of notch sizes (0, 2, and 5 mm), notch locations (superior, anterior, and posterior), and femur orientations (neutral stance, flexion, and extension). Implant preparation was done using imageless computer navigation, and mechanical tests measured stiffness and strength. For notch size and location, in neutral stance the unnotched group had 1.9 times greater strength than the 5-mm superior notch group (4539 N versus 2423 N, p = 0.047), and the 5-mm anterior notch group had 1.6 times greater strength than the 5-mm superior notch group, yielding a borderline statistical difference (3988 N versus 2423 N, p = 0.056). For femur orientation, in the presence of a 5-mm anterior notch, femurs in neutral stance had 2.2 times greater stiffness than femurs in 25° flexion (1542 N/mm versus 696 N/mm, p = 0.000). Similarly, in the presence of a 5-mm posterior notch, femurs in neutral stance had 2.8 times greater stiffness than femurs in 25° extension (1637 N/mm versus 575 N/mm, p = 0.000). No other statistical differences were noted. All femurs failed through the neck. The results have implications for BHR surgical techniques and recommended patient activities. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Accurate Minioptical Tracking System for Percutaneous Needle Placement

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2222 - 2225
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (257 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The novel optical tracking system employs a miniature video camera, mounted on the hub of an interventional needle, to determine the location and orientation of the needle relative to a skin-attached sticker with color reference markers. A computed tomography (CT) scan is used to register the same reference markers to the anatomy in the CT images, and thus, register the needle to the anatomy and to a user-selected target. A computer displays a simulation of the interventional needle on the CT images, providing guidance information to assist a user in directing the needle to the target. Bench testing was performed on a custom phantom to determine the accuracy of this mini-optical tracking system. The resulting accuracy data demonstrate a good correlation with phantom coordinates and the CT images. View full abstract»

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  • Vibrotactile Sensory Substitution for Electromyographic Control of Object Manipulation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2226 - 2232
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (421 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It has been shown that incorporating augmentative vibrotactile feedback can improve performance of a virtual object manipulation task using finger movement. Vibrotactile sensory substitution for prosthetic applications, however, will necessarily not involve actual finger movement for control. Here we study the utility of such feedback when using myoelectric (EMG) signals for control, and demonstrate task improvement and learning for a force-motion task in a virtual environment. Using vibrotactile feedback, a group of unimpaired participants (N = 10) were able to increase performance in a single session. We go on to study the feasibility of this method for two prosthetic hand users, one of whom had targeted muscle reinnervation allowing the augmentative feedback to be perceived as if it were on the absent hand. View full abstract»

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  • Spectral Analysis for Nonstationary and Nonlinear Systems: A Discrete-Time-Model-Based Approach

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2233 - 2241
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (721 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new frequency-domain analysis framework for nonlinear time-varying systems is introduced based on parametric time-varying nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input models. It is shown how the time-varying effects can be mapped to the generalized frequency response functions (FRFs) to track nonlinear features in frequency, such as intermodulation and energy transfer effects. A new mapping to the nonlinear output FRF is also introduced. A simulated example and the application to intracranial electroencephalogram data are used to illustrate the theoretical results. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a Portable, Intrinsically Safe Multichannel Acquisition System for High-Resolution, Real-Time Processing HD-sEMG

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2242 - 2252
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1708 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A compact and portable system for real-time, multichannel, HD-sEMG acquisition is presented. The device is based on a modular, multiboard approach for scalability and to optimize power consumption for battery operating mode. The proposed modular approach allows us to configure the number of sEMG channels from 64 to 424. A plastic-optical-fiber-based 10/100 Ethernet link is implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based board for real-time, safety data transmission toward a personal computer or laptop for data storage and offline analysis. The high-performance A/D conversion stage, based on 24-bit ADC, allows us to automatically serialize the samples and transmits them on a single SPI bus connecting a sequence of up to 14 ADC chips in chain mode. The prototype is configured to work with 64 channels and a sample frequency of 2.441 ksps (derived from 25-MHz clock source), corresponding to a real data throughput of 3 Mbps. The prototype was assembled to demonstrate the available features (e.g., scalability) and evaluate the expected performances. The analog front end board could be dynamically configured to acquire sEMG signals in monopolar or single differential mode by means of FPGA I/O interface. The system can acquire continuously 64 channels for up to 5 h with a lightweight battery pack of 7.5 Vdc/2200 mAh. A PC-based application was also developed, by means of the open source Qt Development Kit from Nokia, for prototype characterization, sEMG measurements, and real-time visualization of 2-D maps. View full abstract»

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  • Biologically Derived Companding Algorithm for High Dynamic Range Mammography Images

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2253 - 2261
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1244 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The screening mammography is currently the best procedure available for early detection of the breast cancer. The acquired mammograms are high dynamic range (HDR) images having a 12 bit grayscale resolution. When viewed by a radiologist, a single image must be examined several times, each time focusing on a different intensity range. We have developed a biologically derived mammography companding (BDMC) algorithm for compression, expansion, and enhancement of mammograms, in a fully automatic way. The BDMC is comprised of two main processing stages: 1) preliminary processing operations which include standardization of the intensity range and expansion of the intensities which belong to the low intensity range. 2) Adaptively companding the HDR range by integrating multiscale contrast measures. The algorithm's performance has been preliminarily clinically tested on dozens of mammograms in collaboration with experienced radiologists. It appears that the suggested method succeeds in presenting all of the clinical information, including all the abnormalities, in a single low dynamic range companded image. This companded and enhanced image is not degraded more than the HDR image and can be analyzed without the need for professional workstation and its specific enhancement software. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering contains basic and applied papers dealing with biomedical engineering. Papers range from engineering development in methods and techniques with biomedical applications to experimental and clinical investigations with engineering contributions.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Bin He
Department of Biomedical Engineering