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A.I.E.E., Journal of the

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 1930

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 65
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Some activities and services open to members

    Page(s): 712
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Annual reports of technical committees

    Page(s): 713 - 718
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Electrical transportation

    Page(s): 718 - 720
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    In accordance with instructions, your Committee submits a brief review of the recent developments of importance in the application of electricity to transportation. View full abstract»

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  • Electrophysics

    Page(s): 721 - 729
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    Progress in the application of results in the domain of physics has been so rapid of late that there is a temptation to make the general statement that the pure physics of one quarter century becomes the engineering of the next. This, of course, would not be true in all domains of physics, but it is more or less valid in those with which the electrical engineer is most closely connected. The mounting number of uses for devices and phenomena discovered some years ago, for example the vacuum tube, photo-electricity, and the piezoelectric vibrations of crystals, is an apt illustration of the transfer from abstract interest to practical utility. It is, then, quite to the point for the electrical engineer, in forecasting and preparing for the developments of the future, to look to the electrophysics of the present day. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical machinery

    Page(s): 730 - 743
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    The Committee on Electrical Machinery takes pleasure in submitting the following report on its work during the past year. The report is divided into two sections, the first dealing with organization and policies, and the second with the progress of the art. View full abstract»

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  • Applications to mining work

    Page(s): 743 - 744
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    In the report made one year ago mention was made of the prediction that both coal and metal mining are entering a new era of development. This has begun and indications point to a continuance of development particularly as to mechanization. We now have references made to some modern mines as being 100 per cent mechanized. Future developments will no doubt modify the scheme of application of mechanical operation in many details. Statistics indicate that an increasing percentage of coal is undercut, drilled, and loaded mechanically. This means that added generating capacity and conductors for distribution will be required. Also, inasmuch as power purchased from the utilities is increasing in use at the mines, the mechanization adds to the utility load. View full abstract»

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  • Production and application of light

    Page(s): 744 - 747
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    Statistics on Incandescent Lamp Sales.1 The sale of large tungsten filament lamps (as distinguished from the miniature types) totaled 344,000,000 during 1929, an increase of 8.7 per cent over the previous year's sales. The fact that the production of large tungsten filament lamps alone is running well over a million lamps per working day will give some impression of the extent to which our modern life has become dependent upon this source of artificial illumination. View full abstract»

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  • Instruments and measurements: Measurement of core losses in terms of sine-wave core losses

    Page(s): 747 - 750
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    Last year, the Committee outlined three suitable methods for correcting results of core loss measurement to a sine-wave basis when made with a distorted wave of applied voltage, and for such correction recommended preference for methods utilizing average voltage. (See Annual Report, Committee on Instruments and Measurements, A. I. E. E. TRANS., Vol. 48, Oct. 1929, p. 1386). View full abstract»

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  • Applications to iron and steel production

    Page(s): 750 - 751
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    The unprecedented activity in the iron and steel industry, which resulted in record production of steel during 1929, is also indicated by the number of rolling mill electric drives purchased and installed. View full abstract»

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  • Short-wave high-power radio tube

    Page(s): 751
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    Vacuum tubes have been subjects of research for years. Approximately three years ago scientists in General Electric Research Laboratories succeeded in constructing a radio tube having a wavelength of six meters and a frequency of 50,000,000 cycles per second, capable of radiating 10 to 15 kilowatts of energy. This is fifty times as much power as any short-wave tube previously had been able to produce. View full abstract»

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  • Abridgment of transmission research and design with the field as a laboratory

    Page(s): 752 - 756
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    Overhead transmission lines are usually considered to be a class of equipment subject to certain types of troubles which cannot be avoided by means accepted in ordinary practise. It is the purpose of this paper (1) to describe improvements in design of wood pole lines of the 33,000-volt class, which improvements have been developed and applied to the system with which the authors have been identified and which it is believed will greatly reduce the characteristic troubles; (2) to present an explanation of flashovers on wood structures; (3) to give the facts found in field investigations which form the basis for the improvements adopted; (4) to describe the method used for field investigations and analysis of troubles. The studies and investigations referred to deal primarily with the matter of insulation. Considerable information, relative to the insulation values of wood in a structure, as developed by laboratory tests has been published. Experience is cited to show the value of wood insulation in the structure developed from field experience on 33,000-volt lines, and there is presented a practical economical design of wood pole structures using wood braces in place of the usual metal braces which seem practically immune to lightning troubles. Data from laboratory tests are given to substantiate conclusions developed in the field investigations. The performance of insulators with respect to mechanical and electrical breakage is shown, and the use of insulators of more sturdy design is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Abridgment of effects of the magnetic field on Lichtenberg figures

    Page(s): 757 - 759
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    This paper deals with new forms of Lichtenberg figures produced under the combined stress of dielectric and magnetic fields. The effects produced by the magnetic field may be used for determining whether electrons, positive ions, or protons, are basically the active elements in the formation of the positive as well as the negative figures. The illustrations also show that the presence of the magnetic field greatly extends the range of air pressures within which figures of definite form can be obtained, that figures taken at low air pressures possess structures strikingly different from those hitherto known, and that these figures may prove a key to the mechanism of the electric spark. View full abstract»

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  • Abridgment of study of the effect of short lengths of cable on traveling waves

    Page(s): 760 - 763
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    Cathode ray oscillographic tests were made of traveling waves passing from an overhead line into short lengths of cable. Single-phase cable lengths of 500 and 1000 ft. were used. Tests were made with a wide variety of conditions, such as cable at end of line, cable between two sections of line, etc. The tests demonstrated that a short length of cable does not act as an effective protective device when connected between station and incoming line. When the incoming wave on the incoming line has a long flat top, several times the cable, length, the crest of the wave passing the cable is decreased only a few per cent by the presence of the cable, although the wave front is sloped off if it was originally very steep. When the wavelength is approximately the same as the cable length, the cable can reduce the transient voltage to less than half of the value without the cable. Recent measurements on transmission lines show that waves do occur with approximately flat tops which are several thousand feet in length. Therefore the cables do not permit the omission of lightning arresters which are means of reducing the potential of overvoltage surges. This confirms the theoretical calculations and the practise of using lightning arresters with cables. The resistance of the ground connection of the cable sheath was found to have important effects. With the cable sheath at the end grounded through 28 ohms, a potential of 82 kv. was measured at the sheath and 105 kv. at the cable conductor. The protective action of lightning arresters was demonstrated by using a gap and various values of series resistance. The velocity of propagation in the cable was found to be about 61 per cent of the velocity of light. The surge impedance of the cable was determined by several methods. Calculations based on the measured propagation velocity and measured capacitance gave a value of about 50 ohms. Some of the other methods gave values of about 100 ohms. View full abstract»

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  • Abridgment of a study of telephone line insulators

    Page(s): 763 - 766
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    This paper discusses the major factors contributing to the total leakage conductance of telephone line insulators, especially at carrier frequencies up to 50,000 cycles. The electrical performance of three different designs is analyzed to illustrate in a general way the relative importance of the several factors. View full abstract»

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  • Abridgment of the problem of service security in large transmission systems

    Page(s): 767 - 770
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    With the rapid growth of transmission and distribution systems and the tendency to interconnect large systems, the problem of service security during abnormal conditions becomes of greatest importance. Service security is generally considered to be entirely a question of relay protection. This is an erroneous idea, as this paper will show that system layout and other factors are of equal importance, and that only the complete and simultaneous fulfillment of all component factors will bring the desired results. The ultimate goal of the problem is the creation of a transmission system which is free from service interruptions. Upon first thought, this would appear attainable either by preventive measures or by protective measures. This paper will explain briefly the impracticability of the preventive method, and will discuss the possibilities of the protective method in an endeavor to show that it is the only one promising a complete solution of the problem. The protective method depends on the creation of a strong system in which troubles are accepted but made harmless by protective means. The paper indicates also in a general way how such a perfect system can be created at no greater cost than present practise necessitates. The operating results reported in the paper are all from improved existing systems, showing that here substantial improvements can be made. View full abstract»

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  • Abridgment of lightning investigation on 220-kv. system of the Pennsylvania power & light company (1928 and 1929)

    Page(s): 771 - 775
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    The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a lightning investigation conducted during 1928 and 1929 on 114 circuit miles of a 220-kv. system located in a territory where severe lightning storms are frequent. During the 1929 investigation, which was a continuation and expansion of previous years' work, a number of devices was successfully used, such as surge voltage recorders, cathode ray oscillographs, electric field intensity recorders, and lightning stroke recorders. Some of these devices are new. Many valuable data on magnitude and wave shape of actual lightning surges were obtained, proof of the existence of both single-and multiple-phase faults due to lightning; some data on the shielding effect of overhead ground wires, and qualitative data on the nature and lime of discharge of lightning strokes together with the atmospheric gradients resulting therefrom, were also obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Abridgment of a general switching plan for telephone toll service

    Page(s): 775 - 779
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    This paper outlines a comprehensive plan for improved switching of long haul toll telephone traffic in the United States and eastern Canada. A brief discussion is given of the methods of designing the toll plant to give adequate transmission efficiency for all connections established in accordance with this plan. This includes a new method of providing amplification at intermediate switching points replacing the cord circuit repeater method. View full abstract»

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  • Abridgment of critique of ground wire theory

    Page(s): 780 - 784
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    The complete paper consists of three parts; I — Induced Potentials, II — Direct Hits, and III — Other Effects. The work of previous investigators is briefly reviewed, and the limitations of their premises pointed out. Under Part I, a generalized theory of ideal ground wires is offered, taking into account the law of cloud discharge, the distribution of bound charge, and the formation of traveling waves. It is found that the protective ratio is independent of these factors. A more extensive theory taking the additional factors of successive reflections and tower resistance into account is then developed. Part II discusses the probability of a line's being hit, and applies a method for computing the effect of successive reflections to the calculation of potentials on the line and ground wires. Curves of these potentials at successive towers and as functions of tower resistances and of time, are given. Part III discusses the effect of ground wires on attenuation, telephone interference, zero-phase sequence reactance, corona, and the reduction in surge impedance due to the introduction of extra ground wires. There are three mathematical appendixes. In Appendix I, Maxwell's electrostatic and electromagnetic coefficients are reviewed and the theory of traveling waves on any number of parallel wires, including the behavior of these waves at rather general transition points developed. While this extension to the theory of traveling waves was developed incidental to the study of ground wire theory, it is believed to be of considerable interest and value on its own account. Appendixes II and III are the mathematical analyses corresponding to Parts I and II, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Abridgment of effects of lightning voltages on rotating machines and methods of protecting against them

    Page(s): 784 - 787
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    Rotating machines directly connected to overhead lines are subject to damage from lightning surges. Many methods of protection against such damage are possible and several of them are discussed in this paper. Laboratory experiments have been made to show the normal distribution under various steepnesses of waves, and the improvement of unsatisfactory distributions by means of condensers or lightning arresters connected to various parts of the windings has been studied. View full abstract»

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  • The Pennsylvania railroad electrification

    Page(s): 787 - 791
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    This paper covers the electrification program of the Pennsylvania Railroad as recently announced and consists of a brief explanation of the reasons for the decision to embark on this electrification program, a review of the operating experiences leading up to the present designs used on the railroad, of catenary and transmission circuits, substation layout and types of equipment, as well as a description of the progressive steps of electric locomotive design which preceded the development of the electric locomotives to be used in this program, and concludes with a brief resume of the points that should be given attention in applying an electrification to a stretch of railroad. View full abstract»

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  • Abridgment a survey of room noise in telephone locations

    Page(s): 791 - 795
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    This paper describes a survey made to determine the range of magnitudes of room noise present in telephone locations. Measurements were made in a total of 260 locations in New York City and environs, distributed among businesses and residences in accordance with telephone traffic distribution. In each location, measurements were made by a marginal audibility method using the human ear as a part of the measuring device, and by a visual indicating meter. A brief description of the apparatus employed with each of these methods is included. Results presented for and measurements made in various classes of rooms, under winter and summer conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Abridgment of development of the porcelain insulator

    Page(s): 796 - 799
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    Porcelain insulators have been manufactured and used for the transmission of high-voltage electric power for forty years. The first designs were of the single piece and multipart cemented pin type. Necessity of higher safety factors against flashover and increase in operating voltages demanded a rapid increase in the size of the insulators. This reached an economic limit at the operating voltage of 66 kv. The suspension unit overcame this temporary check of increased operating voltage. Further study of the electrostatic capacitance of the various parts and consequent voltage distribution, made marked refinements in the pin type insulator possible. During this time the single piece porcelain suspension unit took practically its present form. Early improvements were the provision of proper expansion joints and the separation of the lip of the cap from the porcelain hood. Gradual improvements have since been made resulting in a great increase in mechanical strength. These changes have been principally of hardware design. By experiment and analysis the shapes of the cap and pin have been determined to give a uniform distribution of load from the pin to the cap. Constant check tests by the quick pull and time loading methods have shown, that the suspension insulator with properly designed hardware and a suitable coating on the cap to prevent the cement from adhering to the metal, to have a high strength associated with electrical reliability. Ceramic research and exact manufacturing control has made possible the production of non-absorbent, thoroughly vitrified porcelain of consistent strength. This has centered largely about the proper firing of the clay. Recent experiments upon the properties of the combination of porcelain and glaze has eliminated surface stress and consequently assured stronger, longer lived porcelain. Still greater uniformity has been gained by glazing the sanded surfaces. The elimination of the abutting joint and the proper design of the cemented - oint has stopped expansion troubles. Proper use of Portland cement has resulted in insulators able to withstand drastic temperature changes without harm. A recent improvement in the pin type insulator is the metal threaded pin hole. This has lessened manufacturing and construction difficulties and in addition due to the exact fit of the insulator on the pin, overcomes hidden corona and the consequent radio interference. View full abstract»

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  • The Pacific Coast convention September 2–5

    Page(s): 800
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Louisville meeting November 19–22

    Page(s): 800
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The Journal of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) contains articles published between 1924 and 1930. Contents are devoted to the advancement of theory and practice of electrical engineering and the allied arts and sciences.

This Journal ceased publication in 1930. The current retitled publication is IEEE Spectrum.

Full Aims & Scope