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Electronics Letters

Issue 13 • Date June 20 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 46
  • In brief

    Page(s): 776
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  • Interview

    Page(s): 776
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (97 KB)  

    "Industry is predicting the introduction of alternative channel materials such as Ge and III-V Indiumcompounds around the 7nm node" View full abstract»

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  • Inside view

    Page(s): 777
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (306 KB)  

    We have fabricated non-volatile physically flexible memristors using ink-jet printed conductors on a flexible plastic substrate. The devices exhibit bipolar resistive switching (BRS) behaviour and have high resistive state (HRS) and low resistive state (LRS), which is explained by the migration of oxygen between (higher resistance) copper oxide and (lower resistance) silver oxide. To explore the performance of our memristors, we tested the repeatability and persistence of the HRS and LRS. We also fabricated other control groups to prove that copper oxide plays a significant role in the resistive switching behaviour of our devices. These memristors have features of being physically flexible, compatible with flexible electronic technologies and low cost, low-temperature fabrication and low-power operation. View full abstract»

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  • Vibrant with energy

    Page(s): 778
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (287 KB)  

    A PWM based electrical interface aims to extract more energy from piezoelectric harvesters by attuning the output waveform to multiple vibration modes. A new approach to harvesting energy from wideband vibration is presented by researchers from the EPI (Integrated Power Electronics) group of the Universite de Cergy-Pontoise's SATIE laboratory; part of France's CNRS. To deal with multimode vibration, the waveform of each harmonic of the piezoelectric voltage needs to be changed to follow the phase of each harmonic of velocity. To this end the interface uses pulse width modulation (PWM). View full abstract»

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  • Neutralisation technique applied to two coupling element antennas to cover low LTE and GSM communication standards

    Page(s): 781 - 782
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (478 KB)  

    A novel mobile terminal antenna covering the low LTE and GSM850/900 communication standards (i.e 700-960MHz) is proposed. The two-port antenna is composed of two coupling elements manufactured on a plastic piece using a laser direct structuring technique. To obtain a high port-to-port isolation between the two feeds, a neutralisation technique is applied. Simulated reflection coefficients and total efficiencies are compared to the measured data showing good agreement and competitive performance. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of silicon nanowire etching on signal-to-noise ratio of SiNW FETs for (bio)sensor applications

    Page(s): 782 - 784
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB)  

    A high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in silicon nanowire (SiNW) field effect transistors (FETs) is crucial for detecting low concentrations of biological material as the signal changes are often small and difficult to be differentiated from the baseline signal. This reported work studies the low-frequency noise (1/f) as in Hooge's constant, αH, and the device detection limit of the SiNW FETs to evaluate the influence of the etching process used to define the nanowires (NWs). Two etching methods are compared: plane-dependent etching using potassium borate in water and reactive ion etching in Cl-based chemistry. All investigated devices have similar dopant type, doping concentration and dimensions, and were fabricated with the same process flow with the exception of the NW definition. The extracted average Hooge's constant for wet etching is found to be at least an order of magnitude lower (αH, avg = 7.96 × 10-4) compared with dry plasma-etched devices (αH, avg = 4.1 × 10-2), indicating a lower surface roughness and/or a lower amount of surface defects. This study shows that the newly developed method improves the electrical properties of the device, making it an interesting alternative to standard approaches used for fabrication of SiNW FETs as (bio)sensors. View full abstract»

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  • Feasibility test of implantable microphone at middle ear cavity

    Page(s): 784 - 786
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (278 KB)  

    With the advent of implantable hearing aids, the implementation and acoustic sensing strategy of the implantable microphone becomes an important issue. Previously, implantable microphones were inserted under the skin, which causes loud noise signals from touching or moving the skin. In this reported work, mounting a microphone in a drilled hole to the middle ear cavity is proposed. This method does not cause any skin movement problems or aesthetic problems. Furthermore, surgical operation is easy because the microphone can be mounted onto the drilled bone and does not need to be clipped or attached to the ossicular chain. From guinea pig experiments (n = 5), the loss of transmission from the proposed microphone observed was only 1.17 ± 0.36 and 5.04 ± 0.84 dB (mean ± std.) for the 0.2-1 and 3-4 kHz bands. The lowest minimum detectable sound pressure was measured as 27.7 dB SPL (SNR: 6 dB) at 3150 Hz without pinna or canal effects. View full abstract»

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  • Approximated solution of Van der Pol equation describing transition from forced to free mode of oscillation

    Page(s): 786 - 787
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (435 KB)  

    A compact expression describing the transient behaviour of the Van der Pol oscillator is presented. An original simplification on the amplitude variation leads to a new expression of the oscillation phase transient behaviour. This new expression is particularly suitable for describing oscillator relaxation, i.e. when the oscillator switches from a forced to a free oscillation state. It is shown that by choosing the injection stop instant correctly, the free running frequency can be achieved instantaneously. View full abstract»

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  • Improved digital redesign: integral approach

    Page(s): 787 - 789
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (111 KB)  

    Proposed is a novel digital redesign under an integral state-matching performance index, which considers the inter-sampling state-matching that the previous works ignore. The example result demonstrates that the developed technique improves the state-matching performance. View full abstract»

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  • Software tool for efficient FPGA design of direct data domain approach for space-time adaptive processing

    Page(s): 789 - 791
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (222 KB)  

    Space-time adaptive processing algorithms have been proven to be a very effective way to mitigate the effects of multipath and interference. Due to the fast-changing clutter scenario, the stationary property of the data is destroyed and fails if the interference scenario ever becomes heterogeneous. Direct data domain (D3) methods can accommodate non-stationary data and can effectively suppress the clutter. However, the computation of D3 is very intensive. It is desirable to implement the D3 algorithm on a FPGA architecture for real-time applications. FPGAs can accommodate parallel and pipelined architecture. Here, the first FPGA design for the D3 algorithm and a new software package are presented. The software tool is capable of auto-generating a fully optimised VHDL representation of D3 and provides various performance parameters. The tool can be used by the designer to develop an overall system on chip (SoC) by using various constraints and options to meet certain performance criteria. Experimental results demonstrate that the authors' hardware version of the D3 algorithm can significantly outperform an equivalent software version. View full abstract»

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  • Stochastically power-minimum scheduling of real-time multicore systems with leakage power awareness

    Page(s): 791 - 793
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (175 KB)  

    The proposed scheduling scheme minimises the mean power consumption of real-time tasks with probabilistic computation amounts on multicore processors. To reduce leakage power consumption of idle cores, the scheme activates a part of available cores while turning off the power of unused cores, and determines the instant speed of activated cores so that the expected power consumption of real-time tasks would be minimised. View full abstract»

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  • Plane wave scattering induced resonant modes of cubic resonator

    Page(s): 793 - 795
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (771 KB)  

    Plane wave scattering from a cubic resonator is calculated by solving the combined field integral equation with the Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions and the moment method. High dielectric cube calculations show that magnetic and electric dipoles are found at the first and the second modes, respectively, whereas the third resonant mode has simultaneously strong electric and magnetic fields at the same resonant frequency. Furthermore, an analysis of a magnetodielectric cube is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of spark gap shape on time lag

    Page(s): 795 - 796
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (225 KB)  

    Presented is the effect of sharp spark gap on time lag, which is a very important factor in electrostatic discharge modelling. A long time lag induces a large discharge current and a fast rise time. The large discharge current often causes soft errors in many products. Through measurement and simulation, the relation between sharp edge and time lag is quantified. The result can be used in numerical simulation of breakdown voltage. With the numerical simulation, knowing only the geometry of the spark gap can obtain the discharge current. View full abstract»

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  • Voltage-programmed AM-OLED pixel circuit to compensate threshold voltage and mobility variations

    Page(s): 796 - 798
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)  

    A novel voltage-programmed pixel circuit is proposed to achieve an active-matrix organic light-emitting display (AM-OLED) based on a low temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistor (TFT) with an enhanced electrical stability and uniformity. The proposed pixel circuit consists of one driving TFT, one setup TFT, four switching TFTs, one capacitor, and four control signal lines. Through an extensive simulation work based on the HSPICE tool, it has been verified that the proposed pixel circuit can compensate for both mobility variations and threshold voltage shifts of the driving TFT. View full abstract»

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  • Joint trilateral motion vector filter for bidirectional motion compensation

    Page(s): 798 - 800
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (170 KB)  

    Bidirectional motion compensation is an efficient method for frame rate upconversion application. To enhance bidirectional motion vector field (MVF) accuracy, most recent approaches derive it from unidirectional motion vectors (MVs), which may introduce blocking artifacts around object boundaries due to the block-wise motion assignment. Presented is a joint trilateral motion vector filter to improve the MV accuracy of boundary pixels by increasing the resolution of the block-wise unidirectional MVF to a pixel basis. The MV of each pixel is computed as a weighted average of its neighbouring block MVs. Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the MV accuracy of boundary pixels effectively. Frames interpolated by the proposed method achieve better performance compared with conventional methods. View full abstract»

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  • Lightweight generic random ferns for multi-target augmented reality on mobile devices

    Page(s): 800 - 802
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (128 KB)  

    Proposed use lightweight generic random ferns (LGRF), a fast keypoint classifier designed for multi-target augmented reality (AR) on mobile devices. LGRF uses binary features of image patches for both object recognition and keypoint matching of multiple objects, and stores probabilities in a single bit representation to reduce memory requirements. As a result, LGRF can perform simultaneous object recognition and keypoint matching in real time with low memory consumption, making it suitable for multi-target AR on mobile devices. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-sensor image fusion based on NSST domain I2CM

    Page(s): 802 - 803
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (274 KB)  

    Presented is a novel technique to fuse multi-sensor images using non-subsampled shearlet transform (NSST) domain I2CM. First, multi-scale and multi-directional decompositions of source images can be performed by NSST. The classic ICM is improved to be I2CM which is then exploited to capture and extract the characteristics of each of the sub-band images. Finally, the fused image is reconstructed from the fused sub-images by adopting the inverse NSST. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed image fusion scheme is very competitive compared with other conventional ones in both visual effect and objective evaluation criteria. View full abstract»

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  • Partwise bag-of-words-based multi-task learning for human action recognition

    Page(s): 803 - 805
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (66 KB)  

    Proposed is a human action recognition method by partwise bag-of-words (BoW)-based multi-task learning. The authors present partwise BoW representation and furthermore formulate the action recognition task as a joint multi-task learning problem by transfer learning penalised by a graph structure and sparsity to discover latent correlation and boost performances. A large-scale experiment shows that this method can significantly improve performance over the standard BoW + SVM method. Moreover, the proposed method can achieve competing performances against the state-of-the-art methods for human action recognition in an effective and easy to follow way. View full abstract»

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  • Sketch filter for feature extraction and rendering applications

    Page(s): 805 - 806
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (549 KB)  

    First a novel sketch filter based on the maximum filter is proposed. The proposed sketch filter implicitly calculates the complexity of local area, and results in an image which expresses edges and textures as an artist draws a sketch with a pencil. It is then proposed to apply the sketch filter for edge feature extraction, colour pencil drawing, and the animation filtered image. The proposed algorithms work automatically without any interaction and demonstrate impressive results for rendering applications, while requiring a much smaller amount of computations compared to existing schemes. View full abstract»

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  • SUSAN controlled decay parameter adaption for non-local means image denoising

    Page(s): 807 - 808
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB)  

    The non-local means (NLM) method explores self-similarities in images for noise removal. The traditional NLM (TNLM) method computes pixel similarity using the globally fixed decay parameter. However, a fixed decay parameter for the whole image makes it difficult to ensure that the TNLM method can restore both edge pixels and non-edge pixels effectively. To address this problem, the SUSAN controlled NLM (SNLM) method is proposed to adaptively tune the decay parameter for each image pixel based on the SUSAN edge response. Extensive simulations demonstrate that the SNLM method outperforms several state-of-the-art NLM methods in terms of noise reduction and detail preservation. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive partial-forward scheme for half-duplex relay system

    Page(s): 808 - 810
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (89 KB)  

    A partial-forward scheme for the half-duplex relay system is proposed, which transmits only a part of codewords by considering code and channel characteristics at the relay. Specifically, two partial cooperation schemes, decode-and-partial-forward and amplify-and-partial-forward schemes are considered and to overcome the shortcomings of these schemes an adaptive partial-forward scheme is proposed which can be flexibly applied according to the given environment. Also, the criteria on how to select a part of the codeword bits at the relay are derived. Furthermore, the optimisation of the time-division parameters to obtain the performance improvement is investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient encoding of QC-LDPC codes based on rotate-left-accumulator circuits

    Page(s): 810 - 812
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (371 KB)  

    For efficient hardware implementation of QC-LDPC encoders, four types of rotate-left-accumulator (RLA) circuits are proposed. Although the performance of a type I RLA circuit is exactly identical to the most widely used shift-register-adder-accumulator (SRAA) circuit, its reasonable structure can derive the other three counterparts. Both type II and III RLA circuits are highly area efficient, and have the same speed as the SRAA circuit. Compared with these serial-in circuits, the parallel-in type IV RLA circuit is faster at the cost of more memory, and suitable for applications where generator matrices have fewer block rows or special parity-check matrices are used to encode. View full abstract»

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  • Trellis-coded CIOD using conjugate symmetric rotated QAM signal set

    Page(s): 812 - 813
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (147 KB)  

    A trellis-coded coordinate-interleaved orthogonal design (TC-CIOD) for four transmit antennas with a rotated QAM base signal set is introduced. To design a high rate pre-encoder the base signal set is expanded by conjugating the rotated QAM signals without changing the transmit signal set at each transmit antenna. The proposed TC-CIOD provides coding gain without increasing peak-to-average-power ratio. View full abstract»

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  • Method for picosecond time interval measurements based on frequency-switching sinusoidal shape

    Page(s): 813 - 815
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB)  

    If the wave output by a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) has the property of having no phase jump also when its frequency is swiftly changed, the measures of the phase before and after a fast frequency change can be used for calculating the time at which such event has occurred. Based on this property, a precise time measurement instrument has been designed and built. A non-optimised version has better than 100ps resolution full width at half maximum, is VCO drift compensated and is able to time events against a stable clock running at 312.5MHz. The VCO frequency of the prototype jumps from 47 to 59MHz. The analogue hardware is fairly limited. Applications may range from particle timing to time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to range finding through time-of-flight methods. View full abstract»

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  • Capacitive approach to restore decoupling between channels for four-element MR coil array

    Page(s): 815 - 816
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (351 KB)  

    Multichannel coil arrays are increasingly being used to improve signal-to-noise ratio in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The decoupling between coils is an important parameter in array design. Indeed coupling between elements affects the resonance frequency of each single coil and decreases its sensitivity. Many solutions have been developed to achieve decoupling between elements of the multichannel coil array. Presented is a capacitive solution to restore channel decoupling of a specific four-channel receiver coil array using common conductors. The principle of an effective decoupling was first demonstrated by circuit simulations of |S|-parameters. A receive-only four-channel coil array was design for rat head MRI. Experimental |S|-parameter measurements validated the proposed capacitive approach by restoring decoupling between elements and particularly between external loops. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Electronics Letters is internationally renowned for its rapid communication of new developments and emerging topics across the broad and interdisciplinary field of modern electronics and electrical engineering.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editors-in-Chief

Professor Chris Toumazou
Director of the Biomedical Institute
Imperial College, London, UK

Professor Ian White
Head of Photonics Research
University of Cambridge, UK