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A.I.E.E., Journal of the

Issue 5 • Date May 1925

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 61
  • More electrical usefulness

    Page(s): 449 - 450
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    The broadening of the field of electrical application is evidenced on every side. In looking over papers presented at Pasadena in October, at New York in February, and in April at St. Louis, it is easy to recognize the new comers, fresh from the advance lines of new application. The engineers of the industrial world have been so busy with their own individual problems that we have heard little from them in our Institute forum, but now that their preliminary work is behind them, we shall be hearing more and more of their doings. View full abstract»

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  • Communication in railroad operation

    Page(s): 451 - 457
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    The object of this paper is to show the part played by the different means of electrical communication in operating a large railroad system. The telegraph, which was the original and sole means of handling communications requiring immediate attention, has given way largely to the telephone and the printer. The development of the selector was essential to the general use of the telephone for train operation and message work, the train wire being considered the most important circuit in railroad operation. Extensive and special facilities are required in some instances to provide necessary telephone communication with the public. This includes telephones on certain limited trains in terminals. The telautograph is important but limited to local service in terminals and junction points. Same problems in engineering, construction, maintenance and operation as with the commercial telegraph and telephone companies, except that smoke conditions are worse along the railroad and continuity of service is possibly more important. Radio has possibilities as a means of providing information and entertainment to passengers on trains and in the operation of freight trains and tug boats. In handling train orders the train conductor must verify the instructions or orders he receives. The quality and accuracy of radio reception when a train runs through rock cuts, over or under certain types of steel bridges, through tunnels and during certain weather conditions prevents this means of communication from being used at this time for handling train orders. The volume of communication traffic is affected by the seasons, holidays and emergencies. The size of the communication system on some railroads compares favorably with that of some of the large commercial telegraph and telephone companies. An ideal communication system would provide accurate information between any two points on a railroad system or between the public and the railroad company without delay and under all operating con- itions. View full abstract»

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  • Report from Russian information Bureau, Moscow

    Page(s): 457
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Load building possibilities of industrial heating

    Page(s): 458 - 462
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    The author gives a brief survey of the more recent achievements in industrial electric heating, and shows the increasing tendency of industries to adopt electric heating, particularly for high grade products. Specific installation for such processes as steel treating, copper and brass annealing, vitreous enamelling, glass annealing, baking japans, cores, bread, etc., on a large scale, are described and illustrated. It is shown that the quality of product has been improved by the use of electric heating with little if any increase in cost, and in many cases, at a lower “over all” cost. The desirability of heating load for the central station is emphasized, due to its high power factor and load factor. View full abstract»

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  • Radio in Chile

    Page(s): 462
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    Radio is very popular in Chile, it being estimated that 25,000 sets are in use at present, most of them being of the crystal type. Although sales are active, and it seems likely that the market will develop materially in the future, it is believed that the greatest future market will be for radio parts rather than complete sets. View full abstract»

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  • Purchased power as applied to plate glass manufacture

    Page(s): 463 - 468
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    The paper gives some general statistics on plate-glass manufacture, and estimates that the present total electrical requirements of the industry in the United States, are about 350,000,000 kw-hr. per annum. About 60 per cent of this energy is purchased and is considered a very desirable load from the central station point of view, as the plants generally run almost continuously and shut down only a short time on Sundays, giving a very desirable load factor. The paper briefly describes the manufacturing processes, and shows the different operations requiring the application of power. Specifically, it describes the 110-kv. station built for the Crystal City plant. This is designed along very simple lines to take the place of an isolated plant. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency multiplication principles and practical applications of ferro-magnetic methods

    Page(s): 469 - 473
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    Introduction MANY of the principles involved in the multiplication of frequencies by the use of highly saturated iron cores have been established by early investigators in the field of radio engineering. A number of articles on the subject have been published by various investigators, although very little information about the performance of frequency multipliers under load conditions was found. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical installation inspections and tests in Austria, Rumania and Bulgaria

    Page(s): 473
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    Testing and inspection requirements differ in these three countries as follows: In Austria, there is no organization charged with these duties, but only licensed electricians are permitted to make installations. In Bulgaria, a special controlling committee inspects and tests each installation before approving it for connection with the line, while in Rumania, where like inspections and tests are required, the work is done by the electrical experts of the municipal administration. No inspection is made in any of these countries by fire insurance companies. View full abstract»

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  • Failure of disk insulators on high-tension transmission lines

    Page(s): 474 - 475
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    A PAPER under the above title was presented by the writer at the Pacific Coast Convention of the Institute in the summer of 1922, and was printed on page 740, Vol. XLI, 1922 Transactions of the Institute. This article and the included curves comparing the frequency of failure of the various disks of the assembly with the voltage gradient curve has been of sufficient interest to engineers connected with the high-tension insulator industry for the author to be requested to bring his investigation up to date by including the results of insulator tests of 1923 and 1924. View full abstract»

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  • Broadcasting in Japan postponed

    Page(s): 475
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    It was originally planned that broadcasting in Japan would begin on March 1, but according to a cable from Acting Commercial Attache Frank Rhea, Tokyo, this has been postponed at least two weeks. View full abstract»

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  • Electric lighting equipment on automobiles

    Page(s): 476 - 480
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    The convenience and flexibility of electric lighting is the principle reason for the development of the present type of automotive electrical equipment. The conflicting requirements of good illumination for the drivers and the elimination of glare for the driver of the on-coming car have lead to the adoption of light directing devices according to specifications drawn up by the I. E. S. Lights conforming to these specifications give good results under ideal conditions but under bad road and car springing conditions cause a great deal of discomfort to the drivers of on-coming cars and considerable dissatisfaction with the results. There is a great need of improved result. The possibility of obtaining improved result by the use of polarized light, by the means of light filters, by the use of more diffused light, is discussed very briefly. View full abstract»

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  • Electrification planned by the paris-orleans railroad

    Page(s): 480
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    It is expected that the electrification of the line from Paris to Orleans, the first important step in the electrification of the Paris-Orleans railway, will be completed during 1925. View full abstract»

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  • Factors affecting the design of D-C. motors for locomotives

    Page(s): 481 - 489
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    The designer of motors for locomotive service is confronted with at least two limitations; space and weight. For large locomotives, the second limitation may not be of prime importance, but the first must be constantly in the mind of the designer. The paper gives a comparison between different types of motor mounting as regards the amount of power which may be developed in the available space with direct current meters. The comparisons are largely qualitative but within reasonable limits are also quantitaive. The available space between wheels or locomotive side frames is divided into two parts. One of these parts is made up of units which are assumed to be constant within the range considered, while the other part is made up of variables. Expressions for the variables are derived, generally in terms of armature diameter, and constants and variables are then combined into a complete expression for motor output. The voltage applied to motor commutator, voltage-to-ground, number of poles, peripheral speed and track gage, as well as type of motor mounting are considered in the comparison. View full abstract»

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  • Growth of demand for electrical equipment

    Page(s): 489
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    Prior to 1910 the electric light and power industry in China was in an embryo stage. Practically all the plants which were supplied were of European manufacture and few, if any, turbo-generators had been considered. In 1910 an American company sold a 350-kw. turbo-generator to the Mukden Electric Light Co., the first to be supplied to China. Later, in the same year, an order was secured for a similar machine of 500-kw. capacity for the Changshun Electric Light Co. At the time of placing these orders they were considered revolutionary, as practically all previous plants installed had been driven by reciprocating engines. View full abstract»

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  • Design of non-distorting power amplifiers

    Page(s): 490 - 498
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    The paper deals with the problem of obtaining the maximum output possible from a given amplifier tube, while keeping the distortion down to a negligible amount. A tube can be rated for this purpose in terms of the watts output obtainable, when a sine wave voltage of as great an amplitude as can be advantageously utilized, is applied to the grid. This maximum sine wave output is very much less than the rating of the same tube for oscillator purposes. Starting with a set of static characteristics for a given lube, the dynamic characteristics for any resistance load is readily plotted, and the power output and distortion can be read from the dynamic characteristic. A simple rule has been given by Mr. W. J. Brown for determining the best conditions of load resistance and grid bias for a given plate supply voltage. The best load resistance is shown to be twice the internal plate resistance of the tube. If the supply voltage exceeds a certain value, the application of the rules just mentioned would lead to excessive healing of the anode, and therefore a different procedure is followed, calling for greater grid bias and higher load resistance. There is an advantage in using low impedance tubes. The balanced or push-pull circuit, while reducing distortion, will not make up for failure to operate the tubes under proper conditions, nor will it greatly increase the permissible output per lube. The dynamic characteristic for a reactive load is not readily plotted, but for design purposes it is sufficient to determine the best operating conditions for a resistance load, and then make the impedance of the reactive load high enough to keep the plate current variations within the same limits as for the resistance load. An important application of the principles outlined here, is the design of radio telephone transmitters where serious distortion results from overworking the modulator tubes. For moderately deep modulation there should be from two to four modulating tubes for each o- cillator tube. Certain details of design are discussed in the closing paragraphs. View full abstract»

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  • The single-phase induction motor

    Page(s): 499 - 508
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    The operation of the single-phase induction motor is presented according to the crossfield theory as distinguished from the theory of oppositely rotating fields. The mathematics used require only a knowledge of algebra and trigonometry and no factors, such as crossfield iron loss and crossfield magnetizing current, are neglected. In addition to the derivation of the vector diagram, its transformation into an accurate circle diagram, which requires no assumption except sine wave voltage and primary field distribution, is shown. The result is a circle diagram practically identical with that derived by Branson (A.I. E. E. Proceedings, June, 1912) from comparison of the two-phase and single-phase induction motors, except that the derivation should be more easily followed and the result is a simpler diagram to construct and use. View full abstract»

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  • Deterioration of impregnated cable paper subjected to temperature only

    Page(s): 508 - 510
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    A report has been made on an investigation of the mechanical deterioration of impregnated cable paper when subject to various temperature tests which have been conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a joint committee of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the National Electric Light Association and the Association of Edison Electric Illuminating Companies. An abstract of the report furnished by the committee, is given in the following paragraphs. View full abstract»

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  • Discussion at Pacific Coast convention: Papers on Southern California Edison system

    Page(s): 510 - 513
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    H. A. Barre: As you know, our initial problem was something very different from building a 220,000-volt line. We had the existing Big Creek Line. We didn't have time to build a new line; we had to get in and make that one work at a higher voltage to carry the additional amount of power that we had to transmit. That was quite a serious problem. View full abstract»

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  • Papers on corona

    Page(s): 513 - 522
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    F. W. Peek, Jr.: It is my opinion that apparent discrepancies in the corona papers presented are not due to error in the different investigations, but rather to the difficulty of comparing different conditions. To illustrate what I mean by one example: An aluminum cable strung at Stanford in a grassy field and another strung at Pit after being dragged over the sharp lava rocks should be expected to give different losses near the critical voltage. It would be difficult to predict the result of the mutilation by the lava beds without direct measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Discussion at Midwinter convention: The single-phase induction motor

    Page(s): 522 - 523
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    V. Karapetoff: The problem treated by the author is quite old, and a complete absence of correlation with the work of previous investigators is rather deplorable. Thus, the whole set of papers and a voluminous discussion before the Institute in 1918 are entirely ignored, as well as the subsequent contributions to the theory of this class of machines. In 1921 I showed the equivalence of the two theories of the single-phase induction machine Journal, Vol. 40, page 640) and gave a new equivalent diagram, only one branch of which contains variable slip. A circular locus and a general-performance equation follow from this diagram directly. In Vol. 41 of the Transactions there is a paper by Mr. Kostko which to me only shows that elementary mathematics is inadequate to lead to a simple theory of the machine, on the basis of two oppositely revolving fields. Mr. Perkins' paper shows that elementary mathematics is also inadequate in the cross-field theory. I hope, therefore, that this method of approach will now be definitely abandoned in favor of more advanced and shorter mathematical tools. In the Journal for 1923 (Vol. 42, page 1181) I indicated the use of the scalar product of vectors in the solution of problems on locus diagrams of electrical machinery. This new use of vector analysis has already proved to be quite fruitful in a derivation of the exact circle diagram of the polyphase induction motor, without inversion or long formulas. The next step is to try this method on the single-phase machine, preferably using the unified equivalent diagram mentioned above. View full abstract»

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  • Temperature errors in induction watthour meters

    Page(s): 523 - 525
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    H. B. Brooks: The paper by Kinnard and Faus is important and valuable, not only for its definite data and clear reasoning, but also because it is a tangible indication of the interest which is being taken in the question of the accuracy of metering. This interest reveals itself in many ways; for example, in the increasing attention which is being given to the ratio and phase-angle performance of instrument transformers. Among reasons for this interest may be mentioned the greater attention which must be given to plant operation, because of higher costs of fuel and other essential supplies; the growing tendency toward interconnection, with the consequent need of accurately measuring interchanged energy; and the necessity for accurate electrical measurements in acceptance tests of turbo-generator units, where an error of a fraction of one per cent may mean an error of thousands of dollars in penalty or bonus. Such tests must necessarily extend over a period of hours, and the load cannot be kept as constant as might be done with small machines in the laboratory. It is only natural, therefore, that those having to make such tests should turn to the watthour meter as a means of measuring the energy and hence the electrical power output. However, from information which has come to us, it appears that such use of watthour meters does not give results as consistent as can be had by the use of indicating wattmeters read at sufficiently frequent intervals. Nevertheless, the large amount of labor required for the latter procedure makes it desirable to bring up the performance of the watthour meter, if possible, to such a stage that it will be good enough for plant acceptance tests. The work done by Kinnard and Faus is an important step in this direction, and I hope they will continue their analysis of sources of meter errors and means for overcoming them. View full abstract»

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  • The theory of probability and some applications to engineering problems

    Page(s): 526 - 528
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    B. Jones: In the introduction to his paper Mr. Molina draws attention to the apparently little recognized value of the Calculus of Probabilities in engineering studies. Permit me to draw your attention to the extraordinary importance this calculus has acquired in modern mathematical physics as a means of developing the necessarily statistical expressions for the so-called laws of nature. View full abstract»

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  • Testing high-tension impregnated-paper — Insulated, lead-covered cables

    Page(s): 528 - 541
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    D. W. Roper: The paper by Mr. Lee (the best discussion of the subject of testing high-voltage cable that has ever been presented to the Institute) contains a great amount of interesting information all drawn from the experience of one cable manufacturer. Some of the conclusions which he draws are, therefore, rather limited in their application as they refer solely to the particular type of insulation with which he is familiar. As will appear later in this discussion, there is a wide variation in the characteristics or properties of the insulation made by the different manufacturers. For the purpose of broadening our view and thus improving our perspective, and not for the purpose of making any invidious comparisons between the products of the several manufacturers, I am going to quote some of the results that we have obtained in testing the product of a number of cable manufacturers, in the hope that I may be able to show how some of the conclusions given by Mr. Lee should be modified. On the eleventh page of his paper, Mr. Lee cites the case of the failure of an experimental length of cable connected to a 110-kv. three-phase overhead line, and states that the examination revealed absolutely no discernible cause for the failure. View full abstract»

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  • Voice-frequency carrier telegraph system for cables: Polarized telegraph relays

    Page(s): 541
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    J. J. Pilloid: The three papers, Metallic Polar-Duplex Telegraph System for Long Small-Gap Cables, Voice-Frequency Carrier Telegraph Systems for Cables and Polarized Telegraph Relays, describe two telegraph systems particularly adapted for use on long toll cables, and a relay which is an important feature of the two systems. By long toll cables we mean here cables several hundred, or a thousand or more, miles long, used for telephone or telegraph purposes. View full abstract»

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  • Metallic polar-duplex telegraph system for long small-gage cables

    Page(s): 541 - 542
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    R. N. Nicely: In connection with the extensive toll cable program of the Bell System, it has of course, been highly desirable that satisfactory methods be made available for utilizing the cable facilities for telegraph as well as for telephone service. This has been accomplished by the development of the metallic polar-duplex telegraph system and the voice-frequency carrier telegraph system. Each of these systems is adaptable to operation under widely varying cable circuit layout arrangements and each has certain characteristics which make it particularly suitable for use in connection with different specific requirements. In actual practise, each of the systems is a valuable supplement to the other. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) contains articles published between 1924 and 1930. Contents are devoted to the advancement of theory and practice of electrical engineering and the allied arts and sciences.

This Journal ceased publication in 1930. The current retitled publication is IEEE Spectrum.

Full Aims & Scope