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Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date June 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 409
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility publication information

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Introduction to the Special Issue on High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP)

    Page(s): 410 - 411
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    This paper introduces the papers included in the Special Issue on high-altitude electromagnetic pulse. View full abstract»

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  • A Review of HEMP Activities in Europe (1970–1995)

    Page(s): 412 - 421
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    This paper presents a review of the high altitude EMP (HEMP) activities in European countries between 1970 and 1995. HEMP simulators built in different countries are presented together with measurements performed under them and calculation methods developed in order to simulate the currents or voltages induced by an HEMP in power or telecommunication lines or in other types of circuits. Comparison between calculations and measurements are shown. This paper focuses on this period, which was of historical importance for the hardening of vital military and governmental installations, but which permitted also the development and validation of models to study the electromagnetic effects of lightning. View full abstract»

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  • An Overview of the HEMP Research in China

    Page(s): 422 - 430
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    This paper reviews developments in high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) research in China in recent decades. The main contents are obtained from a literature survey of technical papers published in the past years, which include HEMP simulators and test systems, coupling analysis methods and results, experimental research on the susceptibility of electronic equipment, time-domain measurement, and modeling technology. View full abstract»

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  • Early Developments in Sensors and Simulators at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory

    Page(s): 431 - 439
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    Personnel at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory introduced many innovative concepts in electromagnetics (EM) and created new antenna and sensor designs that made possible much of the wideband electromagnetics technology we have today. Many practitioners in high power EM are familiar with wideband sensors and simulators, but may not be aware of their origin. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the concepts from which many of the designs evolved and provide some interesting insight into the mind of Dr. Carl Baum, who created them. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Simulation of the HEMP Environment

    Page(s): 440 - 445
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    This paper develops the program MCHII, numerically simulating the physical process of Compton electron currents scattered by the interaction of γ rays with ambient air molecules radiating the early time electromagnetic pulse (E1) during the high altitude nuclear explosion. The paper discusses the waveform characteristics of the electromagnetic pulse E1 as it propagates toward the ground from beneath the explosion point during the high altitude nuclear explosion, and provides a detailed study with regard to the influence of explosion height, energy, and γ spectrum. Numerical simulations are used to present the waveform characteristics of the electromagnetic pulse after going through the ionized layer above the explosion point after the high altitude nuclear explosion, and the paper presents the distribution of high altitude electromagnetic pulse waveform amplitudes at satellite orbits. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Study of Nonequilibrium Air Chemistry

    Page(s): 446 - 450
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (909 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The calculation of the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) fields resulting from a nuclear explosion is dependent on the modeling of secondary electrons generated by the high-energy Compton electrons. In this paper, we discuss different modeling procedures used for this task and show how modeling a delay in the formation of the conductivity resulting from the low-energy electrons affects the HEMP electric fields at the surface of the ground. View full abstract»

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  • Analytic Iterative Solution of Electromagnetic Pulse Coupling to Multiconductor Transmission Lines

    Page(s): 451 - 466
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    This paper provides an efficient iterative solution in the frequency domain for electromagnetic pulse (EMP) radiated field coupling to multiconductor transmission lines (MTLs) based on distributed analytical representation of the exciting sources and iterative technique originated from waveform relaxation. The method consists of two kinds of iterations, the first is that the incoming EMP wave couples to each conductor while the effects of neighboring conductors were neglected; the second is that each conductor will be not only subject to the illumination of the EMP wave, but also influenced by the virtual sources which are the induced voltages and currents of the neighboring conductors at the previous iteration. The key highlights of the proposed method are that the induced voltage and current at each iteration are considered as the virtual distributed exciting sources for next iteration, and the integrals were solved analytically by the Baum-Liu-Tesche equation, leading to a pretty good efficiency and quick convergence for most real cases. The validation results over a wide range show that the proposed method could efficiently handle EMP coupling to MTLs with a large number of conductors and the accuracy of the solutions is closely related to the number of iterations allowing the flexibility to choose between the accuracy and the time cost. View full abstract»

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  • Research of Flashover of Power Line Insulators Due to High-Voltage Pulses With Power ON and Power OFF

    Page(s): 467 - 474
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    This paper includes the results of an investigation of high-voltage pulse effects on insulators of a 10-kV power line. Experiments have been performed by means of equipment that simulates the simultaneous effect of a pulse disturbance and a power line operating voltage. Critical levels of insulator flashover have been determined. These levels are dependent on the pulse disturbance duration, and a number of other effects. The electric characteristics of insulators degrade when high-voltage pulses are injected on an insulator with power ON. As a result, some insulators have been destroyed. The possible reason of destruction is the presence of latent defects. View full abstract»

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  • Worldwide High-Altitude Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse Simulators

    Page(s): 475 - 483
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    The five decades since the discovery that the electromagnetic pulse created by a nuclear detonation at high altitude (HEMP) threatens the survivability of strategic military and civilian electronic systems saw development and construction worldwide of many large test facilities for simulating that threat. This paper describes simulators in three categories: guided wave, dipole, and hybrid. In 2002, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) published a compendium of technical information about 42 simulators in 14 countries using this classification system. This paper provides a summary of information in the compendium and describes some developments in the field since 2002. View full abstract»

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  • High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Risetime Evolution of Technology and Standards Exclusively for E1 Environment

    Page(s): 484 - 491
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    There are many different definitions of the risetime of a transient waveform. In the context of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) standards, the 10-90% risetime of an idealized double exponential waveform has been defined and used for many decades. However, such a risetime definition is not strictly applicable to the transient voltage out of a pulse generator, since no practical switch can close in zero time. In this paper, we discuss various definitions and their applicability. More importantly, pulse power technology has evolved over five decades and the achievable risetimes have come down from 10s of nanoseconds to 10s of picoseconds. As a corollary, the highest achievable voltage gradient has been going upwards of 1015 V/s. In this paper, we review the definitions of risetime, and trace the evolution of technology and HEMP Standards, exclusively for the E1 environments. View full abstract»

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  • Developments in Early-Time (E1) High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Test Methods

    Page(s): 492 - 499
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    This paper describes developments in high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) test methods. More specifically, we describe the most commonly used HEMP test methods and associated measurement systems used to assess systems and equipment to the early-time (E1) effects of HEMP. Short case studies of the application of these test methods are included. Finally, computational electromagnetics (CEM) is a subject that has advanced significantly in recent years. This paper summarizes developments in this area and the supporting role that CEM has when undertaking assessments of the impact of HEMP on systems. View full abstract»

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  • CW Measurements of Electromagnetic Shields

    Page(s): 500 - 507
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    When designing and qualifying hardened systems to an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) or electromagnetic interference standard, one needs a practical way to measure the effectiveness of the shield. It is not possible to test every system in a threat-level EMP test facility, so alternative methods have been developed. This paper reviews the advances made in low-level continuous wave measurement technology since the last EMC Special Issue published in 1978. These include system-level illumination as well as localized test methods for individual hardening elements. Available illuminating antennas for use on aircraft, ships, and ground-based communications systems are reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • Expedient Building Shielding Measurement Method for HEMP Assessments

    Page(s): 508 - 517
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    HEMP has long been a concern for the military, but can also be a concern for civilian or commercial facilities. The shielding effectiveness of a building can be an important part of the facility's HEMP hardness, and as such may need to be determined for an HEMP assessment. Here, a simple and easy shielding effectiveness approach is presented that can be used when a traditional approach is too expensive or prohibitive for other reasons. This approach addresses assessing an existing civilian/commercial facility, not one that has been constructed to be hardened, such as for a critical military system. View full abstract»

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  • Tolerance Values and the Confidence Level for High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Field Tests

    Page(s): 518 - 525
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses tolerance values and confidence levels for high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) field tests. An HEMP simulator provides the HEMP environment with various degrees of completeness. Deviations from the ideal waveform occur due to the simulator structure and concept. In this paper, we review tolerance values for pulse parameter specified in civil and military standards. The impact of the tolerated deviations on the test objective will be discussed. In the second part, we stress the aspect of how an HEMP test must be performed to provide sufficient confidence in the HEMP survivability of the system under test. This part starts with a brief description of a usual HEMP test setup and test procedures. Characteristics of the test procedure as well as the typical behavior of systems under tests are analyzed with statistical methods. Based on the statistical analysis, we define a confidence level, a measure of the confidence in the test result. View full abstract»

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  • Wideband Shield Door With a Magnetic Absorber

    Page(s): 526 - 531
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    It is necessary to secure a high shielding performance in a wide frequency range for a shield room to defend electrical equipment from high-power electromagnetic (HPEM) threat environments. We proposed a novel shield door with gaskets and magnetic absorbers. The magnetic losses of the magnetic absorbers realize the large shield effectiveness without impairing the door operability. The structures of magnetic absorbers are investigated through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis and experiments. We found that the multi-layered magnetic absorbers increase the shield effectiveness by 15 dB over a wide frequency range. Therefore, it is found that using the magnetic absorbers, high shielding performance can be achieved without impairing the door operability, which can provide an effective protection from the HPEM environments. View full abstract»

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  • Progress in High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Standardization

    Page(s): 532 - 538
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since the publication of the last IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility special issue on nuclear electromagnetic pulse in 1978, significant progress has been made in the development of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) standards. The standards cover HEMP environment definition, protection requirements, and test methods. In particular, civilian standards have been developed in recent times as it is recognized that the impact of HEMP disturbances is not just a concern for the military but also a concern for the largely civilian critical national infrastructure. This paper provides a summary of the HEMP standards that are presently available in the military and civilian domains. View full abstract»

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  • Introduction to the Special Section on Electromagnetic Information Security

    Page(s): 539 - 546
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    This paper introduces the special section on electromagnetic (EM) information security. Topics in this special section include theoretical studies on information propagation via EM fields; acquisition, measurement, and analysis techniques for information leakage from information and communication devices via EM fields; modeling and simulation techniques for the evaluation of EM information leakage; countermeasures against attacks based on EM information leakage; and intentional EM interference (IEMI) and electrostatic discharge threats related to information leakage. This introductory paper describes the background and motivation behind EM information security problems tackled in this special section. In addition, we briefly explain the fundamentals of EM information security: typical mechanisms of information leakage via EM fields, possible countermeasures, and ongoing standardization efforts. View full abstract»

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  • Study on Maximum Receivable Distance for Radiated Emission of Information Technology Equipment Causing Information Leakage

    Page(s): 547 - 554
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    This study has discussed the information leakage threat due to the radiated emission of information technology equipment (ITE). This paper focused on the theoretical estimation of the maximum receivable distance for the radiated emission causing the information leakage. The maximum receivable distance estimation formula was theoretically derived based on the reception capacity of a wideband receiver with a specific antenna, the limits of the electric field strength of the radiated emission of ITE regulated in CISPR 22 standard, and the attenuation by the distance in a free space for the radiated emission. In addition, the maximum receivable distance estimation in the considerable worst case was conducted by assuming some realistic parameters for a commercial high-performance wideband receiver and a commercial high-gain log-periodic antenna. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Evaluation of EM Radiation Associated With Information Leakage From Cryptographic Devices

    Page(s): 555 - 563
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    This paper presents an efficient map generation technique for evaluating the intensity of electromagnetic (EM) radiation associated with information leakage for cryptographic devices at the printed circuit board level. First, we investigate the relation between the intensity of the overall EM radiation and the intensity of EM information leakage on a cryptographic device. For this purpose, we prepare a map of the magnetic field on the device by using an EM scanning system, after which we perform correlation electromagnetic analysis (CEMA) at all measurement points on the device, including points above the cryptographic module. The examined device is a standard evaluation board for cryptographic modules (side-channel attack standard evaluation board), where a cryptographic circuit is implemented on one of the field-programmable gate arrays on the board. With this experiment, we demonstrate that both an EM radiation map and an information leakage map can be generated simultaneously by scanning the board only once. We also confirm that the generated map is in good agreement with the corresponding map obtained from exhaustive CEMAs. View full abstract»

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  • Compromising Emanations of LCD TV Sets

    Page(s): 564 - 570
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    This study attempts to characterize the radiated compromising emanations from four typical television sets with liquid-crystal display (LCD), in particular the predictability of format and timing parameters. Three were found to emit clear ultrahigh frequency radio signals visually related to the displayed image, from the display controller or its low-voltage differential signaling link to the LCD panel. Although the input signals to all four products followed the same TV standard, the timing parameters of their emanations differed substantially. Some also frequency-modulate their pixel clock to improve compliance with electromagnetic-interference limits. All digitally rescale the input image to the respective display size. The frame rate at which the display panel is driven is, if at all, only loosely phase locked to the input signal. These observations have implications for eavesdroppers, for the design of test standards to limit compromising emanations from video displays, and for the practicality of detecting the mere presence of an active television receiver by correlating the emanations of the circuitry driving its display panel with a known broadcast TV input signal. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Electromagnetic Information Leakage From Cryptographic Devices With Different Physical Structures

    Page(s): 571 - 580
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    This paper presents a novel analysis of electromagnetic (EM) information leakage from cryptographic devices, based on the electromagnetic interference (EMI) theory. In recent years, side-channel attack using side-channel information (e.g., power consumption and EM radiation) is of major concern for designers of cryptographic devices. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate how EM information leakage changes according to device's physical parameters. In this paper, we introduce a cryptographic device model to analyze EM information leakage based on the EMI theory in a systematic manner. This device model makes it possible to acquire the frequency characteristics of EM radiation depending on physical parameters, such as board size and power-line length, accurately. The analysis results show that EM information leakage can be explained by the major EMI parameters such as board size and cable length attached to the board. In addition, we demonstrate that the intensity of EM information leakage from a generic device is also explained by board size and cable length. View full abstract»

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  • Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Cryptographic Integrated Circuit for Information Security Design

    Page(s): 581 - 588
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    In this study, equivalent circuit modeling was examined to develop a method to evaluate cryptographic systems before fabrication. An equivalent circuit model of a cryptographic FPGA in which an advanced encryption standard (AES) algorithm had been implemented was determined from experimental measurements under the initial configuration of a power distribution network (PDN) of the FPGA. The model was implemented into a commercial analog circuit simulator, and power traces due to the simultaneous switching noise current were estimated under three different PDN configurations in which a decoupling circuit was inserted into the PDN as an on-board countermeasure. Estimated power traces were analyzed statistically by the correlation power analysis method to obtain correlation values, a major security index of AES. Variation of the correlation values with changes in decoupling configuration agreed with the corresponding experimental results. This means that the security of cryptographic devices against side-channel attacks can be evaluated by using the equivalent circuit model before fabrication. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced Analysis of Faults Injected Through Conducted Intentional Electromagnetic Interferences

    Page(s): 589 - 596
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    Experimental setups used in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests can be used as platforms for fault injections. Injecting faults into equipment is a means for a malevolent attacker to extract secret information. In this paper, we first present an advanced setup, i.e., a setup with characteristics beyond the main international EMC standards. It performs more accurate measurements of the disturbance power, reducing the measurement error by 20.33 dB. Second, we propose an advanced analysis methodology allowing an attacker or a countermeasure designer to identify the disturbance frequency leading to the most powerful attack. As an illustration, the method is applied on an ASIC implementation of DES, providing a thorough characterization and classification of the generated faults. In this case, the most powerful attacks are performed when the disturbance has a frequency below 1 MHz. The threat has thus to be considered really serious, as generating such disturbance does not require a high budget. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Capability publishes original and significant contributions related to all disciplines of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and relevant methods to predict, assess and prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) and increase device/product immunity.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Farhad Rachidi
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
EMC Laboratory
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 21 693 26 20 (direct)
+41 (0) 21 693 26 61 (secretariat)
Fax: +41 (0) 21 693 46 62
Email: Farhad.Rachidi@epfl.ch
url: http://emc.epfl.ch