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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date June 2013

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
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  • Fast Evaluation of Time–Harmonic Maxwell's Equations Using the Reduced Basis Method

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2265 - 2274
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The reduced basis method (RBM) generates low- order models for the solution of parametrized partial differential equations to allow for efficient evaluation in many-query and real-time contexts. We show the theoretical framework in which the RBM is applied to Maxwell's equations and present numerical results for model reduction in frequency domain. Using rigorous error estimators, the RBM achieves low-order models under variation of material parameters and geometry. The RBM reduces model order by a factor of 50 to 100 and reduces compute time by a factor of 200 and more for numerical experiments using standard circuit elements. View full abstract»

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  • Universal Matrices for Edge Elements

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2275 - 2281
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1306 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces universal matrices for the computation of edge-element matrices on triangles and tetrahedra. Universal matrices are useful because they allow a simple and efficient implementation of edge-element codes for computational electromagnetics. These matrices are partially derived from nodal universal matrices, permitting some reuse of nodal finite-element codes. Although universal matrices are limited to noncurvilinear elements, some intermediate matrices instrumental to their construction can be used for the efficient computation of edge-element matrices on curvilinear elements. View full abstract»

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  • Compact Time-Domain Models of Complex RF Structures Based on the Real Eigenmodes of Segments

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2282 - 2294
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wideband modeling of complex loss-free isotropic RF structures is a challenging task in electrical engineering. This paper presents a new formalism to create compact wideband equivalent models of complex RF structures. In a first step, the complex structure is partitioned into segments. On the basis of the segment's eigenmodes with either vanishing tangential electric or magnetic fields on the boundary and a correction term, systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are derived. In consequence, real eigenvalue problems need to be solved for each segment in addition to the actual field distribution in the segment, which only needs to be computed for a small number of discrete frequency samples for the correction term. Linking the established ODE systems of the segments with a suitable concatenation scheme leads to an ODE system for the entire structure. This system allows the computation of complex structure responses because of transient port excitation and the determination of transient 3-D fields in the structure. As a side product, the frequency-domain transfer function of the complex structure is available. Besides the theoretical derivations, two validation examples for the time-domain scheme are presented. These examples show that the method provides a good approximation of the transient processes in the structures under consideration. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Synthesis of Split-Rings-Based Artificial Transmission Lines Through a New Two-Step, Fast Converging, and Robust Aggressive Space Mapping (ASM) Algorithm

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2295 - 2308
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2628 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is focused on the synthesis of artificial transmission lines based on complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs). The considered structures are microstrip lines with CSRRs etched in the ground plane and microstrip lines loaded with both CSRRs and series capacitive gaps. An aggressive space mapping (ASM) optimization algorithm, able to automatically generate the layout of these artificial lines, has been developed. The tool has been optimized in order to achieve fast convergence and to provide accurate results. The main relevant aspects of the proposed algorithm (based on a novel two-step ASM optimization approach) are: 1) the capability to provide the implementable circuit elements of the equivalent circuit model of the considered artificial lines and 2) the ability to converge in a few (unprecedented) iteration steps, due to a new procedure to generate the initial layouts (which are very close to the final ones). First, the software is tested through the synthesis of several CSRR-based microstrip lines, and then some practical application examples of such artificial lines are reported to illustrate the potential of the proposed synthesis tool. View full abstract»

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  • Dual-Band Planar Crossover With Two-Section Branch-Line Structure

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2309 - 2316
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1686 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A dual-band planar crossover with simple structure is proposed. This crossover is derived from the conventional single-band two-section branch-line crossover by doubly extending the length of its vertical transmission lines, which realizes the dual-band operation. Closed-form equations for design parameters are derived, which simplifies design procedure of the proposed crossover and shows that the available bandwidth of the passband increases with the increasing frequency ratio. By adding one short-circuited stub and one open-circuited stub to the originally proposed dual-band crossover, two types of modified dual-band crossovers and their closed-form design equations are proposed for smaller and larger frequency ratios applications. For verification, four different dual-band crossovers are designed and simulated, of which two microstrip crossovers operating at 1/1.8 and 1/2.3 GHz are fabricated and measured. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated ones. View full abstract»

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  • Miniaturized Arbitrary Phase-Difference Couplers for Arbitrary Coupling Coefficients

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2317 - 2324
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1755 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a planar miniaturized arbitrary phase-difference coupler with arbitrary coupling coefficients is proposed. The proposed coupler consists of three coupled-line sections which achieves a compact circuit layout in microstrip implementation. The circuit parameters of this novel coupler can be easily determined by the derived closed-form equations and the corresponding performance analysis in terms of the bandwidth and miniaturization requirement is provided. Two prototypes with this proposed structure, operating at 2 GHz, have been designed and implemented using microstrip technology. One has a 45° phase difference with - 3-dB coupling coefficient and the other demonstrates a 60° phase difference with - 4.77-dB coupling coefficient. In addition, over 20% fractional bandwidth, which is defined as 5° phase error and 0.5-dB magnitude imbalance, is obtained in both of the two prototypes. View full abstract»

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  • Large Bandwidth Digital Phase Shifters With All-Pass, High-Pass, and Low-Pass Networks

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2325 - 2331
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1093 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Large bandwidth phase shifters using a combination of an all-pass network (APN), a high-pass network (HPN), and a low-pass networks (LPN) are presented. An exact equiripple phase-shift response is first derived for an infinite series of an APN using phase superposition. However, the realization is impractical and the topology is modified by truncating the series of the APN. A pair of properly designed HPN and LPN is added to compensate for the phase error introduced by the truncation. To verify the topology, phase-shifting networks of 90° and 180° with a bandwidth from less than 100 MHz to more than 2 GHz are designed and measured. A frequency ratio of 35 and 25 has been achieved by the 90° and 180° phase-shifting networks, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • A New Class of Pseudoelliptic Waveguide Filters Using Dual-Post Resonators

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2332 - 2339
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1510 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new class of inline pseudoelliptic waveguide filters is presented in this paper. The proposed structure is based on a novel resonator, namely, the dual-post resonator, consisting of a pair of antipodal partial-height posts. The odd and even symmetry modes of the dual-post resonator are exploited as the resonant mode and nonresonating mode, respectively. The nonresonating mode generates a direct input-to-output coupling, thus providing a transmission zero that can be located either below or above the pole of the resonant mode. The coupling between the resonant mode and the source (or load), as well as the input-to-output coupling, can be controlled by properly selecting the height and position of each post of the dual-post resonator, no additional waveguide discontinuity being needed. N th-order filtering functions with a number of transmission zeros up to the number of poles can be realized by cascading N dual-post resonators. With respect to the conventional inline waveguide filter with inductive obstacles, the dual-post filter is easier to tune, shorter, and more selective, such advantages being paid by a somewhat lower Q factor. The design of fourth- and sixth-order dual-post filters is presented; the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the approach proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-Position RF MEMS Tunable Capacitors Using Laterally Moving Sidewalls of 3-D Micromachined Transmission Lines

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2340 - 2352
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2532 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel concept of RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) tunable capacitors based on the lateral displacement of the sidewalls of a 3-D micromachined coplanar transmission line. The tuning of a single device is achieved in multiple discrete and well-defined tuning steps by integrated multi-stage MEMS electrostatic actuators that are embedded inside the ground layer of the transmission line. Three different design concepts, including devices with up to seven discrete tuning steps up to a tuning range of 58.6 to 144.5 fF (C_{\max }/ C_{\min} = 2.46) , have been fabricated and characterized. The highest Q factor, measured by a weakly coupled transmission-line resonator, was determined as 88 at 40 GHz and was achieved for a device concept where the mechanical suspension elements were completely de-coupled from the RF signal path. These devices have demonstrated high self-actuation robustness with self-actuation pull-in occurring at 41.5 and 47.8 dBm for mechanical spring constants of 5.8 and 27.7 N/m, respectively. Nonlinearity measurements revealed that the third-order intermodulation intercept point (IIP3) for all discrete device states is above the measurement-setup limit of 68.5 dBm for our 2.5-GHz IIP3 setup, with a dual-tone separation of 12 MHz. Based on capacitance/gap/spring measurements, the IIP3 was calculated for all states to be between 71–91 dBm. For a mechanical spring design of 5.8 N/m, the actuation and release voltages were characterized as 30.7 and 21.15 V, respectively, and the pull-in time for the actuator bouncing to drop below 8% of the gap was measured to be 140 \mu s. The mechanical resonance frequencies were measured to be 5.3 and 17.2 kHz for spring constant designs of 5.8 and 27.7 N/m, respectively. Reliability ch- racterization exceeded 1 billion cycles, even in an uncontrolled atmospheric environment, with no degradation in the pull-in/pull-out hysteresis behavior being observed over these cycling tests. View full abstract»

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  • 140–220-GHz DHBT Detectors

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2353 - 2360
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1833 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses G -band (140-220 GHz) detectors based on a 250-nm InP-InGaAs-InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor process available from the Teledyne Scientific Company. Two types of detectors are presented-a passive detector where the transistor's base-emitter junction nonlinearity is used, and an active detector, where the transistor transconductance nonlinearity is used for detection. Measurements of transistor noise-power spectrum density at low frequencies is used to model and predict the noise equivalent power (NEP) of the detectors. Analysis of responsivity and noise is presented and compared with measurements. Both configurations are analyzed and compared in terms of noise-voltage, responsivity and NEP. The conclusion that the passive detector offers lower NEP is analyzed and explained. View full abstract»

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  • A Balanced Digital Phase Shifter by a Novel Switching-Mode Topology

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2361 - 2370
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1784 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A balanced digital phase shifter by a novel switching-mode topology is proposed. A 3-bit balanced digital phase shifter is given as an example, the working bandwidth of which is from 2.3 to 2.7 GHz. The proposed 3-bit balanced phase shifter comprises two balanced loaded-line phase shifters (90° and 45°) and six twist-line broadband 180° phase shifters. The balanced loaded-line digital phase shifter changes phases while the even- or odd-mode signal is excited. The 180° phase shifter controls the balanced signal to be even or odd mode. The commensurate transmission line filter is used as the biasing circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Unified Theory of Oscillator Phase Noise I: White Noise

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2371 - 2381
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1659 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The spectral purity of every oscillator system is limited by phase noise. In this work, we extend the techniques previously used to analyze phase noise in lasers to develop an intuitive, yet powerful description of phase noise in an electromagnetic oscillator for the case when the oscillating field is sinusoidal and perturbed by white noise. The developed theory is general and unifies the understanding of phase noise in both electrical and optical oscillators. Our approach is based on partitioning the noise among the modes of the oscillator, which is analogous to the approach used to analyze phase noise in laser cavities, but has not been previously considered for electrical oscillators. We show that oscillator phase noise depends only on the oscillating power, injected noise, and round-trip delay. This result provides a theoretical foundation to and expands upon the predictions provided by Leeson's well-known empirical oscillator phase-noise model. To validate the developed theory, we compare the predicted phase noise to the experimentally measured phase noise of both a simple electrical oscillator and a hybrid opto-electronic oscillator and show excellent agreement across a wide range of operation. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Minimization of Flicker Noise Up-Conversion in Voltage-Biased Oscillators

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2382 - 2394
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2451 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Traditional design of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs) can lead to unacceptable degradation of the 1/f^3 phase-noise component when a broad tuning range is required. In this paper, the flicker noise up-conversion mechanisms in a voltage-biased topology are deeply investigated, providing general design guidelines for its mitigation. An improved VCO architecture is then introduced, where a segmented transconductor tailors the excess gain depending on the operating range to ensure that 1/f noise up-conversion remains minimal over the tuning range. The solution covers both fourth-generation and WiMAX 2.5-GHz bands and leads to a 10-dB reduction of the 1/f^3 phase noise with respect to a traditional design without impairing the 1/f^2 phase-noise performance. View full abstract»

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  • A CMOS Transformer-Based Current Reused SSBM and QVCO for UWB Application

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2395 - 2401
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1861 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design of a low-voltage current-reused single-sideband mixer (SSBM) and quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO) for Mode-1 multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra-wideband frequency synthesizer application. The proposed architecture is a low-voltage and low-power solution by stacking the SSBM on top of a pMOS parallel QVCO. For low-voltage operation, two symmetric transformers are used to perform quadrature oscillation and signal coupling. In addition, source degeneration capacitors are introduced to eliminate bimodal oscillation in QVCO and fix the phase sequence of the quadrature signal. For experimental demonstration, the proposed circuit was fabricated in a 0.18- \mu{\hbox {m}} CMOS technology. The prototype occupies a core area of 0.8  {\hbox {mm}}^{2} and consumes about 11 mA from a 1.6-V power supply. Measurement results show that the image spurious rejection is over 43 dBc and the output phase noise of the SSBM is better than {-}{\hbox {111.4 dBc/Hz}} at 1-MHz offset from carrier (3.432 GHz). View full abstract»

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  • 65-nm CMOS Dual-Gate Device for Ka-Band Broadband Low-Noise Amplifier and High-Accuracy Quadrature Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2402 - 2413
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3030 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Design and analysis of a two-stage low-noise amplifier (LNA) and a bottom-series coupled quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO) using a 65-nm CMOS dual-gate device are present in this paper. By using the proposed dual-gate device, the parasitic capacitance and the effective substrate resistance can be reduced. Moreover, the 3-dB cutoff frequency can be extended due to the reduction of the Miller effect. The bandwidth of the dual-gate LNA is investigated to compare with the conventional cascode configuration. Besides, the operation principle of the quadrature signal generation using the dual-gate device is also presented for the QVCO design. The two-stage dual-gate LNA demonstrates a flat 3-dB bandwidth of 7.3 GHz from 19.4 to 26.7 GHz and a maximum gain of 18.9 dB. At 24 GHz, the measured minimum noise figure is 4.7 dB, and the measured output third-order intercept point (OIP3) is 11 dBm. The dual-gate QVCO exhibits an oscillation frequency of up to 25.3 GHz, a phase noise of -109 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset frequency, an amplitude error of 0.16 dB, and a phase error of 0.8°. The proposed dual-gate CMOS device is very suitable for the linear and nonlinear circuit designs above 20 GHz, especially for millimeter-wave applications due to its high speed and compact area. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Power Performance Measurement of a Planar Metamaterial Power-Combined Amplifier

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2414 - 2424
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1839 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a planar nine-way metamaterial power-combined amplifier implemented with microstrip grids, lumped capacitors and inductors, and power amplifiers is presented. The power-dividing/combining structure is a metamaterial lens composed of positive refractive index (PRI) material with right-handed unit cells and zero refractive index (ZRI) material with left-handed unit cells. A semi-circular interface is between PRI and ZRI materials. The infinite wavelength phenomenon in the ZRI material attains an equal magnitude and phase distribution to have an interconnection with the collinearly aligned amplifiers as a nine-way metamaterial power-combined amplifier with its input and output ports at the two focal points of a planar PRI–ZRI–PRI lens. An output power of 7.64 W with a combining efficiency of 85% is measured at 1.008 GHz. Through the field measurement to each unit cell, the dividing/combining phenomenon is experimentally verified and shown in a good agreement with simulation results. Furthermore, the graceful degradation characteristic of this power-combined amplifier is experimentally demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • High-Gain and Linear 60-GHz Power Amplifier With a Thin Digital 65-nm CMOS Technology

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2425 - 2437
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2862 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The analysis and optimization of millimeter-wave coupling structures are detailed to design a high-performance V-band 65-nm CMOS parallel power amplifier (PA). The difficulty in this design consists of the use of a thin digital seven metal layer, back end of line, and low-power transistors dedicated to pure digital applications. In this context, two transformer-based power-combining schemes are compared using a lumped model analysis. A distributed active transformer with a mixed current-voltage mode is then proposed for power combination. Furthermore, baluns and 0° 1-4 splitters are codesigned and implemented in the design. Two PAs are fabricated and measured. The first PA represents the power stage of the high-gain linear PA. At 61 GHz, the PA achieves a peak power gain of 20 dB with a 13.5-dBm 1-dB output compression point (OCP1dB) . It produces 15.6-dBm saturated power and a power-added efficiency of 6.6% from a 1.2-V supply. Finally, experimental measurements of the temperature distribution in the CMOS PA chip are illustrated and analyzed. To the authors' knowledge, these results represent the highest linear output power and gain performances among PAs using the same digital technology. View full abstract»

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  • A 210-GHz Amplifier in 40-nm Digital CMOS Technology

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2438 - 2446
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2036 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a 210-GHz amplifier design in 40-nm digital bulk CMOS technology. The theoretical maximum voltage gain that an amplifier can achieve and the loss of a matching network are derived for the optimization of a few hundred gigahertz amplifiers. Accordingly, the bias and size of transistors, circuit topology, and inter-stage coupling method can be determined methodically to maximize the amplifier gain. The measured results show that the amplifier exhibits a peak power gain of 10.5 dB at 213.5 GHz and an estimated 3-dB bandwidth of 13 GHz. The power consumption is only 42.3 mW under a 0.8-V supply. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this work demonstrates the CMOS amplifier with highest operation frequency reported thus far. View full abstract»

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  • An Energy-Efficient IR-UWB Receiver Based on Distributed Pulse Correlator

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2447 - 2459
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2080 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new circuit technique called distributed pulse correlator (DPC) is proposed for pulse detection in ultra-wideband impulse radio (IR-UWB) receivers. Among several IR-UWB transceiver architectures, an analog correlation receiver has the advantages of good performance and reduced circuit complexity, but requires a correlator and a template pulse with good time resolution. To achieve both fine time resolution and low power consumption, a DPC time-interleaves multiple sampling stages operating in a power-saving pulsed mode and incorporates a built-in mechanism to generate the reconfigurable local template pulse. The operation of the DPC is theoretically analyzed and its performance evaluated, followed by a detailed discussion of its circuit implementation. A chip prototype of a 3–10-GHz analog correlation receiver employing an eight-tap, 10-GSample/s DPC was designed and fabricated in a 0.18- \mu m standard digital CMOS technology. In the measurement, the DPC achieves a pulse rate of 250 MHz with an energy efficiency of 40 pJ/pulse, and the whole receiver achieves an energy efficiency of 190 pJ/pulse at the 250-MHz pulse rate. The complete IR-UWB link (a transmitter, a receiver, and antennas) is also tested. View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic Near-Field Probes With High-Pass and Notch Filters for Electric Field Suppression

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2460 - 2470
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2999 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several new types of low-cost and robust magnetic near-field probes manufactured in low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) are presented in this paper. Parallel C-shaped strips and their variations are inserted into the loop area in the front end of probes to achieve common-mode high-pass and notch filters for electric-field noise suppression. These probes with this kind of filter have excellent wideband electric field suppression. They are called high electric field suppression probes type A ~ D. The size of loop aperture in all probes is 100 μm long and 400 μm wide. The signal received from the loop is routed to a measurement apparatus through a semi-rigid coaxial cable with an outer diameter of 0.047 in. The flip-chip junction with low loss and good shielding is used between the probe head in LTCC and the semi-rigid coaxial cable. We take the probes over a 2000-μm-wide microstrip line as device-under-test to measure the probe characteristics. The isolation between electric and magnetic fields for a reference probe based on an old design using the same LTCC process is better than 30 dB from 0.05 to 12.65 GHz. The type A probe has two parallel C-shaped strips, it has better isolation of 35 dB from 0.1 to 11.05 GHz. Type C has one end of its strip shorted to ground, its 30-dB isolation frequency range can be extended to 0.05 ~ 17.8 GHz. With additional layout variation in type D, isolation can be improved to 40 dB up to 10.9 GHz. The spatial resolution for these probes is 140 μm when the distance between the metal surface of the microstrip line and the nearest edge of the loop is held at 120 μm. The calibration factors of the proposed probes are only slightly increased as compared with reference probe. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Permittivity Determination for Materials With Out-of-Plane and Off-Diagonal Dielectric Anisotropy

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2471 - 2480
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1674 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A general and fast procedure for determining the complex anisotropic and dispersive permittivity for materials with anisotropy along the permittivity tensor diagonal and in-plane off-diagonal is presented. The procedure extracts the anisotropic tensor elements from co- and cross-polarized free-space transmission measurements of a material slab of arbitrary thickness. Numerical studies involving simulated transmission data are presented to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the approach. Measurements of a known isotropic dielectric and two engineered anisotropic specimens were used to further validate and demonstrate the accuracy and capability of the procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Harmonics in UHF RFID Signals

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2481 - 2490
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2170 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a detailed study is proposed on the properties of UHF RF identification (RFID) signals when the communication between the reader and tag is established. The main objective is to analyze the harmonics produced by the chip and radiated by the tag antenna. From experimentation, the characteristics of the nonlinearities contained in the signals are highlighted and linked to the theory of the backscattering in the RFID context. Several experiences taking into account the standards are proposed. Moreover, several commercial tags are considered in order to compare the observations. The used configuration, the experimental setup, and the protocols are described in detail. In particular, the generation of periodic and reproducible sequences of bits is introduced and its advantages are emphasized. Finally, contrarily to the classic approaches that tend to eliminate the harmonics generated by the rectifiers of tags, the great interest of the possible exploitation of backscattered harmonics is discussed in perspectives and some ideas of applications are given. View full abstract»

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  • E-WEHP: A Batteryless Embedded Sensor-Platform Wirelessly Powered From Ambient Digital-TV Signals

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2491 - 2505
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2274 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of digital television broadcasting standards has resulted in transmission of perpetually on wireless digital-TV signals over the air at wider bandwidths in ultrahigh-frequency bands for high-definition video and audio broadcasts to TV and smart phones. This paper presents a unique embedded wireless energy-harvesting prototype (E-WEHP) that exploits the unique makeup of ambient digital-TV signals, and scavenges wireless power from them at distance of over 6.3 km from the TV broadcast source. The harvested wireless power is successfully used to power and sustain a 16-bit embedded microcontroller for sensing and machine-to-machine applications without the use of batteries. The E-WEHP uses a miniaturized planar log-periodic antenna and RF-dc charge-pump circuit with maximum sensitivities of - 14.6 and -18.86 dBm and an embedded firmware-based power management scheme to power microcontroller peripherals from different types of ambient digital-TV signals. View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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