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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date June 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 34
  • [Front and back cover]

    Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science publication information

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1665 - 1666
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Editor comments

    Page(s): 1667
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A Brief History of the NSREC

    Page(s): 1668 - 1673
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1756 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This is the 50 year anniversary of the annual IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effect Conference (NSREC). The first official IEEE NSREC was held at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA in 1964. Although the NSREC started primarily as a forum for the reporting of U.S. research on nuclear weapons effects in electronics it has grown to be primarily an international conference on the effect of space radiation on microelectronics. In this paper the history of NSREC will be discussed in terms of changes in technical content, change in mix of papers between industry, government labs and universities, change in venue, growth in number of authors per paper and the addition of new features in the conference. View full abstract»

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  • Update on High-Impact Papers Presented at the IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference: The View in 2013

    Page(s): 1674 - 1680
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    This paper, an update of a paper published in 2003 (1), identifies a number of papers presented at the NSREC and published in the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science that have had measurable impact on radiation effects research and the radiation effects community. Criteria include papers selected for the Outstanding Paper Award at the NSREC or papers from the NSREC that have been highly cited by authors of other journal publications. Observations on the successes and failures of the methodology used for selecting high-impact papers are presented. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference: Notes on the Early Conferences

    Page(s): 1681 - 1689
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    This paper gathers the remembrances of several key contributors who participated in the earliest Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conferences (NSRECs). View full abstract»

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  • List of reviewers

    Page(s): 1690
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  • Near-Earth Space Radiation Models

    Page(s): 1691 - 1705
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    Review of models of the near-Earth space radiation environment is presented, including recent developments in trapped proton and electron, galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event models geared toward spacecraft electronics applications. View full abstract»

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  • Total Ionizing Dose Effects in MOS and Low-Dose-Rate-Sensitive Linear-Bipolar Devices

    Page(s): 1706 - 1730
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    An overview is presented of total ionizing dose (TID) effects in MOS and bipolar devices from a historical perspective, focusing primarily on work presented at the annual IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference (NSREC). From the founding of the IEEE NSREC in 1964 until ~1976, foundational work led to the discovery of TID effects in MOS devices, the characterization of basic charge transport and trapping processes in SiO2, and the development of the first generations of metal-gate radiation-hardened MOS technologies. From ~1977 until ~1985, significant progress was made in the understanding of critical defects and impurities that limit the radiation response of MOS devices. These include O vacancies in SiO2, dangling Si bonds at the Si/SiO2 interface, and hydrogen. In addition, radiation-hardened Si-gate CMOS technologies were developed. From ~1986 until ~1997, a significant focus was placed on understanding postirradiation effects in MOS devices and implementing hardness assurance test methods to qualify devices for use in space systems. Enhanced low-dose-rate sensitivity (ELDRS) was discovered and investigated in linear bipolar devices and integrated circuits. From ~1998 until the present, an increasing focus has been placed on theoretical studies enabled by rapidly advancing computational capabilities, modeling and simulation, effects in ultra-thin oxides and alternative dielectrics to SiO2, and in developing a comprehensive model of ELDRS. View full abstract»

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  • From Displacement Damage to ELDRS: Fifty Years of Bipolar Transistor Radiation Effects at the NSREC

    Page(s): 1731 - 1739
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    The fifty year history of radiation effects in bipolar transistors at NSREC is summarized, covering neutron-induced displacement damage, total ionizing dose response (including enhanced low dose rate sensitivity, ELDRS) and single event effects. These phenomena, particularly TID and ELDRS in bipolar transistors, have received significant attention at NSREC. Several other radiation effects such as thermal mechanical shock, electrical overstress, prompt dose rate photoresponse and the response to neutral particle beams are not addressed. View full abstract»

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  • Displacement Damage Effects in Irradiated Semiconductor Devices

    Page(s): 1740 - 1766
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    A review of radiation-induced displacement damage effects in semiconductor devices is presented, with emphasis placed on silicon technology. The history of displacement damage studies is summarized, and damage production mechanisms are discussed. Properties of defect clusters and isolated defects are addressed. Displacement damage effects in materials and devices are considered, including effects produced in silicon particle detectors, visible imaging arrays, and solar cells. Additional topics examined include NIEL scaling, carrier concentration changes, random telegraph signals, radiation hardness assurance, and simulation methods for displacement damage. Areas needing further study are noted. View full abstract»

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  • Single Event Transients in Digital CMOS—A Review

    Page(s): 1767 - 1790
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    The creation of soft errors due to the propagation of single event transients (SETs) is a significant reliability challenge in modern CMOS logic. SET concerns continue to be exacerbated by Moore's Law technology scaling. This paper presents a review of digital single event transient research, including: a brief historical overview of the emergence of SET phenomena, a review of the present understanding of SET mechanisms, a review of the state-of-the-art in SET testing and modelling, a discussion of mitigation techniques, and a discussion of the impact of technology scaling trends on future SET significance. View full abstract»

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  • Overview of In-Orbit Radiation Induced Spacecraft Anomalies

    Page(s): 1791 - 1815
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    Spacecraft anomalies due to radiation effects on electronic devices have been known since the very beginning of the space era. Today they represent a major part of on-board anomalies, mission outages, and unexpected workload on ground controllers of operational systems. This text will first describe a few known cases of cumulative or transient effects in Earth or planetary environments. Then, it will discuss investigation methodology, and issues such as the statistical aspects of probabilistic anomalies in the assessment of cause to effects relationships, and the necessity of multi-field experts in group root cause analysis, from radiation effects, to satellite fault determination, to identification and reconfiguration strategy. A focus on some practical cases of anomaly analyses will be made. View full abstract»

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  • 40 Years of Radiation Single Event Effects at the European Space Agency, ESTEC

    Page(s): 1816 - 1823
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    This summary paper is based on an invited talk given at the Single Event Effects (SEE) Symposium at La Jolla, California, USA on 12 April 2011, titled '40 Years of SEE at ESA/ESTEC' (European Space Agency/European Space Research and Technology Centre). As an historical summary paper covering radiation activities within the ESTEC Components Laboratory, this paper primarily focus on my own SEE experiences and involvement from 1970 to 2010. View full abstract»

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  • The Single Event Revolution

    Page(s): 1824 - 1835
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (469 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the untold history of the early days of the Single Event Effects (SEE) revolution. It emphasizes the period from 1978 to 1983 when single events went from unknown to a major part of radiation effect studies. Some threads are followed to current studies to place ideas in context. There were two aspects that were revolutionary. Conceptually, the community was not ready for radiation effects that depended on single particles. Second, the test community needed to transition to testing using particle accelerators. The article will discuss how various organizations and individuals were introduced to the problem and how they developed what became the common knowledge of single event effects. View full abstract»

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  • Physics of Multiple-Node Charge Collection and Impacts on Single-Event Characterization and Soft Error Rate Prediction

    Page(s): 1836 - 1851
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    Physical mechanisms of single-event effects that result in multiple-node charge collection or charge sharing are reviewed and summarized. A historical overview of observed circuit responses is given that concentrates mainly on memory circuits. Memory devices with single-node upset mechanisms are shown to exhibit multiple cell upsets, and spatially redundant logic latches are shown to upset when charge is collected on multiple circuit nodes in the latch. Impacts on characterizing these effects in models and ground-based testing are presented. The impact of multiple-node charge collection on soft error rate prediction is also presented and shows that full circuit prediction is not yet well understood. Finally, gaps in research and potential future impacts are identified. View full abstract»

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  • Pulsed-Laser Testing for Single-Event Effects Investigations

    Page(s): 1852 - 1875
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    The application of pulsed lasers to the study of Single-Event Effects (SEEs) in integrated circuits and devices is described. The role of a pulsed laser is to provide spatial and temporal information about SEEs, information that is not available when broad-beam ion sources are used. A detailed description is given of the mechanisms involved, including light propagation and absorption by both linear and non-linear processes. Numerous examples highlight the versatility and usefulness of the technique in the study of SEEs. View full abstract»

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  • Anthology of the Development of Radiation Transport Tools as Applied to Single Event Effects

    Page(s): 1876 - 1911
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    This anthology contains contributions from eleven different groups, each developing and/or applying Monte Carlo-based radiation transport tools to simulate a variety of effects that result from energy transferred to a semiconductor material by a single particle event. The topics span from basic mechanisms for single-particle induced failures to applied tasks like developing websites to predict on-orbit single event failure rates using Monte Carlo radiation transport tools. View full abstract»

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  • An Updated Perspective of Single Event Gate Rupture and Single Event Burnout in Power MOSFETs

    Page(s): 1912 - 1928
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    Studies over the past 25 years have shown that heavy ions can trigger catastrophic failure modes in power MOSFETs [e.g., single-event gate rupture (SEGR) and single-event burnout (SEB)]. In 1996, two papers were published in a special issue of the IEEE Transaction on Nuclear Science [Johnson, Palau, Dachs, Galloway and Schrimpf, “A Review of the Techniques Used for Modeling Single-Event Effects in Power MOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 546-560, April. 1996], [Titus and Wheatley, “Experimental Studies of Single-Event Gate Rupture and Burnout in Vertical Power MOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 533-545, Apr. 1996]. Those two papers continue to provide excellent information and references with regard to SEB and SEGR in vertical planar MOSFETs. This paper provides updated references/information and provides an updated perspective of SEB and SEGR in vertical planar MOSFETs as well as provides references/information to other device types that exhibit SEB and SEGR effects. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation Effects in Power Systems: A Review

    Page(s): 1929 - 1952
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    To guarantee mission success and minimize the risk of anomalies in space, current space-power architectures are designed conservatively and use electronics that are several generations behind the current state of the art. In parallel, the commercial industry is burgeoning with exciting new solutions for power management; however, their reliability and radiation robustness for space application have yet to be proven. The goal of this paper is to review common radiation issues related to power converters, which are the main design blocks of current space power system architectures. We first provide some background material and introduce the basic principles of power converter operation, as well as a brief introduction of common radiation effect that might damage these designs. Then, we explain common radiation-induced failure mechanisms (radiation-induced failure or instability) or temporary perturbations observed in various converter topologies. Their radiation hardness is compared based on simulation and experimental studies reported in the literature. Some radiation hardening by design solutions and mitigation techniques are also presented. Finally, we provide a status of emerging technologies under consideration for the next-generation of space power systems. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation Effects in Flash Memories

    Page(s): 1953 - 1969
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    We review ionizing radiation effects in Flash memories, the current dominant technology in the commercial non-volatile memory market. A comprehensive discussion of total dose and single event effects results is presented, concerning both floating gate cells and peripheral circuitry. The latest developments, including new findings on the mechanism underlying upsets due to heavy ions and destructive events, are illustrated. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation Effects in Advanced Multiple Gate and Silicon-on-Insulator Transistors

    Page(s): 1970 - 1991
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    The aim of this review paper is to describe in a comprehensive manner the current understanding of the radiation response of state-of-the-art Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) and FinFET CMOS technologies. Total Ionizing Dose (TID) response, heavy-ion microdose effects and single-event effects (SEEs) will be discussed. It is shown that a very high TID tolerance can be achieved by narrow-fin SOI FinFET architectures, while bulk FinFETs may exhibit similar TID response to the planar devices. Due to the vertical nature of FinFETs, a specific heavy-ion response can be obtained, whereby the angle of incidence becomes highly important with respect to the vertical sidewall gates. With respect to SEE, the buried oxide in the SOI FinFETs suppresses the diffusion tails from the charge collection in the substrate compared to the planar bulk FinFET devices. Channel lengths and fin widths are now comparable to, or smaller than the dimensions of the region affected by the single ionizing ions or lasers used in testing. This gives rise to a high degree of sensitivity to individual device parameters and source-drain shunting during ion-beam or laser-beam SEE testing. Simulations are used to illuminate the mechanisms observed in radiation testing and the progress and needs for the numerical modeling/simulation of the radiation response of advanced SOI and FinFET transistors are highlighted. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation Effects in SiGe Technology

    Page(s): 1992 - 2014
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    Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) technology effectively merges the desirable attributes of conventional silicon-based CMOS manufacturing (high integration levels, at high yield and low cost) with the extreme levels of transistor performance attainable in classical III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). SiGe technology joins together on-die high-speed bandgap-engineered SiGe HBTs with conventional Si CMOS to form SiGe BiCMOS technology, including all the requisite RF passive elements and multi-level thick-Al metalization required for high-speed circuit design. Such an silicon-based integrated circuit technology platform presents designers with an ideal division of labor for realizing optimal solutions to many performance-constrained mixed-signal (analog + digital + RF) systems. The unique bandgap-engineered features of SiGe HBTs enable several key merits with respect to operation across a wide variety of so-called “extreme environments”, potentially with little or no process modification, ultimately providing compelling advantages at the circuit and system level, across a wide class of envisioned commercial and defense applications. Here we give an overview of this interesting field, focusing primarily on the intersection of SiGe HBTs, and circuits built from them, with radiation-intense environments such as space. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation Effects on Silica-Based Optical Fibers: Recent Advances and Future Challenges

    Page(s): 2015 - 2036
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    In this review paper, we present radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers. We first describe the mechanisms inducing microscopic and macroscopic changes under irradiation: radiation-induced attenuation, radiation-induced emission and compaction. We then discuss the influence of various parameters related to the optical fiber, to the harsh environments and to the fiber-based applications on the amplitudes and kinetics of these changes. Then, we focus on advances obtained over the last years. We summarize the main results regarding the fiber vulnerability and hardening to radiative constraints associated with several facilities such as Megajoule class lasers, ITER, LHC, nuclear power plants or with space applications. Based on the experience gained during these projects, we suggest some of the challenges that will have to be overcome in the near future to allow a deeper integration of fibers and fiber-based sensors in radiative environments. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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