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A.I.E.E., Journal of the

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 1925

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 56
  • Cooperation between scientists and engineers

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1169 - 1170
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    American scientists and engineers feel and have for a long time felt the need of closer contacts and cooperation. The American Association for the Advancement of Science was intended from its very beginning to establish these contacts. It is one of the oldest scientific associations in this country; considerably older than any one of our engineering societies. During its early history it was the only scientific association in which scientists and engineers met and discussed the problems of pure and applied science. Since the organization of the engineering societies engineers began to devote a more and more exclusive attention to these specialized organizations and less to the national society which is devoted to the general interests of science. In order to counteract this perfectly natural tendency, an engineering section was established in the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Through the members of this section the voice of the engineers was heard and attentively listened to at the annual meetings of the Association. These annual meetings offer a splendid opportunity to the scientists and the engineers to address themselves to the American nation on subjects of science and engineering which are of immediate interest to our nation. Our nation recognizes that the American Association is a truly national organization; that explains why among its membership there are many who are not professional scientists or engineers. Their membership is due to their general interest in American science. In this respect the American Association for the Advancement of Science resembles very much the British Association for the Advancement of Science. There is, however, one significant difference between them. The British Association, it is believed, receives a more enthusiastic support from the British engineers than the American Association receives from the American engineers. This belief is encouraged by the fact that the British scientific weekly, Nature, i- more widely read among British engineers than the American scientific weekly, Science, is read among American engineers. These two scientific periodicals are devoted to the general interests of science in a similar manner as the two national associations, the American and the British Association, are devoted to them. From that point of view we may say that the two periodicals are the mouthpieces of these two Associations. The fact that Nature is superior to Science is generally admitted. Let us also admit for the sake of argument that the average quality of the scientific men who contribute to Nature is superior to the average quality of the scientific men who contribute to Science. This admission will not entirely explain the superiority of Nature to Science. There must be another cause for this superiority. Those who have studied this subject carefully are inclined to think that the interest of the American engineer in Science is not as lively as that of British engineer is in Nature. Hence Nature has a much larger number of subscribers than Science has, and, other things being equal, the periodical with the larger number of subscribers will be superior to that having the smaller number of subscribers. View full abstract»

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  • Sleet and ice troubles on transmission lines in New England

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1171 - 1176
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    This paper deals with the troubles one of the large power companies in New England has encountered from sleet and ice on transmission lines. The experience of this company should bring home to the transmission line designer the fact that in certain parts of the country sleet is a very serious problem and should be taken into account in designing all new transmission lines. It also shows the necessity for looking over the existing transmission systems with a view to providing some quick and easy method of thawing sleet from the lines already constructed. View full abstract»

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  • Discussion: Sleet and ice on transmission lines

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1176 - 1177
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    (Swampscott, Mass., May 7, 1925) L. W. W. Morrow: The Pennsylvania Power & Light System, as well as other companies in central Pennsylvania, have encountered this sleet problem for several years, and have introduced a method of combating sleet which I think will prove of interest. It is somewhat along the same lines as the method used by the New England Power Company. View full abstract»

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  • Planes survey power sites with cameras

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1177
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    Just as airplanes equipped with special cameras were used during the World War to learn of conditions along front line trenches and in No Man's Land, they are now being employed in preliminary surveys of areas where hydroelectric developments are under consideration. View full abstract»

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  • Latest design and practise in power plants

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1178 - 1188
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    PROGRESS in the art of steam station design and operation has been so rapid as to rather bewilder even the men who are giving their whole time and thought to this work. We have grown quite accustomed to seeing our dreams become actualities almost over night. The past year has witnessed the actual generation of power in an 80,000-kw. generating station at a coal rate of kw-hr. 20 per cent lower than any previous performance on a commercial scale. May we with confidence look forward to further gains of the same magnitude? May we expect that each new station built will establish a new record for operating performance? Why does each new steam generating station differ so radically from those already built? If we are to answer these questions, we must evaluate the present day tendencies, look backward a bit to see how far we have come, and attempt to look forward. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission of pictures now on commercial basis

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1188
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    The adding of telephotographic service to commercial communication facilities has recently been announced by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Picture transmitting and receiving apparatus has been permanently installed at New York, Chicago and San Francisco where public offices have been opened to accept material for such transmission. View full abstract»

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  • The 60-cycle distribution system of the Commonwealth Edison company

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1189 - 1195
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    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Commonwealth Edison Company's 60-cycle distribution system. Energy for this system is generated in five stations and transmitted at 12,000 volts, three-phase, to manually-operated and remote-control substations, the operation of the remote-control substations being under the control of the manually-operated substations by means of control wire and selector switch operation. The larger customers are supplied by means of industrial substations located upon their premises and fed from 12,000-volt, three-phase, underground loop circuits; the general load is supplied by means of 2300/4000-volt, three-phase, four-wire radial circuits from the various manually-operated and remote-control substations. The generator capacity was 420,000 kv-a. and the maximum load 379,000 kv-a., as of January 1,1925, for the 60-cycle portion of the system, exclusive of load carried upon the 25-cycle and d-c. portions of the plant. Reliability of service is provided by relay-controlled oil switches, current-limiting reactors, duplicate supply lines, and lie points for interconnection of different parts of the system. The rapid growth of load density in some sections of Chicago will soon necessitate modification of the present distribution system by either an increase of distribution voltage or an increase of circuit capacity. The advantages and disadvantages of the two proposed new systems are now under consideration. View full abstract»

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  • Mercury contact flasher for electric warning signals

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1195
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    A new type of mercury contact flasher, designed for lighting devices for warning and controlling motor traffic has recently been put into service. View full abstract»

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  • Distribution practises in Southern California

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1196 - 1200
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    THE conditions under which electric service is furnished in Southern California differ somewhat from other sections of the country. The pumping of water for irrigation has created a demand for electric power throughout the rural districts. Lines extended for that service have made electricity available for domestic purposes which, in themselves, would not have justified the extension of the lines. Records show that the electric development which has taken place under these conditions has resulted in a use of electric energy per capita per annum exceeding any other community in the United States, comparison being as follows: View full abstract»

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  • Largest artificial lake is being built

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1200
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    At Cherokee Bluffs, one of the most isolated places of Alabama, an artificial lake, which will have a shoreline 700 miles long and cover 40,000 acres of land, is being built. When completed in 1926 it will provide water to drive three 45,000 horse power electric generators. View full abstract»

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  • Distribution line practise of the San Joaquin light and power corporation

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1201 - 1208
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    General description of practise of the San Joaquin Light & Power Corporation in serving rural distribution. Describes an 11,500-volt fuse manufactured by the company, shows standard transformer sizes used for serving combination loads and describes methods of hot wire maintenance used, together with data on savings accomplished by the use of hot wire tools. View full abstract»

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  • A new departure in engineering education

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1208 - 1210
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    A new type of engineering course embodying the basic features of the six-year combined college and engineering course, but possible of completion by a high-school graduate in the usual four year period is described. Briefly, the plan for admission to the engineering school requires at least two years of college training with only part of the subjects prescribed. This is followed by two years in the engineering school, concentrated on the fundamentals of whatever particular branch of engineering (civil, mechanical, electrical or chemical) the student may choose. Beginning this fall, the University of Pennsylvania will change over all its engineering courses to this basis. Those responsible for this new type of course believe that it will accomplish the following objects: 1. It will give the student the. opportunity of forming a more mature judgment as to whether or not he has an aptitude for engineering, and if not, permit him to continue his studies along other lines without serious handicap. 2. It will impress upon both the student and his parents the fact that engineering is a profession and not a trade; that there is more to an engineering education than merely fitting a boy to get a job. 3. The graduate from this type of course will be as well prepared for his immediate undertaking as the usual technical school graduate, and, in addition, will have the background and broader point of view necessary for real development in his profession. 4. This background and broader point of view will aid him in developing a proper perspective of life as a whole, which, after all, is more important than one's profession. View full abstract»

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  • 220-Kv. transmission transients and flashovers

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1211 - 1218
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    The conclusion has been reached that birds are the cause of flashovers on the Southern California Edison line. The frequency and location of flashovers is given for nine years of operation at 150 kv. and two years at 220 kv. The increase in the number of flashovers when first going to 220 kv. has been reduced so that now there is no greater number than there was at 150 kv. This has been done by installing bird guards which are, however, not yet completely bird proof. Other possible causes of flashovers are considered, including corona, standing and traveling waves of high voltage, harmonic resonance, sustained high-frequency effects, lightning, and highly ionized air. Investigations to discover the presence of such disturbances are described; they included the use of a homemade photographic surge recorder, the klydonograph, and oscillograph. The amplitude of voltage surges caused by various switching operations and the quantity of tertiary and residual current at the different stations on the system are tabulated. The conclusions reached are that there are not any voltage disturbances of greater magnitude than those produced by normal switching, and that such voltage rises as do occur are totally inadequate to cause flashovers or cause any damage to connected apparatus. The evidence is all against the existence of sustained high-frequency currents or voltages and it may be stated confidently that they do not exist. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in use of electricity in mines

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1218 - 1219
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    THE work of this committee is, of necessity, limited very largely to the securing of papers from representative mining engineers. View full abstract»

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  • Unique swimming pool illumination furnished by underwater floodlights

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1219
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    A unique electrical installation, consisting of an underwater illumination system, has recently been placed in operation in a large bathing pool in the vicinity of San Diego, California. Embedded in the walls of this pool is a set of large flood lights, placed at a depth of 9 feet. The lighting units are enclosed in a large pyramid-shaped casting, having a vent at the top leading through a goose-neck to a manhole back of the pool walls. The lamp unit is protected from the water by an 18-inch disk of Pyrex glass 7/16 inches thick. Difficulties as to the cracking of heavy plate glass had been numerous until the adoption of the heat-resisting glass. Water on one side of the glass at low temperature and the heat generated by a 500-watt lamp in the unit on the other side of the glass, together with moisture, condensation, and other mechanical factors, have. provided considerable basis for experimentation on this installation. View full abstract»

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  • Losses in iron under the action of superposed alternating- and direct-current excitations

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1220 - 1225
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    The paper presents the results of wattmeter measurements of iron loss in a small experimental reactor designed for a-c. and d-c. excitations. All the resistances were measured by the d-c. voltmeter-ammeter method, and the I2 R losses were subtracted from the total wattmeter readings. A-c. core losses are plotted against d-c. excitation for various a-c. flux densities. These curves were checked qualitatively by means of hysteresis loops taken with a special bilateral oscillograph. All results show a comparatively small change in core loss as d-c. excitation is added, the core loss even showing a decrease when the a-c. saturation is high. The core loss proper is distinguished from the double frequency circulating current copper loss, and means are given for decreasing this I2 B loss. View full abstract»

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  • World power conference

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1225
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Live problems in connection with protection of electrical systems

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1226 - 1237
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    IN accordance with a practise established over a number of years, the work of the Committee on Protective Devices has been delegated to a number of subcommittees, the division being made with reference to the nature of the subject covered. Complete reports from each of these subcommittees are appended. View full abstract»

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  • Oil-circuit breakers

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1237
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    Progress in Standardization. Interrupting rating of oil-circuit breakers was defined by the Protective Devices Committee last year. This definition has now received all of the necessary approvals and is before the Standards Committee for final adoption. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical interference with radio reception

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1237
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    In some localities radio reception is seriously disturbed by interference arising from electrical apparatus in the vicinity. Part of the disturbance from electrical devices is practically inevitable, and, like atmospheric disturbances, must be regarded as one of the inherent limitations of radio reception. Some electrical devices when in perfect working order cause disturbances of this kind, while others cause interference because of their faulty operation. The only general remedy for electrical interference is cooperative effort on the part of users of radio, users and owners of the electrical sources of disturbance, and distributers of electrical power, to reduce or eliminate the causes of the trouble. In many cases it is possible to provide filters, shelds, chokes, etc., either at the source of disturbance or at the receiving set, which do much to relieve the difficulties. View full abstract»

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  • Changing transformer ratio without interrupting the load

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1238 - 1242
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    Regulating the voltage of high-voltage transmission lines is now possible by means of taps in the step-up transformers through which the ratio is changed without disconnecting the transformers from service nor interrupting the load. The methods of obtaining this result, herein described, are the results of the development of suitable ratio adjusters and a properly timed mechanism including circuit-breaking devices. The scheme is applicable to units of any size or to existing banks of transformers by the addition of a regulating auto transformer. The range of application has also been extended to include the field of electrolytic reduction and little doubt is held that this very flexible scheme of voltage regulation will fill a long felt need by many generating and distributing systems. Several installations are already in successful operation and a considerable number are now in the process of construction and operation. View full abstract»

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  • Hydroelectric power-plant in British Columbia

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1242
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    One of the largest hydroelectric power plants on the North American continent is about to be constructed approximately 135 miles north of the city of Vancouver at Seton Lake, the Department of Commerce is informed by Consul E. L. Harris, Vancouver. Within the next five years it is planned to spend $13,000,000 in the development of the first unit. Sixty thousand horse power will be available from this new installation. Additional units may be installed later. View full abstract»

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  • Engineering research — An essential factor in engineering education

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1243 - 1245
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    IT may seem trite to assert the interdependence of engineering research and engineering education, and no doubt most workers in the vinyard would consider the title of this paper as axiomatic, — the statement of a self-evident fact. In theory the great majority of the members of our engineering faculties, as well as practising engineers, who have given time and thought to the training of young men for the engineering profession, readily subscribe to statements emphasizing the importance of research as a factor in engineering education; but in practise — well, “the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak.” View full abstract»

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  • Discussion at Swampscott meeting: Studies of time lag of needle gaps

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1245 - 1247
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Discussion at Spring convention: Mississippi river crossing of crystal city transmission line

    Publication Year: 1925 , Page(s): 1247 - 1248
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    St. Louis, Mo., April 14, 1925 J. S. Martin (communicated after adjournment): I have been especially interested in the authors' methods of calculation of the sags required in the wire, as this is a subject of which I have made considerable study. In the proceedings of the Engineering Society of Western Pennsylvania for November 1922, I published a tabular method of calculating sag including a set of tables giving the functions of the catenary in the same manner that the ordinary trigonometrical tables give the functions of the circle. By means of these tables the sag required for any span and any wire can be quickly and accurately determined when the span is level. For the calculation of spans on the slope, the writer has resorted to an approximate method which gives results as close as the work of sagging can be done in the field and in nearly all cases the slight error is on the safe side. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) contains articles published between 1924 and 1930. Contents are devoted to the advancement of theory and practice of electrical engineering and the allied arts and sciences.

This Journal ceased publication in 1930. The current retitled publication is IEEE Spectrum.

Full Aims & Scope