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Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 2013

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  • Front Cover

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of Contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1077 - 1078
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  • Table of Contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1079 - 1080
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  • Uncoordinated Cooperative Jamming for Secret Communications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1081 - 1090
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1989 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider a Gaussian wiretap channel model with a single-antenna source, destination and eavesdropper. The communication is assisted by multiple multiantenna helpers that transmit noise to confound the eavesdropper. First, we consider a nulling scheme, in which each helper independently transmits noise, designed to maximize the system secrecy rate while creating no interference to the destination. In this scheme, each helper requires only local relay-destination channel state information (CSI). When global CSI is available at the relays, the nulling scheme is not optimal. The optimal jamming noise structure is also provided under global CSI. Interestingly, it is shown both analytically and via simulations that, despite its reduced CSI requirements, the nulling scheme may have secrecy rate performance that is very close to the optimal one. The probability of outage of the nulling scheme is provided in closed form based on the statistics of the eavesdropper CSI. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Reversible Data Hiding Scheme Based on Two-Dimensional Difference-Histogram Modification

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1091 - 1100
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2395 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, based on two-dimensional difference- histogram modification, a novel reversible data hiding (RDH) scheme is proposed by using difference-pair-mapping (DPM). First, by considering each pixel-pair and its context, a sequence consisting of pairs of difference values is computed. Then, a two-dimensional difference-histogram is generated by counting the frequency of the resulting difference-pairs. Finally, reversible data embedding is implemented according to a specifically designed DPM. Here, the DPM is an injective mapping defined on difference-pairs. It is a natural extension of expansion embedding and shifting techniques used in current histogram-based RDH methods. By the proposed approach, compared with the conventional one-dimensional difference-histogram and one-dimensional prediction-error-histogram-based RDH methods, the image redundancy can be better exploited and an improved embedding performance is achieved. Moreover, a pixel-pair-selection strategy is also adopted to priorly use the pixel-pairs located in smooth image regions to embed data. This can further enhance the embedding performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms some state-of-the-art RDH works. View full abstract»

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  • Fully Private Noninteractive Face Verification

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1101 - 1114
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2255 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Face recognition is one of the foremost applications in computer vision, which often involves sensitive signals; privacy concerns have been raised lately and tackled by several recent privacy-preserving face recognition approaches. Those systems either take advantage of information derived from the database templates or require several interaction rounds between client and server, so they cannot address outsourced scenarios. We present a private face verification system that can be executed in the server without interaction, working with encrypted feature vectors for both the templates and the probe face. We achieve this by combining two significant contributions: 1) a novel feature model for Gabor coefficients' magnitude driving a Lloyd-Max quantizer, used for reducing plaintext cardinality with no impact on performance; 2) an extension of a quasi-fully homomorphic encryption able to compute, without interaction, the soft scores of an SVM operating on quantized and encrypted parameters, features and templates. We evaluate the private verification system in terms of time and communication complexity, and in verification accuracy in widely known face databases (XM2VTS, FERET, and LFW). These contributions open the door to completely private and noninteractive outsourcing of face verification. View full abstract»

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  • Iris Biometrics: Synthesis of Degraded Ocular Images

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1115 - 1125
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2446 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Iris recognition is a popular technique for recognizing humans. However, as is the case with most biometric traits, it is difficult to collect data that are suitable for use in experiments due to three factors: 1) the substantial amount of data that is required; 2) the time that is spent in the acquisition process; and 3) the security and privacy concerns of potential volunteers. This paper describes a stochastic method for synthesizing ocular data to support experiments on iris recognition. Specifically, synthetic data are intended for use in the most important phases of those experiments: segmentation and signature encoding/matching. The resulting data have an important characteristic: they simulate image acquisition under uncontrolled conditions. We have experimentally confirmed that the proposed strategy can mimic the data degradation factors that usually result from such conditions. Finally, we announce the availability of an online platform for generating degraded synthetic ocular data. This platform is freely accessible worldwide. View full abstract»

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  • On Cooperative and Malicious Behaviors in Multirelay Fading Channels

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1126 - 1139
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3942 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multirelay networks exploit spatial diversity by transmitting user's messages through multiple relay paths. Most works in the literature on cooperative or relay networks assume that all terminals are fully cooperative and neglect the effect of possibly existing malicious relay behaviors. In this work, we consider a multirelay network that consists of both cooperative and malicious relays, and aims to obtain an improved understanding on the optimal behaviors of these two groups of relays via information-theoretic mutual information games. By modeling the set of cooperative relays and the set of malicious relays as two players in a zero-sum game with the maximum achievable rate as the utility, the optimal transmission strategies of both types of relays are derived by identifying the Nash equilibrium of the proposed game. Our main contributions are twofold. First, a generalization to previous works is obtained by allowing malicious relays to either listen or attack in Phase 1 (source-relay transmission phase). This is in contrast to previous works that only allow the malicious relays to listen in Phase 1 and to attack in Phase 2 (relay-destination transmission phase). The latter is shown to be suboptimal in our problem. Second, the impact of CSI knowledge at the destination on the optimal attack strategy that can be adopted by the malicious relays is identified. In particular, for the more practical scenario where the interrelay CSI is unknown at the destination, the constant attack is shown to be optimal as opposed to the commonly considered Gaussian attack. View full abstract»

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  • Recursive Linear and Differential Cryptanalysis of Ultralightweight Authentication Protocols

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1140 - 1151
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2809 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Privacy is faced with serious challenges in the ubiquitous computing world. In order to handle this problem, some researchers in recent years have focused on design and analysis of privacy-friendly ultralightweight authentication protocols. Although the majority of these schemes have been broken to a greater or lesser extent, most of these attacks are based on ad-hoc methods that are not extensible to a large class of ultralightweight protocols. So this research area still suffers from the lack of structured cryptanalysis and evaluation methods. In this paper, we introduce new frameworks for full disclosure attacks on ultralightweight authentication protocols based on new concepts of recursive linear and recursive differential cryptanalysis. The recursive linear attack is passive, deterministic, and requires only a single authentication session, if it can be applied successfully. The recursive differential attack is more powerful and can be applied to the protocols on which the linear attack may not work. This attack is probabilistic, active in the sense that the attacker suffices only to block some specific messages, and requires a few authentication sessions. Having introduced these frameworks in a general view, we apply them on some well-known ultralightweight protocols. The first attack can retrieve all the secret data of Yeh and SLMAP authentication protocols and the second one can retrieve all the secret data of LMAP++, SASI, and David-Prasad authentication protocols. View full abstract»

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  • ARQ-Based Symmetric-Key Generation Over Correlated Erasure Channels

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1152 - 1161
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2186 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on the problem of sharing secret keys using Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) protocol. We consider cases where forward and feedback channels are erasure channels for a legitimate receiver (Bob) and an eavesdropper (Eve). In prior works, the wiretap channel is modeled as statistically independent packet erasure channels for Bob and Eve. In this paper, we go beyond the state-of-the-art by addressing correlated erasure events across the wiretap channel. The created randomness is shared between two legitimate parties through ARQ transmissions that is mapped into a destination set using a first-order digital filter with feedback. Then, we characterize Eve's information loss about this shared destination set, due to inevitable transmission errors. This set is then transformed into a highly secure key using privacy amplification in order to intensify and exploit Eve's lack of knowledge. We adopt two criteria for analysis and design of the system: secrecy outage probability as a measure of the secrecy quality, and secret key rate as a metric for efficiency. The resulting secrecy improvement is presented as a function of the correlation coefficients and the erasure probabilities for both channels. It is shown that secrecy improvement is achievable even when Eve has a better channel than legitimate receivers, and her channel conditions are unknown to legitimate users. View full abstract»

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  • One-Receiver Two-Eavesdropper Broadcast Channel With Degraded Message Sets

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1162 - 1172
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4847 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we study the one-receiver two-eavesdropper Broadcast Channel (BC) with three degraded message sets. A common message is sent to three receivers. Another message is sent to the first and second receivers and needs to be kept secret from the third receiver (second eavesdropper). The third message is sent to the first receiver and needs to be kept secret from the second and third receivers (first and second eavesdroppers). First, we consider perfect secrecy conditions at the eavesdroppers, where we find an achievable perfect secrecy region. In the achievability scheme, we use superposition coding which divides the available randomness into different levels. These levels are used to mislead the eavesdroppers. The proposed coding scheme determines the perfect secrecy capacity region of the one-receiver two-eavesdropper BC with three degraded message sets, when the receivers exhibit a degradedness order. Next, we find an achievable rate-equivocation region using the rate splitting technique and indirect decoding. We show that for the two-receiver one-eavesdropper BC with three degraded message sets where we relax the secrecy condition at the second receiver, our coding scheme is optimal when the second receiver is a degraded version of the first receiver and it is less noisy than the third receiver. View full abstract»

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  • An Improved Discrete Fourier Transform-Based Algorithm for Electric Network Frequency Extraction

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1173 - 1181
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2270 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)-based algorithm to extract the Electric Network Frequency (ENF) information from an audio recording for use in audio authentication. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is to calculate the specific spectral lines by DFT in the frequency domain at the desired frequency point instead of throughout the entire frequency band. Then a binary search technique is employed to search the next desired frequency bin to repeat the spectral line calculation until the hidden ENF information is extracted. The purpose is to improve the accuracy and precision of conventional ENF extraction methods and also to enhance the calculation efficiency. Both simulated audio signals with different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and actual audio recordings are studied to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Two error-evaluation criteria, frequency offset and frequency bias, are defined to evaluate the algorithm performance on accuracy and precision. The test results and the error evaluation prove the validation and demonstrate the improvement of the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Exposing Digital Image Forgeries by Illumination Color Classification

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1182 - 1194
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2007 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For decades, photographs have been used to document space-time events and they have often served as evidence in courts. Although photographers are able to create composites of analog pictures, this process is very time consuming and requires expert knowledge. Today, however, powerful digital image editing software makes image modifications straightforward. This undermines our trust in photographs and, in particular, questions pictures as evidence for real-world events. In this paper, we analyze one of the most common forms of photographic manipulation, known as image composition or splicing. We propose a forgery detection method that exploits subtle inconsistencies in the color of the illumination of images. Our approach is machine-learning-based and requires minimal user interaction. The technique is applicable to images containing two or more people and requires no expert interaction for the tampering decision. To achieve this, we incorporate information from physics- and statistical-based illuminant estimators on image regions of similar material. From these illuminant estimates, we extract texture- and edge-based features which are then provided to a machine-learning approach for automatic decision-making. The classification performance using an SVM meta-fusion classifier is promising. It yields detection rates of 86% on a new benchmark dataset consisting of 200 images, and 83% on 50 images that were collected from the Internet. View full abstract»

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  • Jamming Rejection Using FFH/MFSK ML Receiver Over Fading Channels With the Presence of Timing and Frequency Offsets

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1195 - 1200
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1338 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The composite effect of hostile multitone jamming and partial-band noise jamming on bit-error rate (BER) performance of a fast frequency-hopped M-ary frequency-shift-keying system is studied over Rayleigh fading channels in the presence of timing and frequency offsets. The maximum-likelihood (ML) diversity-combining method is employed to improve BER performance of the system. Analytical BER expression of the proposed ML receiver is derived. The analytical results, validated by computer simulation, show that the proposed ML receiver can suppress the composite hostile jamming more effectively than some existing conventional diversity-combining receivers. The ML receiver is also found to be robust against inaccurate estimation of the required side information. View full abstract»

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  • Extracting Spread-Spectrum Hidden Data From Digital Media

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1201 - 1210
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider the problem of extracting blindly data embedded over a wide band in a spectrum (transform) domain of a digital medium (image, audio, video). We develop a novel multicarrier/signature iterative generalized least-squares (M-IGLS) core procedure to seek unknown data hidden in hosts via multicarrier spread-spectrum embedding. Neither the original host nor the embedding carriers are assumed available. Experimental studies on images show that the developed algorithm can achieve recovery probability of error close to what may be attained with known embedding carriers and host autocorrelation matrix. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Channel Estimation in Beamformed Systems for Common-Randomness-Based Secret Key Establishment

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1211 - 1220
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1595 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Establishing secret keys from the commonly-observed randomness of reciprocal wireless propagation channels has recently received considerable attention. We consider such key establishment between two multiantenna nodes that use beamforming for communication, showing that the upper bound on the number of key bits that can be generated from the channel observations can be maximized by properly probing the channel. Specifically, we demonstrate that the eigenvectors of the channel spatial covariance matrix should be used as beamformer weights during channel estimation and we optimize the energy allocated to channel estimation for each beamformer weight under a total energy constraint. Finally, by assuming that the channel covariance is separable, we illustrate implementation of the technique for practical beamforming systems and more advanced signal models that incorporate antenna mutual coupling. View full abstract»

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  • Identification of Pressed Keys From Mechanical Vibrations

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1221 - 1229
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1305 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes an attack that identifies the sequence of keystrokes analyzing mechanical vibrations generated by the act of pressing keys. We use accelerometers as vibration sensors. The apparatus necessary for this attack is inexpensive and can be unobtrusively embedded within the target equipment. We tested the proposed attack on an ATM keypad and a PIN-pad. We achieved the key recognition rates of 98.4% in ATM keypad, 76.7% in PIN-pad resting on a hard surface, and 82.1% in PIN-pad hold in hand. View full abstract»

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  • Monitoring Integrity Using Limited Local Memory

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1230 - 1242
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    System integrity monitors, such as rootkit detectors, rely critically on the ability to fetch and inspect pages containing code and data of a target system under study. To avoid being infected by malicious or compromised targets, state-of-the-art system integrity monitors rely on virtualization technology to set up a tamper-proof execution environment. Consequently, the virtualization infrastructure is part of the trusted computing base. However, modern virtual machine monitors are complex entities, with large code bases that are difficult to verify. In this paper, we present a new machine architecture called limited local memory (LLM), which we use to set up an alternative tamper-proof execution environment for system integrity monitors. This architecture builds upon recent trends in multicore chip design to equip each processing core with access to a small, private memory area. We show that the features of the LLM architecture, combined with a novel secure paging mechanism, suffice to bootstrap a tamper-proof execution environment without support for hardware virtualization. We demonstrate the utility of this architecture by building a rootkit detector that leverages the key features of LLM. This rootkit detector can safely inspect a target operating system without itself becoming the victim of infection. View full abstract»

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  • Multiaccess Channel With Partially Cooperating Encoders and Security Constraints

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1243 - 1254
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3502 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We study a special case of Willems's two-user multiaccess channel with partially cooperating encoders from a security perspective. This model differs from Willems's setup in that only one encoder, Encoder 1, is allowed to conference; Encoder 2 does not transmit any message, and there is an additional passive eavesdropper from whom the communication should be kept secret. For the discrete memoryless (DM) case, we establish inner and outer bounds on the capacity-equivocation region. The inner bound is based on a combination of Willems's coding scheme, noise injection, and additional binning that provides randomization for security. For the memoryless Gaussian model, we establish lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity. We also show that, under certain conditions, these bounds agree in some extreme cases of cooperation between the encoders. We illustrate our results through some numerical examples. View full abstract»

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  • Blank page

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1255 - 1256
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  • IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security Edics

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1257
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  • IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security information for authors

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1258 - 1259
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  • Call for papers special issue on perception inspired video processing

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1260
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  • IEEE Signal Processing Society Information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C3
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security covers the sciences, technologies, and applications relating to information forensics, information security, biometrics, surveillance and systems applications that incorporate these features.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Mauro Barni
University of Siena, Italy