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Lightwave Technology, Journal of

Issue 13 • Date July1, 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Front Cover

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Journal of Lightwave Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of Contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2053 - 2054
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • On Decision Aided Carrier Phase and Frequency Offset Estimation in Coherent Optical Receivers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2055 - 2069
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3949 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate carrier estimation (CE) for coherent optical receivers where the received signal is impaired by additive white Gaussian noise, laser phase noise, and frequency offset. Best practical 4-, 8-, and 16-point constellations are identified. A generalized differential encoding rule for signal constellations is presented. Performance of our complex-weighted decision-aided maximum-likelihood (CW-DA-ML) phase noise and frequency offset estimator is analyzed at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the optimal filter lengths are found. CW-DA-ML CE is put in perspective with respect to two fundamental estimators in the literature: (i) differential frequency estimator followed by block Mth power phase estimator (DiffFE-Mth CE), and (ii) fast Fourier transform based frequency estimator followed by block Mth power phase estimator (FFTbE-M th CE), in terms of laser linewidth tolerance, frequency estimation range and speed, SNR threshold, and cycle slip probability. CW-DA-ML CE is 2.5 and 10.5 times faster than DiffFE-M th CE in 4 phase-shift keying and 16 quadrature amplitude modulation signals, respectively, at a 1-dB system penalty for a bit-error rate of 10-3. Our CE has lower cycle slip probability and transmission overhead than DiffFE-Mth and FFTbE-Mth CE. Hence, our CE is shown to be favourable in pilot-assisted (PA) systems. A PA CW-DA-ML CE is introduced and shown to be robust against time-varying frequency offset with minimal training overhead. Analog-to-digital convertor quantization error on our CE performance is also addressed. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling Coherent Backscattering Errors in Fiber Optic Gyroscopes for Sources of Arbitrary Line Width

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2070 - 2078
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1191 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a new model of the noise and drift induced by coherent backscattering in a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) interrogated with a light source of arbitrary temporal coherence. This study is critical to understand whether a FOG driven with a laser instead of a broadband source can attain high sensitivity and stability, which would have the overwhelming benefit of improving the FOG scale factor stability by at least ten-fold and would enable the use of FOGs for inertial navigation of aircrafts. Analytical and numerical solutions bring to light two significant new predictions. First, coherent-backscattering noise can be made negligibly small by utilizing a laser with a very narrow linewidth (less than ~ 20 kHz), although in this regime the drift is high. Second, by using a laser with a broad linewidth (greater than ~ 10 MHz), both the noise and the drift are low enough for aircraft inertial navigation. The dependencies of the noise and drift on fiber loss, loop coupling coefficient, and backscattering coefficient are also presented to define the optimum mode of operation of this new class of FOGs. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Observation of Low Noise and Low Drift in a Laser-Driven Fiber Optic Gyroscope

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2079 - 2085
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (781 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate that by driving a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) with a laser of relatively broad linewidth ( ~ 10 MHz), both the noise and the bias drift are reduced to very low levels (0.058°/√h and 1.1°/h, respectively), comparable to the performance of the same gyroscope conventionally driven with a broadband light source. When the laser linewidth is reduced to a low enough value ( ~ 2.2 kHz), the FOG exhibits a higher drift but an even lower noise, about 4 dB lower than with a broadband source, and only 3.5 dB above shot noise. The measured dependencies of the noise and drift on laser linewidth are in good quantitative agreement with the predictions of an advanced model of backscattering errors in a FOG interrogated with coherent light, which confirms that the noise and drift are predominantly limited by backscattering. The use of a laser comes with the additional benefit of a much greater wavelength stability compared to a broadband source, which is expected to translate directly into a much more stable scale factor than possible in conventional FOGs. Residual sources of drift and the prospects for reducing them in order to achieve inertial navigation performance are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Photonic Transistor Design Principles for Switching Gain >=2

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2086 - 2098
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2347 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel two-staged photonic transistor with high operating speed, low switching power and high switching gain was recently proposed. Based on the manipulation of optical interference in an active directional coupler by optically controlled absorption and gain, two complementary device types were conceptually evaluated through the use of time domain technique showing ~105 times higher figure of merit compared to conventional approaches. With the joint usage of both device types, the photonic transistor could function as wavelength converter, pulse regenerator and logical operator. In this work, we identify the operational regimes of the photonic transistor that helps in reducing the footprint and operating intensities to achieve a switching gain of at least ~ 2 (or 3 dB). A recently proposed theoretical framework that calculates the spatial profiles of optical fields and complex permittivities seen by them in photonic structures with multiple active and passive sections is utilized for the purposes. We show that the operational intensity and wavelengths of interacting fields in the photonic transistor must be such that α0L1 > = 26 and g0L2 > = 3.2 to achieve a switching gain > = 2, where α0 = absorption coefficient of the short wavelength, g0 = pumped medium gain coefficient seen by long wavelength beams, L1 = length of first stage and L2 = length of second stage. View full abstract»

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  • Echelle Diffractive Grating Based Wavelength Interrogator for Potential Aerospace Applications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2099 - 2105
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (973 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Operational load monitoring and impact damage detection are the two critical aspects of aerospace structural health monitoring (SHM). Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have demonstrated great potential in both. But the currently available interrogation systems can only handle one of the two types of SHM capabilities offered by FBG sensors. In addition, the practical implementation of FBG sensor systems in aerospace vehicles requires the interrogator to be small size, light weight, and low-power consuming. In this paper, we present an Echelle diffractive grating (EDG) based interrogation system for FBG sensors, which possesses two operation modes, i.e., the sweeping mode for operational load monitoring and the parked mode for impact damage detection. Experimental results show that this interrogator offers better than 1-pm measurement resolution and 10-pm repeatability. In addition, the interrogation system is very compact and weighs less than 60 g (excluding the electronic controller). It also has the potential to achieve a measurement speed of 300 kHz and be powered by a battery. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of Multiple Reflecting Structures Using a Nonparaxial Bidirectional Split-Step Finite Difference Method

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2106 - 2112
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present simulation of nonparaxial waves in multiple reflecting structures, using a recently proposed bidirectional method based on a finite difference split-step nonparaxial scheme. Simulation of finite beams in volume Bragg gratings, through high reflection coatings and tilted fiber Bragg gratings are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental, analytical, and other numerical methods to demonstrate its accuracy and efficiency. The method is noniterative and the propagation matrices are evaluated analytically making it computationally very efficient. The method has very high accuracy for modeling reflection of nonparaxial beams and can simulate large longitudinal index discontinuities efficiently without using special modifications. View full abstract»

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  • Quasi-Phase-Matching of Four-Wave-Mixing-Based Wavelength Conversion by Phase-Mismatch Switching

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2113 - 2121
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1660 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a novel quasi-phase-matching scheme for achieving efficient four-wave-mixing (FWM)-based wavelength conversion in the presence of a large phase-mismatch. The scheme is based on respectively increasing and decreasing the propagation lengths over which there is FWM gain and FWM loss by switching between two different phase-mismatch values. We discuss how such a phase-mismatch switching (PMS) approach can be optimized for wavelength conversion and show that it can be realized in silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides by switching adiabatically between two waveguide widths along the propagation path. By means of numerical simulations we demonstrate that, for a pump wavelength of 1550 nm, PMS wavelength converters can enable efficient conversion (> -23 dB) around a target signal wavelength situated anywhere in the entire near-infrared wavelength domain of 1300-1900 nm. View full abstract»

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  • Digital PDL Compensation in 3D Stokes Space

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2122 - 2130
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1571 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A Stokes space based technique for digital polarization-dependent losses (PDL) monitoring and compensation is proposed. The channel PDL monitoring is carried out with a resolution of 0.15 dB by computing the mean point of the signal samples represented in the three-dimensional Stokes space. The presented compensation technique is based on rotations and translations of the signal samples in the Stokes space, and provides a PDL compensation up to 2.5 dB. Error vector magnitude results show a gain of about 3 dB (assuming a PDL value equal to 1.5 dB) to a Stokes space based polarization demultiplexing technique without PDL compensation. View full abstract»

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  • Blind Adaptive Chromatic Dispersion Compensation and Estimation for DSP-Based Coherent Optical Systems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2131 - 2139
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (876 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose an accurate and low-complexity blind adaptive algorithm for chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation and estimation in coherent optical systems. The method is based on a Frequency Domain Equalizer (FDE), a low complexity Time Domain Equalizer arranged in a butterfly structure (B-TDE) and an Optical Performance Monitoring (OPM) block in a loop configuration. The loop is such that, at each iteration, the CD value compensated by the B-TDE and estimated by the OPM is given to the FDE; according to this estimation, in the subsequent iteration, the FDE compensates also this quantity. The procedure is repeated until the majority of CD is compensated by the FDE and a small residual quantity is compensated by a low complexity B-TDE with a small number of taps. The method is extended to long haul uncompensated links exploiting the information on the mean square error (MSE) provided by the B-TDE. The proposed algorithm is then experimentally validated for a polarization multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (PM-QPSK) signal at 112 Gbit/s propagating along 1000 km of uncompensated Z PLUS® optical fiber. A statistical analysis of the performance of the proposed solution, in terms of mean value and standard deviation of the CD estimation error, is carried out, running a set of simulations including different impairments, such as noise, polarization dependent loss, polarization mode dispersion and self-phase modulation in a line of 1000 km of uncompensated G.652 optical fiber. Our method could be used to compensate and estimate any CD quantity without increasing the number of taps in the B-TDE and exploiting devices already included in the system (TDE, FDE and OPM) arranged in a loop. View full abstract»

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  • Coupling Analysis in Concentric Ring Waveguides

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2140 - 2145
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (900 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Coupled mode theory in dielectric waveguides has been studied for parallel waveguides and for non-parallel waveguides, among bent and straight optical waveguides between two non-concentric bent waveguides or even between concentric ring waveguides. The last case is treated in this work. Results are compared to those obtained by using the finite element method (FEM). We studied the influence of the curvature radius, the separation distance between the waveguides and the refractive index of the inner waveguide in the energy transfer between waveguides. In particular, the mechanism of energy transfer between concentric waveguides was analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission of High-Baud PDM-64QAM Signals

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2146 - 2162
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3533 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we demonstrate high-baud generation and transmission of PDM-64QAM signals. The 64QAM signal is generated using one single in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) modulator driven with eight-level signals synthesized by all binary electrical inputs. With hard-decision forward error correction (HD-FEC), we first demonstrate 11.2-GBd and 22.4-GBd PDM-64QAM transmissions over 320-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF). Then we specifically introduce a long memory filter (LMF) and prove its effectiveness in reflection compensation both theoretically and experimentally. With the aid of soft-decision FEC (SD-FEC), optical pre-shaping, and LMF, we transmit a 41.4-GBd PDM-64QAM signal over 1200-km SSMF. Finally, using per-channel 41.6-GBd PDM-64QAM with SD-FEC, we successfully demonstrate 50-GHz-spaced, 8 × 499-Gb/s transmission over 720-km SSMF. This is the first demonstration of 400-Gb/s/ch WDM transmission on the 50-GHz ITU grid that uses a per-channel single-carrier scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Tapered Velocity Mode-Selective Couplers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2163 - 2169
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1245 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper tapered velocity mode-selective couplers are presented. These tapered couplers are approximately adiabatic devices which unlike standard mode-selective couplers, do not rely on precise phase conditions to be satisfied over an extended length, to achieve their mode-selective functionality. Therefore these mode couplers permit ultra-wideband mode-division multiplexing of few-mode waveguides. Moreover, their behavior is largely independent of parameters such as index contrast and the precise coupler dimensions. The mode-selective functionality is demonstrated in slab geometry, with the principles generalizing to planar or fiber-based devices. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of Modulation Schemes for 10.7 Gb/s Transmission Over Large-Core 1 mm PMMA Polymer Optical Fiber

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2170 - 2176
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1328 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors give an overview of experimental results on 10.7 Gb/s over large-core 1 mm polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) polymer optical fiber (POF). The comparison starts with simple non-return-to-zero (NRZ) transmission without equalization. Next, measurement results with feed-forward-, decision -feedback equalization (FFE, DFE) and maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) are presented. Finally, experimental results with more advanced modulation schemes like pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and discrete multitone (DMT) modulation are investigated. The experiments were carried out with a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) at 0 dBm to comply with consumer eye-safety regulation or with a 10 mW laser diode (LD) that could be used in active optical cables. View full abstract»

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  • Misalignment Losses in Step-Index Multicore Plastic Optical Fibers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2177 - 2183
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1253 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We analyze the extrinsic coupling losses due to misalignments in three different SI-MCPOFs. Four kinds of misalignments are analyzed: longitudinal separation, transversal offset angular misalignment and rotational misalignment. We have performed experimental measurements and complementary computational simulations to assess the effect of misalignments and the influence of crosstalk and fiber characteristics on coupling losses. View full abstract»

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  • Improved Trenched Channel Plasmonic Waveguide

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2184 - 2191
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1711 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the modal analysis of a novel design of three trenched single mode channel plasmon polariton is introduced and analyzed using the full-vectorial finite difference method for linear oblique and curved interfaces (FVFD-LOCI). The analyzed parameters are the real effective index, propagation length, and lateral mode radius r3dB. In addition, the figure of merit (FOM) defined as the ratio between propagation length and lateral mode radius is also studied. The analysis is performed for different channel plasmon polariton (CPP) waveguides; trenched-groove, V-groove and the suggested three trenched structure over a specific spectral range (200-550 THz). The selected band of frequency is chosen to ensure the existence of the CPP fundamental mode. The reported design offers very high FOM at low frequency band (200-350 THz) compared to the well known V-groove structure. However, the lateral mode radius r3dB of the suggested three trenched structure is slightly smaller than that of the V-groove structure. For high frequency band (350-550 THz), the FOM is still higher than that of the V-groove structure while the lateral mode radius r3dB is slightly greater than that of the V-groove structure. View full abstract»

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  • Mode-Division Multiplexing Transmission System With DMD-Independent Low Complexity MIMO Processing

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2192 - 2199
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (980 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission system with differential mode delay (DMD) independent low computational complexity MIMO processing. We adjusted the delay time of the delay units in the equalizer in accordance with the DMD value of the fiber, and the functional imperfection of the mode MUX/DEMUX can be compensated for with low computational complexity by using this technique. Finally, we investigated the crosstalk characteristics of the PLC-based MUX/DEMUX and achieved an experimental WDM-MDM transmission over the C-L band with low MIMO processing complexity even when using a few-mode fiber with a high DMD. View full abstract»

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  • Elimination of Aberrations Due to High-Order Terms in Systems Based on Linear Time Lenses

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2200 - 2206
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1131 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Signal-processing systems based on linear time lenses are realized by the combination of temporal quadratic phase modulation (which is a time lens) and group-velocity dispersion. In practice, these systems suffer from aberrations due to high-order phase-modulation terms in time lenses and aberrations due to high-order dispersion in dispersive elements. We find that these two kinds of aberrations can counterbalance each other under certain conditions. In this paper we theoretically derive and numerically confirm the aberration-elimination conditions for several time-lens based systems, i.e., temporal imaging, time-to-frequency mapping and frequency-to-time mapping of optical pulse waveforms. In addition, a frequency-time diagram is used to analyze the elimination process in order to illustrate the physical mechanism. View full abstract»

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  • Direct Detection and Coherent Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry With Golay Complementary Codes

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2207 - 2222
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3081 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We extend the Golay coded Optical Time Domain Reflectometry OTDR technique for the first time from direct-detection to coherent OTDR, investigating the unique issues arising in the coherent setting regarding signal processing operations and efficient real-time implementation of the DSP in practical coherent OTDR receivers and the resulting OTDR performance. We also derive detailed signal flow block diagrams for direct-detection and coherent OTDRs and use an intuitive analogy between spatial speckle and temporal coherent fading noise to guide the selection of OTDR system parameters. We present extensive simulations of the OTDR signal and noise flow accounting for all major effects including the optical source coherence and the backscatter random fading. View full abstract»

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  • Phase Retrieval From Transmission Spectrum for Long-Period Fiber Gratings

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2223 - 2229
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1165 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate a method to retrieve the phase spectrum of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) from its transmission spectrum. The method is based on the Hilbert transform that relates the minimum phase and the amplitude spectrum of a linear system, and is applicable to under-coupled LPFGs with arbitrary grating profiles. We verify the method with numerical examples and experiments. The method provides a simple and effective way to obtain the phase characteristics of LPFGs and thus complement the measured transmission spectra of the gratings. View full abstract»

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  • Peak Power Optimization of Optical Pulses Using Low-Doped Gain-Medium in Femtosecond Fiber Laser

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2230 - 2236
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1247 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have investigated both theoretically and experimentally a method to increase the peak power in femto-second fiber laser by using a low-doped long-length gain medium. The accumulated nonlinear phase shift as well as its threshold value for single pulse operation was studied and used to explain the robustness of such cavity against multipulsing and optical wave breaking. View full abstract»

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  • Equalization-Enhanced Phase Noise in Mode-Division Multiplexed Systems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2237 - 2243
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1378 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When an electronic equalizer is used to compensate the modal dispersion in a mode-division multiplexed system, receiver phase noise induces interference to the multi-input- multi-output (MIMO) receiver. Based on the statistics of the modal dispersion in the strong coupling regime, the interference variance is evaluated analytically based on an exact model, a semicircle asymptotic for large number of modes, and a first-order approximation. View full abstract»

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  • An Integrated 40 Gbit/s Optical Costas Receiver

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 2244 - 2253
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2077 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a highly-integrated widely-tunable optical homodyne receiver is reported with 40 Gbaud/s data rate. By using photonic and electronic integration, the receiver is realized within a size of 10 × 10 mm2, and the system is very robust and resistive to environmental changes. An integrated photonic coherent receiver circuit is demonstrated with 35 GHz photodetector bandwidth, and the integrated local oscillator (LO) laser covers a 40 nm range. The electronic IC (EIC) has a working frequency up to 50 GHz. The feedback loop is carefully analyzed and designed, and the experimental results show > 1.1 GHz loop bandwidth, which matches the design. The hold-in range is measured to be > 15 GHz. The phase noise of the transmitting laser has been cloned to the LO laser quite well, and both the linewidth measurement and phase noise measurement show no observable cross talk between binary phase shift keying (BPSK) data and the optical phase-locked loop (OPLL). Error free ( bit error rate <; 10-12) is achieved up to 35 Gbit/s. The system consumes 3 Watts of power. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Lightwave Technology contains articles on current research, applications and methods used in lightwave technology and fiber optics.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Peter J. Winzer
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs