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Sensors Journal, IEEE

Issue 7 • Date July 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 51
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Sensors Journal publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 2481 - 2484
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 2485 - 2488
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  • Artificial Sense of Slip—A Review

    Page(s): 2489 - 2498
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (603 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Slip sensing is important in robotic dexterous manipulation and in advanced upper limb prosthetics because it provides useful information for conveniently adapting manipulation forces. In this paper the physical phenomena involved in slip occurrence are briefly examined, as well as the physiological bases of the human “sense of slip.” Transduction principles and technological approaches, exploited over the years for reproducing the “artificial sense of slip,” are analyzed, with the final aim of identifying the most relevant open issues, as well as research trends. View full abstract»

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  • Mechanomyography Sensor Development, Related Signal Processing, and Applications: A Systematic Review

    Page(s): 2499 - 2516
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7452 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mechanomyography (MMG) is extensively used in the research of sensor development, signal processing, characterization of muscle activity, development of prosthesis and/or switch control, diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders, and as a medical rehabilitation tool. Despite much existing MMG research, there has been no systematic review of these. This paper aims to determine the current status of MMG in sensor development, related signal processing, and applications. Six electronic databases were extensively searched for potentially eligible studies published between 2003 and 2012. From a total of 175 citations, 119 were selected for full-text evaluation and 86 potential studies were identified for further analysis. This systematic review initially reveals that the development of accelerometers for MMG is still in the initial stage. Another important finding of this paper is that sensor placement location on muscles may influence the MMG signal. In addition, we observe that the majority of research processes MMG signals using wavelet transform. Time/frequency domain analysis of MMG signals provides useful information to examine muscle. In addition, we find that MMG may be applied to diagnose muscle conditions, to control prosthesis and/or switch devices, to assess muscle activities during exercises, to study motor unit activity, and to identify the type of muscle fiber. Finally, we find that the majority of the studies use accelerometers as sensors for MMG measurements. We also observe that currently MMG-based rehabilitation is still in a nascent stage. In conclusion, we recommend further improvements of MMG in the areas of sensor development, particularly on accelerometers, and signal processing aspects, as well as increasing future applications of the technique in prosthesis and/or switch control, clinical practices, and rehabilitation. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Configuring Scheduling Protocol for Ultrasonic Sensor Systems

    Page(s): 2517 - 2518
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider scheduling of time-slots in a system of multiple ultrasonic sensors employed for presence detection. To ensure no cross-interference, a time-slot is to be allotted to a transmitter such that a neighbor is not allotted the same slot. We present a self-configuring protocol for this time-slot allocation problem, under the constraint that no explicit communication is allowed in the sensor system, which simplifies the deployment of the presence detection system. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Wavelet-mFCM Algorithm for Environmental Sensor Drift Correction

    Page(s): 2519 - 2520
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel hybrid sensor informatics architecture based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and multiple fuzzy logic based clustering (m-FCM) is investigated and proposed to estimate sensor drift in a real life oceanic sensor network. DWT is used for sensor pre-processing, data dimension reduction and feature extraction from sensor time series, where as FCM-based approach is used to estimate and correct the cumulative drift in the sensory system. This new drift correction algorithm is tested on a real time estuary sensory platform deployed to monitor the Derwent Estuary in Hobart, Australia, to evaluate the performance. This algorithm outperforms previously reported drift correction paradigms. View full abstract»

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  • Planar Optical Waveguide Platform for Gas Sensing Using Liquid Crystal

    Page(s): 2521 - 2522
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (278 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a simple method for detecting chemical gases using liquid crystal on a planar optical waveguide. Through measuring waveguide output power, this method detects changes in the director of liquid crystal molecules as well as the refractive index, which attributed to gas exposure. We demonstrate this idea by constructing a compact and fast-response ethanol gas sensor. View full abstract»

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  • Aliasing-Free Moving Target Detection in Random Pulse Repetition Interval Radar Based on Compressed Sensing

    Page(s): 2523 - 2534
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1986 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electronic counter-countermeasures capabilities of staggered pulse repetition interval (PRI) signal is limited by its repetitive character, and a random PRI radar is an alternative to improve the range and velocity coverage. However, the high sidelobe pedestal of the target Doppler spectrum caused by randomness prevents its development. In this paper, based on the compressed sensing theory, we present a novel framework in random PRI radar to generate the Doppler spectrum with low sidelobe for moving target detection. As a precondition, the equivalent sensing matrix is proved to satisfy the restricted isometry property by testifying its independent sub-Gaussian elements and comparing its mutual coherence as well as eigenvalues of its Gram matrices to a typical random compressed sensing matrix in a statistical sense. To cover the concerned velocity, multichannel processing is used and the iterative grid optimization algorithm is employed to eliminate the grid mismatch effect. The simulation results demonstrate that this scheme has high performance of detection and free aliasing characteristic, which can also shorten the coherent processing interval compared with traditional staggered PRI mode. View full abstract»

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  • A System-Prototype Representing 3D Space via Alternative-Sensing for Visually Impaired Navigation

    Page(s): 2535 - 2547
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1683 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Offering an alternative mode of interaction with the surrounding 3-D space to the visually impaired for collision free navigation is a goal of great significance that includes several key challenges. In this paper, we study the alternative 3-D space sensation that is interpreted by our computer vision prototype system and transferred to the user via a vibration array. There are two main tasks for conducting such a study. The first task is to detect obstacles in close proximity, and motion patterns in image sequences, both important issues for a safe navigation in a 3-D dynamic space. To achieve this task, the images from the left and right cameras are acquired to produce new stereo images, followed by video stabilization as a preprocessing stage, a nonlinear spatio-temporal diffusion and kernel based density estimation method to assess the motion activity, and finally watershed-based detection of moving regions (or obstacles) of interest. The second task is to efficiently represent the information of the captured static and dynamic visual scenes as 3-D detectable patterns of vibrations applied on the human body to create a 3-D sensation of the space during navigation. To accomplish this task, considering the current limitations imposed by the technology, we create a high-to-low (H-L) image resolution representation scheme to facilitate the mapping onto a low-resolution 2-D array of vibrators. The H-L scheme uses pyramidal modeling to obtain low-resolution images of interest-preserving motion and obstacles-that are mapped onto a vibration array. These patterns are utilized to train and test the performance of the users in free space navigation. Thus, in this paper we study the synergy of these two important schemes to offer an alternative sensation of the 3-D space to the visually impaired via an array of vibrators. Particularly, the motion component is employed as an element for the identification of visual information of interest to be retained during the H-L tran- formation. The role of the array vibrators is to create a small-scale front representation of the space via various levels of vibrations. Thus, 3-D vibrations applied on the user's body (chest, abdomen) offer a 3-D sensation of the surrounding space and the motion in it. In addition, we present experimental results that indicate the efficiency of this navigation scheme in creating low-resolution 3-D views of the free navigation space and detecting obstacles and moving areas. View full abstract»

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  • Fish Freshness Monitoring Using an E-Tongue Based on Polypyrrole Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes

    Page(s): 2548 - 2554
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel e-tongue for evaluating biogenic amine compounds is reported. The method uses an array of voltammetric electrodes chemically modified based on screen-printed electrodes. The electrochemical signals toward amines consist in complex voltammetric curves. Cyclic voltammograms show redox processes related to the electrochemical activity of the amine under study, and redox peaks associated with the electrochemical activity of the electroactive material. Additionally, the electroactivity and basic character of amines influences considerably the electrochemical behavior of the electrodic material. The viability of the method is tested for the fish freshness monitoring. The samples are Pontic shad (Alosa Pontica), a fish living in the northwestern part of the Black Sea. Pontic shad migrates in the Danube River for spawning. The pattern of responses provided by the array can be used to discriminate and evaluate the fish freshness state. Principal component analysis confirmed the capability of the sensors array to fish freshness monitoring. Partial least squares–discriminant analysis showed that this method could be used for the analysis and determination of fish freshness as well as determination the postmortem time elapsed. View full abstract»

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  • Commissioning and Evaluation of a Fiber-Optic Sensor System for Bridge Monitoring

    Page(s): 2555 - 2562
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (877 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the design, commissioning, and evaluation of a fiber-optic strain sensor system for the structural health monitoring of a prestressed concrete posttensioned box girder railway bridge in Mumbai, India, which shows a number of well-documented structural problems. Preliminary laboratory trials to design the most appropriate sensor system that could be readily transported and used on site are described, followed by a description of load tests on the actual bridge undertaken in collaboration with Indian Railways and using locomotives of known weight. Results from the load tests using the optical system are compared with similar results obtained using electrical resistance strain gages. Conclusions are summarized concerning the integrity of the structure and for the future use of the sensor system for monitoring bridges of this type. Crack width measurements obtained during the load tests are also described. View full abstract»

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  • Precise Moisture Monitoring for Various Soil Types Using Handheld Microwave-Sensor Meter

    Page(s): 2563 - 2570
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A handheld microwave reflectometer-sensor system is developed to operate from 1.35 to 1.95 GHz and used to measure volumetric and gravimetric moisture content in various types of soils from 0% to 45%. A small monopole driver from coaxial line is buried into the soil, and its reflected voltage is measured and correlated with corresponding soil moisture content obtained from oven dying method. The measured reflected voltage is dependent on the nonlinear change of dielectric properties of the soil with the moisture content. View full abstract»

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  • Cooperative Robotic Structure Mapping Using Wireless Measurements—A Comparison of Random and Coordinated Sampling Patterns

    Page(s): 2571 - 2580
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (991 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we consider a mobile robotic network that is tasked with building a map of the objects/obstacles in an environment. We are interested in the see-through mapping of the obstacles, i.e., a mapping approach that can build the spatial variations of the occluded structures. We consider two cooperative mapping approaches based on making a small number of random or coordinated wireless channel measurements between pairs of robots. Our preliminary past research suggested that the coordinated approach may perform better than the random case. In this paper, our goal is to: 1) better understand if and to what extent this is correct and 2) validate our findings with a robotic experiment. More specifically, we show that the right approach for comparing the coordinated and random sampling patterns is to look at this problem from the perspective of optimizing the number/choice of the angular motion directions. In particular, random sampling can be considered an asymptotic case where the total number of given wireless measurements are randomly distributed over an infinite number of angles. We then establish that the total number of available channel measurements should be distributed over a small number of angles, that is bigger than or equal to the number of jump angles of the structure, with a preference given to the angles of jumps. Finally and most importantly, we validate our findings by mapping occluded structures on our campus, based on only wireless channel measurements and by using our experimental robotic setup. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Regeneration in Etched-Core Fiber Bragg Grating

    Page(s): 2581 - 2585
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (466 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Thermal regeneration is observed in etched-core fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with a fiber diameter of 5.6 μm. Etched-core FBGs are prepared by chemical etching using a hydrofluoric acid solution. Annealing is applied for all gratings to induce thermal regeneration. Thermal regeneration of FBG is observed at 680°C. The temperature sensitivity of regenerated etched-core FBGs is measured to be 13.9 pm/°C for a temperature range between 25°C and 700°C. With its high temperature resistance and large evanescent field interaction with its surrounding, thermally regenerated etched-core FBG has potential applications in high temperature sensing. View full abstract»

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  • Constant-Hue-Based Color Filter Array Demosaicking Sensor for Digital Still Camera Implementation

    Page(s): 2586 - 2594
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (749 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose an edge-oriented constant-hue scheme for a color filter array demosaicking sensor to reduce costs and the complexity of the digital camera system. Most digital still cameras use color filter arrays to sample the scenery. The image information needs proper interpolation to present a complete image. This paper proposes a novel design for color image interpolation to improve the result of such processing without great hardware and processing cost. The edge-oriented scheme and constant-hue interpolation are performed to process diagonal edge information. Experimental results show that our algorithm only adds some exquisite comparison function and provides a fine image quality. It is easy to implement in hardware design by simple operation. View full abstract»

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  • Microfluidic Chip With Integrated a-Si:H Photodiodes for Chemiluminescence-Based Bioassays

    Page(s): 2595 - 2602
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1398 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    On-chip optical detection of chemiluminescent reactions is presented. The device is based on the integration of thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon photosensors on a functionalized glass substrate ensuring both a good optical coupling and an optimal separation between biological or chemical reagents and the sensing elements. The sensor has been characterized and optimized using the chemiluminescent system composed by the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and luminol/peroxide/enhancer cocktail. The detectability of HRP is at the attomole level with a sensitivity of 1.46 fA/fg. Experiments, involving the detection of immobilized bio-specific probes on the functionalized surface have been performed both in bulk and microfluidics regime, proving the ability of the system to effectively detect chemiluminescent reactions and their kinetics. In particular, results achieved using conventional polydimethylsiloxane microfluidics for samples and reagents handling confirmed the good detection capabilities of the proposed system. View full abstract»

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  • Polypropylene-Carbon Nanofiber Composites as Strain-Gauge Sensor

    Page(s): 2603 - 2609
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (474 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Polymeric materials have been replacing other materials in various applications, from structural to electronic components. In particular, since the discovery of conducting polymers and the beginning of the manufacture of conducting composites with carbon fillers, their use in electronics has been growing. A group of electronic components with large potential for industrial applications such as structural monitoring, biomedical, or robotics are sensors based on the piezoresistive effect, fabricated from conductive polymers and/or composites. The aim of this article is to characterize the piezoresistive effect of conductive polymer composites based on polypropylene filled with carbon nanofibers, and to demonstrate a way of fabricating strain gauges from these materials, using industrial techniques. With this purpose, some films are prepared by shear extrusion, which allows the composites to be produced industrially in a standard nonexpensive process. Then, the dependence of the electrical response both on the preparation conditions and on the mechanical solicitations is measured. The obtained gauge factor values, up to 2.5, and piezoresistive coefficients up to 0.0019 mm2/N, prove the viability of these materials for fabricating strain-gauges, where their main advantages are the lower price and the ability to deal with much higher deformations, when compared to metal or semiconductor strain-gauges. View full abstract»

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  • A Low-Power Directional Gamma-Ray Sensor System for Long-Term Radiation Monitoring

    Page(s): 2610 - 2618
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (853 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A Low-power directional gamma-ray sensor system for long-term radiation monitoring is presented in this paper. The system can determine the direction of gamma-rays emitted from multiple point sources while simultaneously identifying them. The overall system is formed by merging a sensor section with a compact and low-power computational radiation sensor section. The sensor section houses three NaI gamma-ray detectors arranged in a spatial configuration that allows detection on a plane defined by the front faces of the detectors. The computational section is based on a single chip solution developed by the authors that house multiple low-power event-driven sensor front ends, event-driven analog-to-digital converters, and a dedicated microcontroller on the same silicon die. The presented system is capable of collecting individual gamma isotope detection events within the three separate NaI scintillator detectors. Further processing of the data to yield direction finding and multiple isotope identification is possible by executing software algorithms using the computation resources available on chip. To that end, a compact fixed-point program is developed to perform on-chip real-time gamma isotope identification and direction estimation. The single chip solution is fabricated in a 0.18-$mu{rm m}$ CMOS technology with field tests demonstrating the validity of the approaches taken. The total computational sensor system power consumption is less than 20 $mu{rm W}$, excluding the detector power consumption. The gamma isotope identification and direction finding program executes in less than 100 ms. The system is validated by multiple 1-$mu{rm Ci}$ gamma-ray calibration button sources set at 25-cm distance from the detector setup. The system starts to provide consistent an- repeatable results with less than 5$^{circ}$ errors in accuracy, once more than 2000 total photopeaks are gathered in a detection session. Since the underlying processing paradigm is event-driven and low-power, the possible field applications of the presented system involve long-term monitoring for radiation detection and protection, where low count rates may be present. View full abstract»

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  • A Mote Interface for Fiber Optic Spectral Sensing With Real-Time Monitoring of the Marine Environment

    Page(s): 2619 - 2625
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (739 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The system presented in this paper demonstrates how a novel fiber optic based sensing platform, capable of detecting minute changes in the level of impurity in a liquid, can be incorporated onto a Mote-based platform enabling real time monitoring of a body of water. How these features can be used to detect representative samples, such as hydrocarbons and chlorophyll within a maritime environment, is demonstrated. Systems currently deployed worldwide include satellite mapping technology and high-cost water monitoring platforms. Growing international emphasis on the management of water quality is giving rise to an expansion of the international market for novel robust, miniaturized, intelligent water monitoring systems capable of measuring local environmentally detrimental events such as localised small scale chemical pollution. View full abstract»

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  • Sensor for Thermal Gas Analysis Based on Micromachined Silicon-Microwires

    Page(s): 2626 - 2635
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a microelectromechanical systems-based sensor for the thermal detection of changes of gas mixtures such as the CO2 concentration in air that is of interest in air conditioning climate control within buildings. Key properties of the system are low power consumption (<; 10 mW) and high long-term stability through the absence of moving or consumptive components. The used sensor chip has three silicon-microwires (thermistors) surrounded by the gas mixture to be analyzed. A centered wire (heater) is supplied with sinusoidal heating power. This induces a thermal response via the surrounding gas to measurement wires (detectors) located in different distances from the heater. The phase shift between heating power and induced thermal responses at the detectors is analyzed and depends on the thermal properties of the gas. After calibration, the sensor is able to quantify the concentration of an individual component within a mixture of different but known gas components. This is demonstrated by measuring the CO2 concentration in N2/CO2 mixtures with a resolution of 0.2% at constant pressure and temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Force Sensor Design and Measurement for Endodontic Therapy

    Page(s): 2636 - 2642
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1349 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To assist endodontic therapy, in this paper, a force sensor is designed and fabricated for measuring the axial force and the bending moment simultaneously. By detecting the bending moment, we can know the severity of bending. Axial force detection is also desired, as excessive axial forces may result in instrument buckling or even root canal perforation. This paper installs three sensing cells in each of two planes to detect the bending direction. Each sensing cell consists of a pressure-sensitive electric conductive rubber and an electrode. The size of the force sensor is 1.4-mm wide and 6-mm high for matching the size of endodontic instruments and making it feasible in the endodontic treatment. Experimental results on accuracy, repeatability, and nonlinearity are presented to validate the proposed sensor. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Characterization of a Glow Discharge Detector With Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy

    Page(s): 2643 - 2647
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (578 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, there has been much interest in the capability of low cost glow discharge detectors (GDDs) for detection of terahertz radiation. To utilize them in applications such as terahertz imaging these studies have typically focused on the response of the GDD at specific frequencies. To better understand the spectral behavior of glow discharges, we examine the interaction mechanism of GDDs with terahertz radiation using terahertz time domain spectroscopy in a broader range of frequencies between 0.05 and 0.5 THz. Our results show that in addition to terahertz-induced oscillations in the plasma charge density, the structure of the GDD itself plays an important role in the detection mechanism. We observe that by increasing the bias voltage on the gap, not only can we greatly reduce the transmission at a specific frequency, but we can also tune it as well, suggesting that these devices can be used as hybrid plasma filters. View full abstract»

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  • A Tessellation-Based Localized Chain Construction Scheme for Chain-Oriented Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 2648 - 2658
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (993 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Chain oriented logical topologies offer significant energy-efficiency, especially for large-scaled wireless sensor networks. Essentially, the effectiveness of this topology largely depends on how the chains are constructed and organized. Thus, chain construction can correctly be presumed as the main challenge for a chain-oriented logical topology. In this paper, we propose a tessellation-based chain construction scheme for chain-oriented sensor networks. This scheme creates multiple chains, each of which is confined in a small area, rather than spanning large areas. The main idea of this scheme is to divide the target field, using the concept of Voronoi diagram, into a number of small areas, and then construct chains in each of those areas. Confining chains in bounded areas results lower interference, which in turns saves energy and time by limiting retransmissions caused by the interference problems. A number of protocols are incorporated in this scheme, such as a distributed protocol for constructing Voronoi diagram, Voronoi diagram management protocol, chain construction protocol, and leader selection protocol. Extensive simulation experiments are performed on this scheme. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme saves more energy, lengthens lifetime of the network, and reduces data collection latency. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Sensors Journal is a peer-reviewed, monthly online/print  journal devoted to sensors and sensing phenomena

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Krikor Ozanyan
University of Manchester
Manchester, M13 9PL, U.K.