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Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 57
  • Table of Contents

    Page(s): C1 - 5434
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial: Special issue on transportation electrification and vehicle systems

    Page(s): 5435 - 5436
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  • An LLC Resonant DC–DC Converter for Wide Output Voltage Range Battery Charging Applications

    Page(s): 5437 - 5445
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8348 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, resonant tank design procedure and practical design considerations are presented for a high performance LLC multiresonant dc-dc converter in a two-stage smart battery charger for neighborhood electric vehicle applications. The multiresonant converter has been analyzed and its performance characteristics are presented. It eliminates both low- and high-frequency current ripple on the battery, thus maximizing battery life without penalizing the volume of the charger. Simulation and experimental results are presented for a prototype unit converting 390 V from the input dc link to an output voltage range of 48-72 V dc at 650 W. The prototype achieves a peak efficiency of 96%. View full abstract»

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  • Auxiliary Switch Control of a Bidirectional Soft-Switching DC/DC Converter

    Page(s): 5446 - 5457
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    In this paper, the auxiliary switch control using a lookup table is proposed to enhance the efficiency of the bidirectional dc/dc converter used in electric vehicle, which performs soft switching. Continuous current data are difficult to obtain during a resonant operation due to the limit of DSP ADC capacity. The proposed auxiliary switch control has a lookup table reference of the auxiliary switch turn-on time. The control method properly controls the auxiliary switch turn-on time according to the required load current; this auxiliary switch control brings the more efficient control in generative and regenerative mode operation. The proposed approach has been validated by the results of experiments on a bidirectional dc/dc converter, inverter, and interior permanent magnet synchronous motor. View full abstract»

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  • A Nonlinear Controller Based on a Discrete Energy Function for an AC/DC Boost PFC Converter

    Page(s): 5458 - 5476
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    AC/DC converter systems generally have two stages: an input power factor correction (PFC) boost ac/dc stage that converts input ac voltage to an intermediate dc voltage while reducing the input current harmonics injected to the grid, followed by a dc/dc converter that steps up or down the intermediate dc-bus voltage as required by the output load and provides high-frequency galvanic isolation. Since a low-frequency ripple (second harmonic of the input ac line frequency) exists in the output voltage of the PFC ac/dc boost converter due to the power ripple, the voltage loop in the conventional control system must have a very low bandwidth in order to avoid distortions in the input current waveform. This results in the conventional PFC controller having a slow dynamic response against load variations with adverse overshoots and undershoots. This paper presents a new control approach that is based on a novel discrete energy function minimization control law that allows the front-end ac/dc boost PFC converter to operate with faster dynamic response than the conventional controllers and simultaneously maintain near unity input power factor. Experimental results from a 3-kW ac/dc converter built for charging traction battery of a pure electric vehicle are presented in this paper to validate the proposed control method and its superiority over conventional controllers. View full abstract»

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  • Development of an 85-kW Bidirectional Quasi-Z-Source Inverter With DC-Link Feed-Forward Compensation for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Page(s): 5477 - 5488
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    This paper presents a detailed operation analysis, controller design, and realization of a high-power, bidirectional quasi-Z-source inverter (BQ-ZSI) for electric vehicle applications. The circuit analysis shows that with a bidirectional switch in the quasi-Z-source network, the performance of the inverter under small inductance and low power factor can be improved. Based on the circuit analysis, a small signal model of the BQ-ZSI is derived, which indicates that the circuit is prone to oscillate when there is disturbance on the dc input voltage. Therefore, a dedicated voltage controller with feed-forward compensation is designed to reject the disturbance and stabilize the dc-link voltage during a non-shoot-through state. An 85-kW prototype has been built. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to prove the functionality of the circuit and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. View full abstract»

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  • A Fully Directional Universal Power Electronic Interface for EV, HEV, and PHEV Applications

    Page(s): 5489 - 5498
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    This study focuses on a universal power electronic interface that can be utilized in any type of the electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Basically, the proposed converter interfaces the energy storage device of the vehicle with the motor drive and the external charger, in case of PHEVs. The proposed converter is capable of operating in all directions in buck or boost modes with a noninverted output voltage (positive output voltage with respect to the input) and bidirectional power flow. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced Modulation Strategy for a Three-Phase Dual Active Bridge—Boosting Efficiency of an Electric Vehicle Converter

    Page(s): 5499 - 5507
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (959 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three-phase dual active bridge (3p-DAB) dc-to-dc converters are typically avoided in low-power applications especially for wide voltage and power ranges. Even so, the 3p-DAB do offer a means to reduce filter costs and volume. The aim of this study is to propose the triangular and trapezoidal modulation for the 3p-DAB to address the problem of poor partial load efficiency. The proposed modulation schemes were compared with two conventional DAB concepts. It was found that the efficiency of the 3p-DAB increased substantially. Moreover, the 3p-DAB showed a considerably lower filter volume than that of the single-phase dual active bridge converter (1p-DAB). In conclusion, a modulation strategy combining the two proposed modulation schemes with the phase-shift modulation is ideal, because they boost efficiency and take most benefit from the inherent low filter volume. Ultimately, the three-phase dual active bridge may offer a promising solution to miniaturize galvanically isolated dc-to-dc converters for electric vehicles. View full abstract»

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  • An Advanced Power Electronics Interface for Electric Vehicles Applications

    Page(s): 5508 - 5521
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    Power electronics interfaces play an increasingly important role in the future clean vehicle technologies. This paper proposes a novel integrated power electronics interface (IPEI) for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in order to optimize the performance of the powertrain. The proposed IPEI is responsible for the power-flow management for each operating mode. In this paper, an IPEI is proposed and designed to realize the integration of the dc/dc converter, on-board battery charger, and dc/ac inverter together in the BEV powertrain with high performance. The proposed concept can improve the system efficiency and reliability, can reduce the current and voltage ripples, and can reduce the size of the passive and active components in the BEV drivetrains compared to other topologies. In addition, low electromagnetic interference and low stress in the power switching devices are expected. The proposed topology and its control strategy are designed and analyzed by using MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results related to this research are presented and discussed. Finally, the proposed topology is experimentally validated with results obtained from the prototypes that have been built and integrated in our laboratory based on TMS320F2808 DSP. View full abstract»

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  • Power Electronic Traction Transformer-Low Voltage Prototype

    Page(s): 5522 - 5534
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1643 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, a world's first ever power electronic traction transformer (PETT) for 15 kV, 16 2/3Hz railway grid, has been newly developed, commissioned, and installed on the locomotive, where it is presently in use. This marks an important milestone in the traction world. The design and development of the PETT are described in this paper, where a low-voltage (LV) PETT prototype is presented. It has been designed for the purposes of control hardware and software commissioning, thus serving a role of an analogue simulator. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the overall system requirements, from where control system has been developed, implemented, and successfully commissioned. The development of a 1.2MVA medium-voltage PETT prototype will be reported separately in accompanying paper. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Interleaved Bidirectional Snubberless Soft-Switching Current-Fed Full-Bridge Voltage Doubler for Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    Page(s): 5535 - 5546
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    This paper presents a novel interleaved soft-switching bidirectional snubberless current-fed full-bridge voltage doubler (dc/dc converter) for an energy storage system in fuel cell electric vehicles. A novel secondary modulation technique is also proposed to clamp the voltage across the primary-side switches naturally with zero-current commutation. It, therefore, eliminates the necessity for an external active-clamped circuit or passive snubbers to absorb the switch turn-off voltage spike, a major challenge in current-fed converters. Zero-current switching of primary-side devices and zero-voltage switching of secondary-side devices are achieved, which significantly reduce switching losses. An interleaved design is adopted over a single cell to increase the power handling capacity obtaining merits of lower input current ripple, reduction of passive components' size, reduced device voltage and current ratings, reduced conduction losses due to current sharing, and better thermal distribution. Primary device voltage is clamped at rather low-reflected output voltage, which enables the use of low-voltage semiconductor devices having low on-state resistance. Considering input current is shared between interleaved cells, conduction loss of the primary side, a considerable part of total loss, is significantly reduced and higher efficiency can be achieved to obtain a compact and higher power density system. Steady-state operation, analysis, and design of the proposed topology have been presented. Simulation is conducted over software package PSIM 9.0.4 to verify the accuracy of the proposed analysis and design. A 500-W prototype has been built and tested in the laboratory to validate the converter performance. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Single-Reference Six-Pulse-Modulation (SRSPM) Technique-Based Interleaved High-Frequency Three-Phase Inverter for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Page(s): 5547 - 5556
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1163 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a hybrid modulation technique consisting of singe-reference six-pulse-modulation (SRSPM) for front-end dc/dc converter and 33% modulation for three-phase inverter. Employing proposed novel SRSPM to control front-end dc/dc converter, high frequency (HF) pulsating dc voltage waveform is produced, which is equivalent to six-pulse output at 6× line frequency (rectified 6-pulse output of balanced three-phase ac waveforms) once averaged. It reduces the control complexity owing to single-reference three-phase modulation as compared to conventional three-reference three-phase SPWM. In addition, it relives the need of dc-link capacitor reducing the cost and volume. Eliminating dc link capacitor helps in retaining the modulated information at the input of the three-phase inverter. It needs only 33% (one third) modulation of the inverter devices to generate balanced three-phase voltage waveforms resulting in significant saving in (at least 66%) switching losses of inverter semiconductor devices. At any instant of line cycle, only two switches are required to switch at HF and remaining switches retain their unique state of either ON or OFF. Besides, inverter devices are not commutated when the current through them is at its peak value. Drop in switching loss accounts to be around 86.6% in comparison with a standard voltage source inverter (VSI) employing standard three-phase sine pulse width modulation. This paper explains operation and analysis of the HF two-stage inverter modulated by the proposed novel modulation scheme. Analysis has been verified by simulation results using PSIM9.0.4. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed modulation. View full abstract»

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  • Development of Si IGBT Phase-Leg Modules for Operation at 200 °C in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    Page(s): 5557 - 5567
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1338 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A Si insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) phase-leg module is developed for operating at 200°C in hybrid electric vehicle applications utilizing the high temperature packaging technologies and appropriate thermal management. The static and switching electrical characteristics of the fabricated power module are tested at various temperatures, showing that the module can operate reliably with increased but acceptable losses at 200°C. The criterion on thermal performance is given to prevent thermal runaway caused by fast increase of the leakage current during a high temperature operation. Afterward, the thermal management system is designed to meet the criterion, the performance of which is evaluated with experiment. Furthermore, two temperature-sensitive electrical parameters, on-state voltage drop and the switching time, are employed for thermal impedance characterization and the junction temperature measurement during converter operation, respectively. Finally, a 10-kW buck converter prototype composed of the module assembly is built and operated at the junction temperature up to 200°C. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of operating Si device-based converters continuously at 200°C. View full abstract»

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  • In Situ Diagnostics and Prognostics of Wire Bonding Faults in IGBT Modules for Electric Vehicle Drives

    Page(s): 5568 - 5577
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (906 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a diagnostic and prognostic condition monitoring method for insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) power modules for use primarily in electric vehicle applications. The wire-bond-related failure, one of the most commonly observed packaging failures, is investigated by analytical and experimental methods using the on-state voltage drop as a failure indicator. A sophisticated test bench is developed to generate and apply the required current/power pulses to the device under test. The proposed method is capable of detecting small changes in the failure indicators of the IGBTs and freewheeling diodes and its effectiveness is validated experimentally. The novelty of the work lies in the accurate online testing capacity for diagnostics and prognostics of the power module with a focus on the wire bonding faults, by injecting external currents into the power unit during the idle time. Test results show that the IGBT may sustain a loss of half the bond wires before the impending fault becomes catastrophic. The measurement circuitry can be embedded in the IGBT drive circuits and the measurements can be performed in situ when the electric vehicle stops in stop-and-go, red light traffic conditions, or during routine servicing. View full abstract»

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  • Single-Bus Star-Connected Switched Reluctance Drive

    Page(s): 5578 - 5587
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    Switched reluctance machines provide a feasible solution for automotive applications. However, a small and low cost power electronics driver is of interest for this purpose. This paper presents a control algorithm for a single-bus star-connected switched reluctance drive system. This algorithm enables the conventional Miller topology to control the phase currents in the multiphase excitation mode of operation. This control algorithm is introduced for motoring and generating modes of operation. The introduced algorithm is simulated under motoring and generating modes. Afterward, experimental measurements are illustrated to prove the practicality of the proposed concept. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a Hybrid Busbar Filter Combining a Transmission-Line Busbar Filter and a One-Turn Inductor for DC-Fed Three-Phase Motor Drive Systems

    Page(s): 5588 - 5602
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1333 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The transmission-line busbar filter is an innovative high-density electromagnetic interference (EMI) containment solution for power electronics systems. It uses the concept of the transmission-line EMI filter as a part of the power interconnection to eliminate the EMI noises in power converters. This paper presents a systematic study of the transmission-line busbar filter in a motor drive system, which includes its design, modeling, and improvement using a hybrid approach. The paper investigates the relationship between the busbar filter's in-circuit attenuation and its geometry, and then derives a general design guideline for the transmission-line busbar EMI filters. To improve the performance of the transmission-line busbar filter, the paper proposes a hybrid busbar filter combining a transmission-line busbar filter and a one-turn inductor. This improvement provides much higher attenuation than the traditional transmission-line busbar filters. These proposed concepts have been verified experimentally not only with small-signal measurement but also with in-circuit tests in a medium-power motor drive system. View full abstract»

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  • Current Minimizing Torque Control of the IPMSM Using Ferrari’s Method

    Page(s): 5603 - 5617
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6523 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the torque control of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), it is necessary to determine a current command set that minimizes the magnitude of the current vector. This is known as the maximum torque per ampere. In the field-weakening region, current minimizing solutions are found at the intersection with the voltage limits. However, the optimal problem yields fourth-order polynomials (quartic equations), and no attempt has been made to solve these quartic equations online for torque control. Instead, premade lookup tables are widely used. These lookup tables tend to be huge because it is necessary to create separate tables on the basis of the dc-link voltage and motor temperature. In this study, we utilize Ferrari's method, which gives the solution to a quartic equation, for the torque control. Further, a recursive method is also considered to incorporate the inductance change from the core saturation. A simulation and some experiments were performed using an electric vehicle motor, which demonstrated the validity of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • An Adaptive Quasi-Sliding-Mode Rotor Position Observer-Based Sensorless Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    Page(s): 5618 - 5629
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1385 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Advantages such as parameter insensitivity and high robustness to system structure uncertainty make the sliding-mode observer (SMO) a promising solution for sensorless control of interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSMs). In practical industry applications, in order to utilize digital controllers and achieve comparable performance under a lower sampling frequency, a discrete-time or quasi-SMO (QSMO) is commonly used. However, because of the saliency of an IPMSM, the magnitude of the extended electromotive force (EMF) will change with load (torque and/or speed) variations, which makes it challenging for the QSMO to estimate the extended EMF accurately. Without proper observer parameters, a phase shift will be observed in the QSMO-estimated rotor position when the load changes. In order to overcome this problem, an adaptive QSMO using an online parameter adaption scheme is proposed to estimate the extended EMF components in an IPMSM, which are then used to estimate the rotor position of the IPMSM. The resulting position estimation has zero phase lags and is highly robust to load variations. The proposed adaptive QSMO is implemented on a 150-kW IPMSM drive system used in heavy-duty, off-road, hybrid electric vehicles. Testing results for ramp torque changes, four-quadrant operations, and complete torque reversals between full motoring and full braking modes are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed sensorless control algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Universal Sensor Concept for Survivable PMSM Drives

    Page(s): 5630 - 5638
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1063 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Permanent-magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) are widely used as propulsion motors in hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid, and electric vehicles and as generators in renewable energy applications. Since position and current information is typically indispensable for PMSM control strategies such as vector control or direct torque control, failure of an encoder/resolver or current sensors could lead to a catastrophic failure, if no protection or backup plan is established. This paper lays groundwork for developing a novel backup universal sensor concept for PMSM with position and current estimation. Estimated position and current could be used for sensor fault detection or survivable drive, giving its drive system a “+1” fault tolerance. This technique uses search coils, which are implemented to directly monitor magnetic flux through stator teeth. Adaptive position estimator and a current estimator have been designed based on the search coil model, which overcomes the issue of resistance variation that exists in many estimators reported in literature. Simulation and experimental verification are presented to verify feasibility of the proposed strategy. View full abstract»

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  • Maximum Voltage Utilization of IPMSMs Using Modulating Voltage Scalability for Automotive Applications

    Page(s): 5639 - 5646
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (940 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A hybrid maximum voltage utilization controller is developed for interior permanent-magnet synchronous motors over a wide operating range. The structure of the controller combines the current vector control (CVC)-type maximum torque per ampere controller and the modulating voltage-scaled controller (MVSC). The hybrid structure provides a smooth transition from the CVC to the proposed MVSC mode by deactivating the current regulator in the flux weakening region. A seamless transition to a full six-step modulation can be realized by adjusting the scaling gain, which is a significant merit in terms of power utilization for wide flux weakening applications. This paper also examines the torque control accuracy under motor parameter drifts to determine how to decouple its effect using a voltage disturbance state-filter design. View full abstract»

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  • Synchronous Demodulation of Control Voltages for Stator Interturn Fault Detection in PMSM

    Page(s): 5647 - 5654
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (735 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new technique for stator winding interturn fault detection in current-controlled permanent magnet synchronous machines is proposed. The method is based on online extraction of the second harmonic component of the voltage reference vector in the dq frame. It will be shown that the amplitude of this harmonic depends on the interturn fault severity and the fault detection is realized by comparing the magnitude of the control voltage second harmonic, derived using a proper time-domain transformation, to a predefined threshold. This is a low-cost method in CPU burden time. The experimental results show the validity of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • A Precise Model-Based Design of Voltage Phase Controller for IPMSM

    Page(s): 5655 - 5664
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2473 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a model-based design method of voltage phase controller for IPMSM. The voltage phase controller controls the torque with the output voltage phase only in high-speed region where the inverter output voltage amplitude is saturated. However, voltage phase control cannot achieve quick torque response because it is designed in defiance of transient characteristic. Due to the nonlinear characteristic between torque and voltage phase, a model-based design has not yet been carried out. In this paper, a model-based design is proposed by linearizing the relationship between torque and voltage phase. The analysis of the proposed model describes that the plant is a nonminimum phase system. Simulation results and experimental results show the effectiveness of the model-based design method which uses the proposed model. Furthermore, the stable analysis shows that the conventional design method has low bandwidth due to an unstable zero of the plant. View full abstract»

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  • The Weighted Vector Control of Speed-Irrelevant Dual Induction Motors Fed by the Single Inverter

    Page(s): 5665 - 5672
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1009 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To improve the control performance of unbalanced load of parallel-connected dual induction motors fed by a single inverter, a novel control strategy based on the weighted vector control is proposed. In this paper, a weighted flux linkage vector model of dual induction motors is developed, and then the control expressions of weighted rotor flux linkage and summation torque of dual speed-irrelevant motors are derived. The weight value of vector control for dual induction motors in unbalanced load is distributed automatically according to the torques and motor speeds. The experimental results in multiple induction motor platforms prove that the proposed method can start in a wide load range, especially at heavy unbalanced load and improves the performance of dynamic response with a sudden change of unbalanced load. View full abstract»

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  • Review of the Impact of Vehicle-to-Grid Technologies on Distribution Systems and Utility Interfaces

    Page(s): 5673 - 5689
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (838 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plug-in vehicles can behave either as loads or as a distributed energy and power resource in a concept known as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) connection. This paper reviews the current status and implementation impact of V2G/grid-to-vehicle (G2V) technologies on distributed systems, requirements, benefits, challenges, and strategies for V2G interfaces of both individual vehicles and fleets. The V2G concept can improve the performance of the electricity grid in areas such as efficiency, stability, and reliability. A V2G-capable vehicle offers reactive power support, active power regulation, tracking of variable renewable energy sources, load balancing, and current harmonic filtering. These technologies can enable ancillary services, such as voltage and frequency control and spinning reserve. Costs of V2G include battery degradation, the need for intensive communication between the vehicles and the grid, effects on grid distribution equipment, infrastructure changes, and social, political, cultural, and technical obstacles. Although V2G operation can reduce the lifetime of vehicle batteries, it is projected to become economical for vehicle owners and grid operators. Components and unidirectional/bidirectional power flow technologies of V2G systems, individual and aggregated structures, and charging/recharging frequency and strategies (uncoordinated/coordinated smart) are addressed. Three elements are required for successful V2G operation: power connection to the grid, control and communication between vehicles and the grid operator, and on-board/off-board intelligent metering. Success of the V2G concept depends on standardization of requirements and infrastructure decisions, battery technology, and efficient and smart scheduling of limited fast-charge infrastructure. A charging/discharging infrastructure must be deployed. Economic benefits of V2G technologies depend on vehicle aggregation and charging/recharging frequency and strategies. The benefits will receive increased a- tention from grid operators and vehicle owners in the future. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics covers fundamental technologies used in the control and conversion of electric power.

Full Aims & Scope