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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control - cover

    Page(s): C1 - C2
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  • IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society - Administrative Committee

    Page(s): C3
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  • IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society - Elected Administrative Committee

    Page(s): C4
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): i - iii
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  • Information for contributors with multimedia addition

    Page(s): 1279 - 1282
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  • 2012 Rayleigh Award of the IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society Mathias Fink

    Page(s): 1283
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  • 2012 Achievement Award of the IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society Katherine W. Ferrara

    Page(s): 1284
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  • 2012 Distinguished Service Award of the IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society Susan Trolier-McKinstry

    Page(s): 1285
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  • 2011 Outstanding Paper Award of the IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society

    Page(s): 1286
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  • Microstructure and dielectric behavior of Bi2O3-doped KSr2Nb5O15 ceramics

    Page(s): 1287 - 1294
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1548 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Bi2O3-doped KSr2Nb5O15(KSNB) ceramics with relative density higher than 96% were successfully prepared by sintering at 1300°C. The addition of Bi2O3 will decrease the tetragonal degree of the materials, improve the densification, and promote the grain growth of KSNB ceramics. Relaxation behavior can be observed in KSNB ceramics, which is attributed to the complex response of the polar nanoregions and matrices resulting from substitution of Bi3+ for Sr2+ and K+. Bi2O3-doped KSr2Nb5O15 ceramics show good temperature-dependence performance and high dielectric tunability. KSNB ceramics with 4.0 wt% added Bi2O3 show the maximum tunability, and capacitance changes with temperature meet the requirement of the X7R standard, which makes these ceramics promising candidate materials for multilayer capacitors and tunable phase shifters. View full abstract»

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  • Novel method of measuring valvular regurgitation using three-dimensional nonlinear curve fitting of doppler signals within the flow convergence zone

    Page(s): 1295 - 1311
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3119 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is among the most prevalent and significant valve problems in the Western world. Echocardiography plays a significant role in the diagnosis of degenerative valve disease. However, a simple and accurate means of quantifying MR has eluded both the technical and clinical ultrasound communities. Perhaps the best clinically accepted method used today is the 2-D proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method. In this study, a new quantification method using 3-D color Doppler ultrasound, called the field optimization method (FOM), is described. For each 3-D color flow volume, this method iterates on a simple fluid dynamics model that, when processed by a model of ultrasound physics, attempts to agree with the observed velocities in a least-squares sense. The output of this model is an estimate of the regurgitant flow and the location of its associated orifice. To validate the new method, in vitro experiments were performed using a pulsatile flow loop and different geometric orifices. Measurements from the FOM and from 2-D PISA were compared with measurements made with a calibrated ultrasonic flow probe. Results show that the new method has a higher correlation to the truth data and has lower inter- and intra-observer variability than the 2-D PISA method. View full abstract»

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  • Gapped sampled spectrum doppler estimation

    Page(s): 1312 - 1323
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1148 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Duplex and triplex transmit patterns that involve gaps in the spectrum Doppler samples allow pulse repetition frequency increases and/or frame rate increases that cannot be flexibly achieved by conventional uniformly sampled transmit schemes. We make two claims in this paper. First, previously reported nonparametric gapped sampled spectrum estimators are technically feasible for handling the duplex and triplex transmit patterns found in common medical ultrasound applications. Second, such estimators that coherently average within an axial/temporal 2-D window have superior SNR compared with their incoherent counterparts. Moreover, this fact extends to previously reported fully sampled incoherent estimators, which can be improved by using their coherent version. We verify the methods by steady-state flow phantom experiments and in vivo examples of the left clavicular artery and the ascending aorta. For the flow phantom experiments, we use the three quantitative metrics of SNR, root mean square error, and zero frequency peak full-width at half-maximum to evaluate robustness and resolution. Results indicate that through proper parameters, periodically gapped estimators can produce results similar to their fully sampled counterparts. Fourier synthesis of the spectral estimates produces the fully sampled time-domain audio signal, and we give stereo audio examples for the clavicular artery. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental verification of pulse-probing technique for improving phase coherence grating lobe suppression

    Page(s): 1324 - 1332
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (922 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fabrication of high-frequency phased-array ultrasound transducers is challenging because of the small element- to-element pitch required to avoid large grating lobes appearing in the field-of-view. Phase coherence imaging (PCI) was recently proposed as a highly effective technique to suppress grating lobes in large-pitch arrays for synthetic aperture beamforming. Our previous work proposed and theoretically validated a technique called pulse probing for improving grating lobe suppression when transmit beamforming is used with PCI. The present work reports the experimental verification of the proposed technique, in which the data was collected using a high-frequency ultrasound system and the processing was done offline. The data was collected with a 50-MHz, 256-element, 1.26λ-pitch linear array, for which only the central 64-elements were used as the full aperture while the beam was steered to various angles. By sending a defocused pulse, the PCI weighting factors could be calculated, and were subsequently applied to the conventional transmit-receive beamforming. The experimental two-way radiation patterns showed that the grating lobe level was suppressed approximately 40 dB using the proposed technique, consistent with the theory. The suppression of overlapping grating lobes in reconstructed phased array images from multiple wire-phantoms in a water bath and tissue phantoms further validated the effectiveness of the proposed technique. The application of pulse probing along with PCI should simplify the fabrication of large-pitch phased arrays at high frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-resolution transverse oscillation in ultrasound imaging for motion estimation

    Page(s): 1333 - 1342
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2227 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Beyond all recent methods for estimating multidimensional motion vectors in ultrasound (US) image sequences, the transverse oscillation (TO) images coupled with a phase-based motion estimator has shown to be an extremely promising approach. To improve existing TO techniques, this paper proposes a multi-resolution transverse oscillation (MRTO) that measures the motion in US image sequences at different resolutions. Several TO images are created using harmonic images obtained from nonlinear US propagation or from composite emissions. Motion estimations are made with increasing resolution levels, i.e., decreasing transverse wavelength, to improve the previous measurements. When only lateral motion is applied to the tissue, the resulting estimations, quantitatively assessed in both simulations and in vitro experiments, are significantly improved in terms of mean motion error and standard deviation. With a 1-mm displacement in the chirp transmission, the error is reduced from 40.9% to 0.1% in the simulation and from 41.6% to 1.5% in the experiment. The first quasi-static elastography results, in simulation and experimentation, also confirm this improvement with an increased contrast-to-noise ratio and signal-to-noise ratio. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrasound imparted air-recoil resonance ((UIAR) method for acoustic power estimation: theory and experiment

    Page(s): 1343 - 1355
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1095 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ultrasound imparted air-recoil resonance (UIAR), a new method for acoustic power estimation, is introduced with emphasis on therapeutic high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) monitoring applications. Advantages of this approach over existing practices include fast response; electrical and magnetic inertness, and hence MRI compatibility; portability; high damage threshold and immunity to vibration and interference; low cost; etc. The angle of incidence should be fixed for accurate measurement. However, the transducer-detector pair can be aligned in any direction with respect to the force of gravity. In this sense, the operation of the device is orientation independent. The acoustic response of a pneumatically coupled pair of Helmholtz resonators, with one of them acting as the sensor head, is used for the estimation of acoustic power. The principle is valid in the case of pulsed/ burst as well as continuous ultrasound exposure, the former being more sensitive and accurate. An electro-acoustic theory has been developed for describing the dynamics of pressure flow and resonance in the system considering various thermo- viscous loss mechanisms. Experimental observations are found to be in agreement with theoretical results. Assuming the window damage threshold (~10 J·mm-2) and accuracy of RF power estimation are the upper and lower scale-limiting factors, the performance of the device was examined for an RF power range of 5 mW to 100 W with a HIFU transducer operating at 1.70 MHz, and an average nonlinearity of ~1.5% was observed. The device is also sensitive to sub-milliwatt powers. The frequency response was analyzed at 0.85, 1.70, 2.55, and 3.40 MHz and the results are presented with respective theoretical estimates. Typical response time is in the millisecond regime. Output drift is about 3% for resonant and 5% for nonresonant modes. The principle has been optimized to demonstrate a general-purpose acoustic power meter. View full abstract»

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  • Packaging and modular assembly of large-area and fine-pitch 2-D ultrasonic transducer arrays

    Page(s): 1356 - 1375
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A promising transducer architecture for largearea arrays employs 2-D capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) devices with backside trench-frame pillar interconnects. Reconfigurable array (RA) application-specified integrated circuits (ASICs) can provide efficient interfacing between these high-element-count transducer arrays and standard ultrasound systems. Standard electronic assembly techniques such as flip-chip and ball grid array (BGA) attachment, along with organic laminate substrate carriers, can be leveraged to create large-area arrays composed of tiled modules of CMUT chips and interface ASICs. A large-scale, fully populated and integrated 2-D CMUT array with 32 by 192 elements was developed and demonstrates the feasibility of these techniques to yield future large-area arrays. This study demonstrates a flexible and reliable integration approach by successfully combining a simple under-bump metallization (UBM) process and a stacked CMUT/interposer/ASIC module architecture. The results show high shear strength of the UBM (26.5 g for 70-μm balls), high interconnect yield, and excellent CMUT resonance uniformity (s = 0.02 MHz). A multi-row linear array was constructed using the new CMUT/interposer/ASIC process using acoustically active trench-frame CMUT devices and mechanical/ nonfunctional Si backside ASICs. Imaging results with the completed probe assembly demonstrate a functioning device based on the modular assembly architecture. View full abstract»

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  • Transducer design and characterization for dorsal-based ultrasound exposure and two-photon imaging of in vivo blood-brain barrier disruption in a rat model

    Page(s): 1376 - 1385
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2249 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles have been used effectively for transient, noninvasive blood¿ brain barrier disruption (BBBD). The use of two-photon microscopy (2PM) imaging of BBBD can provide valuable insights into the associated cellular mechanisms and fundamental biological effects. Coupling a thin ring-shaped transducer to a coverslip offers a robust solution for simultaneous dorsal application of FUS for BBBD and in vivo 2PM imaging of the cerebral microvasculature under treatment conditions. Two modes of vibration (thickness and height) from the transducer configuration were investigated for BBBD in an animal model. With the transducer operating in the thickness mode at 1.2 MHz frequency, shallow and localized BBBD near the cortical surface of animal brain was detected via 2PM and confirmed by Evans blue (EB) extravasation. Acoustic pressures ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 MPa were tested and the probability for successful BBBD was identified. Two distinct types of disruption characterized by different leakage kinetics were observed and appeared to be dependent on acoustic pressure. View full abstract»

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  • Techniques and evaluation from a cross-platform imaging comparison of quantitative ultrasound parameters in an in vivo rodent fibroadenoma model

    Page(s): 1386 - 1400
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2091 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This contribution demonstrates that quantitative ultrasound (QUS) capabilities are platform independent, using an in vivo model. Frequency-dependent attenuation estimates, backscatter coefficient, and effective scatterer diameter estimates are shown to be comparable across four different ultrasound imaging systems with varied processing techniques. The backscatter coefficient (BSC) is a fundamental material property from which several QUS parameters are estimated; therefore, consistent BSC estimates among different systems must be demonstrated. This study is an intercomparison of BSC estimates acquired by three research groups (UIUC, UW, ISU) from four in vivo spontaneous rat mammary fibroadenomas using three clinical array systems and a single-element laboratory scanner system. Because of their highly variable backscatter properties, fibroadenomas provided an extreme test case for BSC analysis, and the comparison is across systems for each tumor, not across the highly heterogeneous tumors. RF echo data spanning the 1 to 12 MHz frequency range were acquired in three dimensions from all animals using each system. Each research group processed their RF data independently, and the resulting attenuation, BSC, and effective scatterer diameter (ESD) estimates were compared. The attenuation estimates across all systems showed the same trends and consistently fit the power-law dependence on frequency. BSCs varied among the multiple slices of data acquired by each transducer, with variations between transducers being of a similar magnitude as those from slice to slice. Variation between BSC estimates was assessed via functional signal-to-noise ratios derived from backscatter data. These functional signal-to-noise ratios indicated that BSC versus frequency variations between systems ranged from negligible compared with the noise level to roughly twice the noise level. The corresponding functional analysis of variance (fANOVA) indicated statistically significant differences b- tween BSC curves from different systems. However, root mean squared difference errors of the BSC values (in decibels) between different transducers and imaging platforms were less than half of the BSC magnitudes in most cases. Statistical comparison of the effective scatterer diameter (ESD) estimates resulted in no significant differences in estimates from three of the four transducers used for those estimates, demonstrating agreement among estimates based on the BSC. This technical advance demonstrates that these in vivo measurements can be made in a system-independent manner; the necessary step toward clinical implementation of the technology. View full abstract»

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  • Precision control of lesions by high-intensity focused ultrasound cavitation-based histotripsy through varying pulse duration

    Page(s): 1401 - 1411
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (858 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The goal of this experimental study was to explore the feasibility of acquiring controllable precision through varying pulse duration for lesions generated by cavitation-based histotripsy. Histotripsy uses high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) at low duty factor to create energetic bubble clouds inside tissue to liquefy a region. It uses cavitation-mediated mechanical effects while minimizing heating, and has the advantages of real-time monitoring and lesion fidelity to treatment planning. In our study, histotripsy was applied to three groups of tissue-mimicking agar samples of different stiffnesses (29.4 ± 5.3, 44.8 ± 5.9, and 66.4 ± 7.1 kPa). B-mode imaging was used first to quantify bubble cluster dimensions in both water and agar. Then, a 4.5-mm-wide square (lateral to the focal plane) was scanned in a raster pattern with a step size of 0.75 mm in agar histotripsy experiments to estimate equivalent bubble cluster dimensions based on the histotripsyinduced damage. The 15-s exposure at each treatment location comprised 5000 sine-wave tone bursts at a spatial-peak pulseaverage intensity of 41.1 kW/cm2, with peak compressional and rarefactional pressures of 102 and 17 MPa, respectively. The results showed that bubble cluster width and length increased with pulse duration and decreased with agar stiffness. Therefore, a significant improvement in histotripsy precision could be achieved by reducing the pulse duration. View full abstract»

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  • Improving image-quality of interference fringes of out-of-plane vibration using temporal speckle pattern interferometry and standard deviation for piezoelectric plates

    Page(s): 1412 - 1423
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2058 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Interferometry provides a high degree of accuracy in the measurement of sub-micrometer deformations; however, the noise associated with experimental measurement undermines the integrity of interference fringes. This study proposes the use of standard deviation in the temporal domain to improve the image quality of patterns obtained from temporal speckle pattern interferometry. The proposed method combines the advantages of both mean and subtractive methods to remove background noise and ambient disturbance simultaneously, resulting in high-resolution images of excellent quality. The out-of-plane vibration of a thin piezoelectric plate is the main focus of this study, providing information useful to the development of energy harvesters. First, ten resonant states were measured using the proposed method, and both mode shape and resonant frequency were investigated. We then rebuilt the phase distribution of the first resonant mode based on the clear interference patterns obtained using the proposed method. This revealed instantaneous deformations in the dynamic characteristics of the resonant state. The proposed method also provides a frequency-sweeping function, facilitating its practical application in the precise measurement of resonant frequency. In addition, the mode shapes and resonant frequencies obtained using the proposed method were recorded and compared with results obtained using finite element method and laser Doppler vibrometery, which demonstrated close agreement. View full abstract»

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  • Estimating material properties of solid and hollow fibers in suspension using ultrasonic attenuation

    Page(s): 1424 - 1434
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1058 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Estimates of the material properties of hollow fibers suspended in a fluid using ultrasound measurements and a simple, computationally efficient analytical model are made. The industrial application is to evaluate the properties of wood fibers in paper pulp. The necessity of using a layered cylindrical model (LCM) as opposed to a solid cylindrical model (SCM) for modeling ultrasound attenuation in a suspension of hollow fibers is evaluated. The two models are described and used to solve the inverse problem of estimating material properties from attenuation in suspensions of solid and hollow polyester fibers. The results show that the measured attenuation of hollow fibers differs from that of solid fibers. Elastic properties estimates using LCM with hollow-fiber suspension measurements are similar to those using SCM with solid-fiber suspension measurements and compare well to block polyester values for elastic moduli. However, using the SCM with the hollow-fiber suspension did not produce realistic estimations. In conclusion, the LCM gives reasonable estimations of hollow fiber properties and the SCM is not sufficiently complex to model hollow fibers. The results also indicate that the use of a distributed radius in the model is important in estimating material properties from fiber suspensions. View full abstract»

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  • An ultrasonic array technique for material characterization of plate samples

    Page(s): 1435 - 1445
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (932 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An ultrasonic system with a linear array for characterization of a layered specimen placed in immersion liquid parallel to the aperture of the array is considered. To estimate the longitudinal and transverse wave velocities as well as the thickness and density of the specimen, it is proposed to decompose the spatio-temporal data recorded by the array in a spectrum of plane pulse waves. Based on fitting the developed wave model of the system to the experimental data, it is shown that the relative delays and amplitudes of the spectral responses can be used for the estimation of the velocities and thickness of the layer and its density. The distortions of the plane wave spectrum caused by the spatial discretization of the array data are considered. It is proposed to suppress these distortions using individual interpolating processing of the received pulses separated in the spatio-temporal domain. The developed technique is experimentally verified on a fused quartz plate evaluated with a 17-MHz linear array. The relative reproducibility of the estimation is found to be 0.11% in the longitudinal wave velocity and thickness of the plate, and 0.5% and 5% in the transverse wave velocity and the density, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor using a 5-mm-diameter piezoelectric ceramic tube

    Page(s): 1446 - 1452
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2033 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A small three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor has been developed using a simple piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-tube stator (OD 5 mm, ID 3 mm, length 15 mm). The stator drives a ball-rotor into rotational motion around one of three orthogonal (x-, y-, and z-) axes by combing the first longitudinal and second bending vibration modes. A motor prototype was fabricated and characterized; its performance was superior to those of previous motors made with a PZT ceramic/metal composite stator of comparable size. The method for further improving the performance was discussed. The motor can be further miniaturized and it has potential to be applied to medical microrobots, endoscopes or micro laparoscopic devices, and cell manipulation devices. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal cuts to extract the third-order piezoelectric constants and electrostictive constants of langasite single crystals through the electroelastic effect

    Page(s): 1453 - 1466
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optimal cuts to determine the third-order piezoelectric constants and electrostrictive constants of langasite single crystals by the resonator method are proposed. By selecting several langasite resonators with optimal cut angles and measuring their electroelastic effects, third-order piezoelectric constants and electrostrictive constants of langasite single crystals may be extracted. The numerical method to search these optimal cut angles is presented. The methodology has been validated by finite element analysis. This method will simplify traditional methods used to determine the third-order piezoelectric and electrostrictive constants for langasite single crystals and could potentially produce more accurate results. The method could also be used to determine the third-order piezoelectric and electrostrictive constants for other crystals with trigonal 32 symmetry. View full abstract»

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  • Double negative elastic metamaterial design through electrical-mechanical circuit analogies

    Page(s): 1467 - 1474
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Previous studies into solid elastic metamaterials which have a simultaneously negative effective bulk modulus and density have proposed designs for materials with relatively narrow bandwidths, because of the reliance on resonators to provide the dispersive material properties. Some of the proposed novel applications for metamaterials, such as invisibility cloaks and sub-wavelength lenses, generally require materials with inherently larger bandwidths for practical exploitation. In this paper, a well-known electromagnetic metamaterial design is used together with the electrical-mechanical circuit analogies to propose a simultaneously double negative elastic metamaterial design which does not suffer from the narrow bandwidth constraints of previous designs. An interesting consequence of the proposed design is that it has an effective wavelength which asymptotically goes to infinity with frequency. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control focuses on the theory, design, and application on generation, transmission, and detection of bulk and surface mechanical waves.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven Freear
s.freear@leeds.ac.uk