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Lightwave Technology, Journal of

Issue 16 • Date Aug.15, 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • Front Cover

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Journal of Lightwave Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of Contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2649 - 2650
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Multiple Reflections Induced Crosstalk in Inline TDM Fiber Fabry-Perot Sensor System Utilizing Phase Generated Carrier Scheme

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2651 - 2658
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1466 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An inline time-division multiplexing fiber Fabry-Perot (TDM-FFP) sensor system based on low-reflectivity fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is ideally suited to many applications. The intrinsic multiple reflections crosstalk (MRC) phenomenon in the inline TDM-FFP sensor system is a serious problem that limits the multiplexing number of sensors, which hindrances its practical applications. In this paper, a detailed analysis of the MRC in the inline TDM-FFP sensor system using phase generated carrier (PGC) scheme is reported. The equations of the interference intensity in the inline TDM-FFP sensor system with two sensors are deduced. The characteristics of the MRC are theoretically analyzed according to the equations and experimentally demonstrated. Finally, the instability of the MRC induced by random phase relationships of the sensors is analyzed using statistical method. The experimental results show that the crosstalk from the first sensor to the second sensor is ranged from 36.48 to 67.64 dB and to the third sensor is ranged from 16.02 to 60.64 dB. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Waveguide End Facet Roughness and Optical Coupling Loss

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2659 - 2668
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1115 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates the end facet roughness of multimode polymer channel waveguides fabricated on FR4 printed circuit boards, PCBs, when cut at right angles to their optical axis by milling routers for optical butt-coupling connectors and compares it with that resulting from dicing saws and polishing and proposes a novel end facet treatment. RMS surface roughness of waveguide end facets, measured by AFMs, are compared for a range of rotation speeds and translation speeds of a milling router. It was found that one-flute routers gave significantly less rough surfaces than two or three-flute routers. The best results were achieved for a one-flute router when the milling bit was inserted from the PCB side of the board with a rotation speed of 15,000 rpm and a translation speed of 0.25 m/min which minimized the waveguide core end facet RMS roughness to 183 ± 13 nm and gave input optical coupling loss of 1.7 dB ± 0.5 B and output optical coupling loss of 2.0 dB ± 0.7 dB. The lowest RMS roughness was obtained at chip loads of 16 μm/revolution. High rotation speeds should be avoided as smearing of the end facet occurs possibly due to polymer heating and softening. For the first time to our knowledge, channel waveguide optical insertion loss is shown to be linearly proportional to the ratio of the waveguide core end facet RMS roughness to its autocorrelation length. A new fabrication technique for cut waveguide end facet treatment is proposed and demonstrated which reduces the insertion loss by 2.60 dB ± 1.3 dB which is more than that achieved by the closest available index matching fluid which gave 2.23 dB ± 1.2 dB. The new fabrication method gives a more robust end facet for use in commercial products. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • On the Irregular Nonbinary QC-LDPC-Coded Hybrid Multidimensional OSCD-Modulation Enabling Beyond 100 Tb/s Optical Transport

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2669 - 2675
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1590 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As a solution to limited bandwidth and high energy consumption of information infrastructure as well as heterogeneity of optical networks, a hybrid multidimensional coded modulation scheme is proposed employing all available electrical and optical degrees of freedom. Electrical basis functions are based on either modified orthogonal polynomials or prolate spheroidal wave functions, while optical ones on polarization and spatial mode states. The proposed scheme is both multi-Tb/s and beyond 100 Tb/s enabling technology. Additionally, the proposed scheme provides the adaptive, software-defined, and dynamic allocation of bandwidth with fine granularity. The adaptive coding is based on irregular nonbinary quasi-cyclic LDPC codes, providing record net coding gains. View full abstract»

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  • Temporal Autocorrelation Functions of PMD Variables in the Anisotropic Hinge Model

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2676 - 2680
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1027 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present analytic expressions for the temporal autocorrelation functions (ACF's) of the polarization mode dispersion (PMD) vector, the squared differential group delay (DGD) and the state of polarization (SOP) in the hinge model for stochastically varying hinges. We also derive the continuous limit of the temporal ACF of the squared DGD. Our studies demonstrate that for large time offsets, the ACF of the PMD vector approaches a constant value that depends principally on the DGD of the last fiber section but is also affected to a diminishing degree by the DGD of preceding fiber sections. We also show that sinusoidal perturbations of the hinge rotation angles do not significantly alter the results. The accuracy of the procedure is further established through comparison with numerical simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Long-Range and High-Spatial-Resolution Distributed Birefringence Measurement of a Polarization-Maintaining Fiber Based on Brillouin Dynamic Grating

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2681 - 2686
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (877 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report a long-range and high-spatial-resolution distributed measurement of the birefringence of a polarization-maintaining fiber based on Brillouin dynamic grating (BDG) through optimizing the pump and probe scheme in the time-domain. The optimal scheme includes a CW pump1, a long pump2 pulse, and a short probe pulse, where the long pump2 pulse can effectively excite a BDG with a relatively low power to avoid other nonlinear effects in a long-length fiber, and the short probe pulse is used to improve the spatial resolution. The numerical simulations verify that with this scheme the spatial resolution is determined by the duration of the probe pulse, while the BDG reflection spectrum width increases with shorting the duration of the probe pulse. In experiment, a measurement of a 500-m Panda polarization-maintaining fiber with a 20-cm resolution is realized by using a 20-ns pump2 pulse and a 2-ns probe pulse. The results clearly show the 49-cm spatial period of the birefringence variation caused by the uneven stress as winding the fiber around a spool. Besides, longer spatial periods of the birefringence variation are also observed, which could be caused by the residual stress during the fiber drawing and coating processes or the nonuniformity of fiber preform. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Gaussian Optical Receivers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2687 - 2693
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1582 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present some analytical methods for Gaussian optical receivers whose impulse responses of optical and electrical filters are Gaussian. We obtain the Gaussian optical receiver's eigenmodes exactly in frequency domain. Their eigenfunctions are Hermite functions multiplied by a common phase factor. Using these eigenmodes, we investigate the probability distribution functions of the electrical filter's output before the decision circuit. We derive a bit-error rate (BER) expression in a closed form using the lowest-order eigenmode. It is valid when the optical filter bandwidth is comparable to the modulation bandwidth as in conventional high capacity optical wavelength-division multiplexing transmission systems. The BER expression can be applied also to non-Gaussian optical receivers. View full abstract»

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  • Tunable Microcavity Based on Macroporous Silicon: Feasibility of Fabrication

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2694 - 2700
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2196 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Simultaneous electrochemical etching of deep pores and trenches in silicon was used to fabricate a two-dimensional, photonic crystal slab (PCS). The structure consists of five rows of macro-pores on both sides of a trench-defect, filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Polarized reflection and transmission spectra from the fabricated structure were investigated in the mid-infrared spectral range and were compared with spectra calculated using a scattering matrix method. In order to obtain agreement between the experimental and calculated spectra, a model structure with a complex refractive index of silicon was introduced. This enabled us to take into account losses related to light scattering at the inner surfaces of pores and trenches within the structure. The influence of these losses on the amplitude of the defects and surface Tamm states was analysed using this model. The Tamm states originate from the unstructured Si layer at the interface of the structure and the external medium, air in this case. A quantitative evaluation of the losses was performed by extracting a coefficient from a fit to the experimental spectra. This coefficient was utilised to determine the dependence of the micro-cavity parameters on the number of periods in the PCS. We conclude that a micro-cavity based on macro-porous silicon should not have more than three periods on each side of a defect. View full abstract»

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  • Time-Division-Multiplexed Interferometric Sensor Arrays

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2701 - 2708
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1202 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a time-division-multiplexed acoustic sensor array employing multiple low-gain Er-doped fiber amplifiers to multiplex ten compact Fabry-Perot acoustic sensors. We show that the ten sensors can be interrogated with a single laser diode at a single wavelength, and exhibit the same measured SNR within \pm 0.95 dB of each other. We present a model to identify the dominant noise contributions, and their dependence on the number of multiplexed sensors. This model predicts that more than 350 sensors can be multiplexed with the proposed architecture. View full abstract»

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  • Passive Harmonic Mode-Locking of Dissipative Solitons in a Normal-Dispersion Er-Doped Fiber Laser

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2709 - 2714
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (599 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Tunable harmonic mode-locking of (HML) one kind of dissipative solitons (DSs) has been experimentally demonstrated in an Er-doped fiber (EDF) laser for the first time. The laser is mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation. The repetition rate can be tuned from the 2nd to 10th-order HML. A high repetition rate of 232 MHz (10th- order HML) has been observed in this laser, and the pulse duration after compression is 153-fs with single-pulse energy of 0.5 nJ. The spectral width of the pulses decreases as the harmonic order increases in the experiment, which is demonstrated for the first time, consistent with the numerical study. A rule based on monitoring the pulse spectral width to find desired-order HML is also proposed. View full abstract»

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  • A Side-Pump Coupler With Refractive Index Valley Configuration for Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2715 - 2722
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1471 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A side-pump coupler with a refractive index valley was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The high pump coupling efficiency and the suppression of backward light propagation due to the refractive index valley are illustrated. Based on the analysis, the (2+1) × 1 pump and signal coupler with both pump coupling efficiency and signal transfer efficiency of > 96% and the BR of 2.82 was implemented, which accompanied with the maximum pump power of 398 W. And based on these couplers, an all-fiber bi-directionally pumping MOPA laser with an output power of 256 W and optical-optical efficiency of 80.5% was achieved in the experiment. View full abstract»

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  • Monolithic Adjustable Gain-Clamped Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2723 - 2727
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (949 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report a monolithic adjustable gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA). The device consists of two tunable gratings and a gain section and enables the gain of the SOA to be regulated without loss of saturated output power. Gain control is achieved by adjusting the wavelength overlap of two Distributed Bragg Reflector gratings positioned at either side of the active region which can be wavelength tuned by carrier injection. Gain clamped operation with adjustable gain over a range of 4 dB has been demonstrated. A maximum saturated output power of 21 dBm was obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical Estimation of Refractive Index of Continuous Wave UV Induced Waveguide in LiNbO _{3} Considering Temperature Dependent Absorption Coefficient

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2728 - 2734
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1228 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A theoretical modeling of continuous wave UV laser induced waveguides in congruent LiNbO3 is presented considering temperature dependent absorption coefficients at 305 nm and 275 nm writing wavelengths. The extrapolated empirical relations of absorption coefficient with temperature, extracted from the published experimental data, is used for the purpose. Some of the previously published experimental findings of the fabricated waveguides are justified with this model, which otherwise seem impossible. View full abstract»

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  • DSP-Based Evolution From Conventional TDM-PON to TDM-OFDM-PON

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2735 - 2741
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1177 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, digital signal processing (DSP) methods have been extensively studied and various DSP-based schemes have been proposed for next-generation passive optical network (PON). In this paper, we combine the time-division-multiplexing (TDM) architecture with advanced DSP methods to achieve high spectrum-efficiency colorless transmission. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), as the original form of various DSP methods with frequency-domain equalization (FDE), is chosen for both upstream and downstream transmissions. In the TDM-PON based on OFDM (TDM-OFDM-PON) architecture, OFDM symbols are transmitted in different time slots instead of on-off-key (OOK) bits in conventional TDM-PON. This architecture can be extended for single-carrier with FDE easily. Due to the same TDMA scheme, it can achieve maximum compatibility with current TDM-PON. A DSP-based evolution scheme from conventional TDM-PON to TDM-OFDM-PON is proposed and experimentally demonstrated by upgrading the optical line terminal (OLT) to support both OOK and OFDM signals, which can maintain the current optical distribution network (ODN) and minimize the impact for the existing service and equipment. View full abstract»

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  • Millimeter-Wave and UWB Over a Colorless WDM-PON Based on Polarization Multiplexing Using a Polarization Modulator

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2742 - 2751
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1607 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A broadband millimeter-wave (mmW) at 60-GHz band and an impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) over a colorless 100-GHz dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) passive optical network (PON) that supports simultaneous transmission of a broadband mmW signal, a UWB signal and a wireline baseband signal is experimentally demonstrated. At the transmitter, a polarization modulator (PolM) is employed, which operates in conjunction with a polarization controller (PC) and a polarization beam splitter (PBS) as an equivalent Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM). For 60-GHz and IR-UWB signal transmission, the equivalent MZM is biased at the minimum transmission point to generate two sidebands that are separated at a frequency in the 60-GHz band, and the wireless signals (60 GHz and IR-UWB) are carried by the two sidebands. For the wireline baseband transmission, the equivalent MZM is biased at the maximum transmission point to generate only the optical carrier, and the wireline signal is carried by the optical carrier. The wireline signal and the wireless signals are orthogonally polarized and sent over a single-mode fiber (SMF) to a base station (BS). For each WDM channel in the central station (CS) and the BS, since no optical filters are employed, colorless operation is supported. Point-to-point error-free transmission of a 1.25-Gbps mmW signal, a 1.25-Gbps IR-UWB signal and a 10-Gbps wireline signal over a 25-km SMF is experimentally demonstrated. The number of users that can be supported by the proposed colorless WDM-PON is estimated based on the measured receiver sensitivities. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Properties of Low Loss (70dB/km) Hypocycloid-Core Kagome Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber for Rb and Cs Based Optical Applications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2752 - 2755
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (797 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on hypocycloid core shaped hollow-core Kagome fiber with a record loss of 70 dB/km at a spectral range of around 750-850 nm, which is compatible with Cs and Rb based applications. The fiber exhibits a single mode operation in a core diameter as large as 40 μm, and very low sensitivity to bend. We show experimentally that the bending-loss is limited by coupling between the guiding core mode and the modes in the cladding holes. View full abstract»

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  • D-Microfibers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2756 - 2761
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (808 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple mechanical setup was used to polish a standard single mode optical fiber in order to make it asymmetric. The polished fiber was tapered down maintaining the D-shape transversal profile. Its broken symmetry along with the extended evanescent field, due to the dimensions of the microfiber, implies a potentially high birefringent waveguide as well as a high-sensitivity external refractive index device. An experimental maximum sensitivity of S ≈ (3.0±0.2)×104 nm/RIU was achieved, other experimental and numerical results supporting our initial assumptions are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Helical Metamaterial Absorbers: Broadband and Polarization-Independent in Optical Region

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2762 - 2768
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1097 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a design of a novel optical metamaterial absorber that is broadband and independent to polarization. The absorber consists of opposite-handedness metallic triple-helix array. Simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, an average absorbance of 89.10% is observed in the region of 0.33-1.22 μm as well as an absorption peak of 97.57% at 0.43 μ m. Compared with many existing planar metamaterial absorbers, this helical metamaterial absorber shows advantages of broadband and polarization independence. In addition, we systematically study the dependence of the absorptive property on its geometric parameters and materials. It is expected that the superior absorptive properties of this helical MM absorber can also be realized in other region of spectrum by appropriately scaling the sub-wavelength structures. View full abstract»

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  • An Analytic Connector Loss Model for Step-Index Polymer Optical Fiber Links

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2769 - 2776
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1393 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors report on an analytic connector loss model for step-index polymer optical fibers (SI-POF). The model describes the non-linear dependencies for combinations of the most important intrinsic and extrinsic influence parameters like Fresnel reflections, mismatches in numerical aperture (NA) and core diameters, as well as lateral, longitudinal and angular offsets. As connector losses strongly depend on the mode distribution, expressions for the mode-dependent coupling efficiencies for the various influence parameters are derived. This way, the model can handle any rotationally symmetric mode distribution including the uniform mode distribution (UMD) and the equilibrium mode distribution (EMD) in the steady-state. It is shown that for step-index fibers, lateral and longitudinal offsets can be handled in a similar way, which reduces the overall effort for the mathematical description. For the typical case of identical fibers, the authors also derive easy-to-apply approximations for a combination of lateral and longitudinal offsets under UMD and EMD conditions. The results are in good agreement with ray-tracing simulations and are evaluated for the cases of identical fibers and the worst case parameter constellation for the SI-POF in the IEC A4a.2 fiber class. View full abstract»

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  • Influences of Imperfect Polarization Induced Effects to the Quasi-Reciprocal Reflective Optical Voltage Sensor

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2777 - 2784
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The influences of imperfect polarization induced effects are investigated in this paper for a novel optical voltage sensor (OVS), which consists of quasi-reciprocal reflective optical interferometer and digital closed-loop detection scheme. The numerical models are established to describe the relationship between the characteristic parameters of imperfect polarization and the performances of the OVS, which is also simulated to investigate quantitatively. The numerical models and the simulated results are experimentally verified with typical imperfect polarization induced errors. Accordingly, the primary characteristic parameters of imperfect polarization are illuminated. What's more, the conclusions of this paper can provide useful references for the design and performance improvement of the novel Pockels effect based OVS. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication-Tolerant Four-Channel Wavelength-Division-Multiplexing Filter Based on Collectively Tuned Si Microrings

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2785 - 2792
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1266 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate a robust, compact and low-loss four-channel wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) filter based on cascaded double-ring resonators (2RR) in silicon. The flat-top channel response obtained by the second-order filter design is exploited to compensate for the detrimental effects of local fabrication variations and their associated phase errors on the ring-based filter response. Full wafer-scale characterization of a cascaded, four-channel 2RR filter with channel spacing of 300 GHz shows an average worst-case insertion loss below 1.5 dB and an average worst-case crosstalk below -18 dB across the wafer, representing a substantial improvement over a first-order based ring (1RR) design. The robust 2RR filter design enables the use of a simple collective thermal tuning mechanism to compensate for global fabrication variations as well as for global temperature fluctuations of the WDM filter, the WDM laser source, or both. Highly uniform collective heating is demonstrated using integrated doped silicon heaters. The compact filter footprint of less than 50×50 μm2 per channel enables straightforward scaling of the WDM channel count to 8 channels and beyond. Such low-loss collectively tuned ring-based WDM filters can prove beneficial in scaling the bandwidth density of chip-level silicon optical interconnects. View full abstract»

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  • Demonstration of All-Optical Fiber Isolator Based on a CdSe Quantum Dots Doped Optical Fiber Operating at 660 nm

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2793 - 2798
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (719 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel all-optical fiber isolator with 14 dB isolation at 660 nm was demonstrated using the CdSe quantum dots doped optical fiber, which was fabricated by using the modified chemical vapor deposition and high temperature drawing processes. The Faraday rotation angle of 45 degrees was obtained at the fiber length of 183 cm under the magnetic field of 0.119 T. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Hybrid EDFA/Raman Amplification Topology for Repeaterless 4.48 Tb/s (40 x 112 Gb/s DP-QPSK) Transmission Over 302 Km of G.652 Standard Single Mode Fiber

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2799 - 2808
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1812 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work we carry out a comprehensive experimental study on hybrid optical amplification topologies (based on first order Raman and Erbium doped fiber amplifiers) for repeaterless transmission of 112 Gb/s dual polarization-quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) enabling a 4.48 Tb/s (40 × 112 Gb/s) transmission over 302 km of standard single mode fiber with coherent detection. Hybrid optical amplification was employed for signal boosting and pre-amplification and repeaterless transmission is assured without the use of neither in-line amplification nor remote optical amplifiers. The goal was to achieve the highest bandwidth-distance product for repeaterless DWDM transmission systems over legacy fiber without any in-line amplification technology. The achieved result is a significant milestone, when compared to recent state-of-the-art investigations. View full abstract»

    Open Access

Aims & Scope

The Journal of Lightwave Technology contains articles on current research, applications and methods used in lightwave technology and fiber optics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Peter J. Winzer
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs