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Photonics Journal, IEEE This IEEE Publication is an Open Access only journal. Open Access provides unrestricted online access to peer-reviewed journal articles.

Issue 3 • Date June 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Observation of Dissipative Soliton Resonance in a Net-Normal Dispersion Figure-of-Eight Fiber Laser

    Article#: 1500806
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (546 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-energy square pulses operating in dissipative soliton resonance region are experimentally observed in an erbium-doped figure-of-eight fiber laser with large net-normal dispersion for the first time to our knowledge. The dissipative soliton resonance is achieved by using the nonlinear-amplifying-loop-mirror mode-locked technique. The output pulse duration broadens linearly with the increase of pump power, while the peak power maintains a constant value. At the maximum pump power of 620 mW, the intracavity pulse energy is up to 379.2 nJ, and the average output power is 14.02 mW. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Acoustic-Birefringence-Induced Orthogonal Acousto-Optic Gratings in Grapefruit Microstructured Fibers

    Article#: 2201610
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (829 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The acousto-optic mode coupling in grapefruit microstructured optical fibers (GMOFs) has been investigated. Due to the presence of grape-like large air holes in the fiber cladding, unequal acoustic modulation is generated, and orthogonal acoustic gratings come into being in the GMOF, which is verified by our experimental observation on the mode profile of resonance peaks. The experimental results indicate that two resonance peaks originating from the mode coupling in acoustic-birefringence-induced orthogonal acoustic gratings simultaneously exist in the transmission spectrum, and the wavelength spacing between them reaches as large as 227.4 nm, which indicates that a greatly enhanced acoustic birefringence has been introduced in the GMOF. And moreover, some important grating features, including frequency-dependent grating period, frequency responses of acoustic phase velocity, and acoustic dispersion, have been investigated for the orthogonal acoustic gratings. These studies would be of importance for understanding the acoustic birefringence mechanism in MOF-based acoustic gratings and development of related acousto-optic devices. View full abstract»

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  • Relationship Between Refractive Index Change and Ti Concentration in Bulk Ti-Doped $hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ Crystal

    Article#: 2201706
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (373 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Relationship between refractive index change and Ti concentration in bulk Ti-doped congruent LiNbO3 crystal is studied. A series of bulk Ti-doped congruent LiNbO3 crystals with different Ti concentrations up to 12 mol% in crystal were grown. The Ti concentration in crystal was determined by neutron activation analysis. The results show that the distribution coefficient keff of Ti ions varies within 0.47-0.74 and there exists a transition region near 6.0 mol%, below which the keff varies within 0.47-0.56 and above which the keff steps up to 0.74. The ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of the crystals were measured and correlated with Ti concentration. The results show that the ordinary/extraordinary index change and Ti concentration follow an exponential/linear relationship, which is similar to that of congruent Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide but different from that of either Ti-doped near-stoichiometric bulk material or waveguide. It is concluded that the relationship changes with material composition but does not change from bulk material to waveguide structure. View full abstract»

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  • Multichannel Transmission Through a Gold Strip Plasmonic Waveguide Embedded in Cytop

    Article#: 2201811
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1154 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we experimentally characterize a low-loss polymer-based plasmonic waveguide and present its system-level performance for transmitting multiple on-off keying modulated channels (4 × 49 Gb/s). The same waveguide also exhibits the capability of transmitting multiple differential phase shift keying modulated channels (4 × 10 Gb/s). Signal transmission has been verified through bit-error-rate measurements. The plasmonic waveguide consists of a 3.6-mm-long, 5-μm-wide, and 35-nm-thick gold strip embedded in Cytop polymer and exhibits a total optical insertion loss of approximately 13 dB at a free-space optical wavelength of 1.55 μm. View full abstract»

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  • Sol–Gel Synthesis of $hbox{Au/Cu-TiO}_{2}$ Nanocomposite and Their Morphological and Optical Properties

    Article#: 2201908
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A facile single-step method was adopted to synthesize gold-modified copper-doped titania nanocomposites. Physicochemical properties of the synthesized material were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and TEM-based techniques. Our characterizations show that the material consisted of anatase-phase qausi-spherical titania nanoparticles (NPs), with 3-4-nm gold particles anchored on titania surface. According to diffuse UV-visible spectroscopic analysis, gold-modified copper-doped titania shows enhanced absorption in the visible-light spectrum compared with copper-doped titania and pure titania. Furthermore, a decrease in PL emission intensity is observed, and this is due to decreased electron-hole recombination, which is an attribute desired for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. Our present results highlight that these nanocomposites could be used as a photocatalyst for various applications in conjunction with visible solar radiation. The surface modifications make this material for many applications such as gas sensing and photodetection. View full abstract»

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  • High-Spatial-Resolution Fast BOTDA for Dynamic Strain Measurement Based on Differential Double-Pulse and Second-Order Sideband of Modulation

    Article#: 2600407
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (607 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate a high-spatial-resolution fast Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) for distributed dynamic strain measurement based on differential double-pulse and second-order sideband of modulation. The frequency-agility probe wave is obtained from the second-order sideband of the modulated light by using the microwave signal from a wideband arbitrary waveform generator (AWG), which reduces the bandwidth requirement of the AWG by half to ~ 5.5 GHz. The differential double-pulse scheme is proposed to improve the spatial resolution while keeping the capability of dynamic measurement. In experiment, a spatial resolution of 20 cm is achieved by using a 52/50 ns differential double-pulse, and the distributed vibration measurement is demonstrated over a 50-m Panda polarization-maintaining fiber observing the vibration frequency of up to 50 Hz. With only five averages, the standard deviation of the strain accuracy is measured to be 14 με. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Bifocal Fibonacci Diffractive Lenses

    Article#: 3400106
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (746 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The focusing properties of diffractive lenses designed using the Fibonacci sequence are studied. It is demonstrated that these lenses present two equal intensity foci and that the ratio of the two focal distances approaches the golden mean. This distinctive optical characteristic is experimentally confirmed. It is suggested that the versatility and potential scalability of these lenses may allow for new applications ranging from X-ray microscopy to THz imaging. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Deterministic Synthesis of Optical Vortices in Tailored Plasmonic Archimedes Spiral

    Article#: 4800409
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate that the shape and the orientation of a surface plasmon (SP) vortex can be deterministically tailored through the geometrical design of a plasmonic Archimedes spiral (PAS). Noncircular SP vortices exhibiting “c,” triangular, and square patterns are successfully synthesized under circular polarized plane-wave excitations. We provide clear evidence that the topological charges of the shaped SP vortices are dominated by the PAS under all geometrical settings. Our analytical description for the vortices shows excellent agreement with numerical simulations. Our design principle provides unique opportunity to manipulate nanoscale intensity and phase distribution of optical field on a flat area and may find interesting applications in plasmonic optical trapping and subwavelength patterning. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Modeling and Design of Ag, Au, and Cu Nanoplasmonic Structures for Enhancing the Absorption of P3HT:PCBM-Based Photovoltaics

    Article#: 4800509
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, 2-D ordered Ag, Au, and Cu nanoplasmonic structures were designed to enhance the absorption of P3HT:PCBM using transfer-matrix method and dipole-coupling model. Two degenerate transverse plasmon modes were found and supported by a coupled metal nanoparticle array embedded in P3HT:PCBM. In the inverted organic photovoltaic, Cu nanoplasmonic structure increased the absorption by 22.1% in visible range. In addition, nanoplasmonic structure provided a wide-angle absorption enhancement for both p and s polarized waves. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • A Selectable Multiband Bandpass Microwave Photonic Filter

    Article#: 5500509
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1096 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A multiband bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) whose passband number and position can be selected is theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed MPF is based on a wide-band optical source (WBOS) and a two-order high-birefringence fiber loop mirror (HB-FLM), which serves as a slicing filter. Two segments of high-birefringence fiber (HBF) with the lengths of 3 m and 6 m are used in the HB-FLM, and three typical spectral periods or their combinations can be independently achieved by simply adjusting the polarization controllers (PCs) in the HB-FLM. Subsequently, the light source is sliced with uniform or mixing wavelength spacing. A coil of single-mode fiber (SMF) is then used to act as a dispersive medium to introduce time delay between taps. Thus, a single or multiband bandpass response is obtained at the output of a high-speed photodetector (PD). In addition, the passband centered at dc frequency is removed due to the use of phase modulation. All of the radio frequency (RF) characteristics of the proposed MPF show good agreement with the theoretical prediction. It has the merits of good flexibility, high spectrum efficiency, and great potential of extension. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Multitap Microwave Photonic Filter With Negative Coefficients Based on the Inherent Birefringence in a $hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ Phase Modulator

    Article#: 5500709
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (891 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel technique to implement a multitap microwave photonic filter with positive and negative coefficients based on the inherent birefringence in a LiNbO3 phase modulator is proposed and demonstrated. In the proposed filter, a microwave signal is applied to the phase modulator and an optical polarizer is connected at the output of the phase modulator to perform polarization interference and phase-modulation to intensity-modulation (PM-IM) conversion. Thanks to the inherent birefringence in the LiNbO3 crystal, a π phase shift is obtained by adjusting the wavelength spacing between two adjacent wavelengths, which leads to the generation of a positive coefficient and a negative coefficient. An equivalent experiment is performed. Four-tap and six-tap microwave photonic filters with positive and negative coefficients are experimentally demonstrated. The reconfigurability of the four-tap and six-tap microwave photonic filters is also investigated. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Ultralow Phase Noise Microwave Generation From Mode-Locked Er-Fiber Lasers With Subfemtosecond Integrated Timing Jitter

    Article#: 5500906
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (546 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate ultralow phase noise 10-GHz microwave signal generation from a free-running mode-locked Er-fiber laser with -142- and -157-dBc/Hz single-sideband absolute phase noise at 10- and 100-kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The absolute RMS timing jitter is 1.5 fs when integrated from 1-kHz to 5-GHz (Nyquist frequency) offset frequency. In the 10-kHz to 10-MHz integration bandwidth typically used for microwave generators, the RMS integrated jitter is 0.49 fs. The Er-fiber laser is operated in the stretched-pulse regime at close-to-zero dispersion to minimize the phase noise of extracted microwaves. In order to suppress the excess phase noise in the optical-to-electronic conversion process, we synchronize a low-noise voltage-controlled oscillator to the fiber laser using a fiber Sagnac-loop-based optical-microwave phase detector. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Similar Role of Transient Kerr Effect and Two-Photon Absorption in a Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Nanocavity

    Article#: 6100209
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (689 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The impacts of transient Kerr effect (TKE) on the characteristics of a nonlinear photonic crystal (PC) nanocavity are theoretically and numerically investigated. It is found that the features of TKE are very similar to those of two-photon absorption (TPA), but the mechanisms for them are essentially different. The relative magnitude of TKE to TPA is calculated, and the result indicates that the contribution of TKE should also be considered in actual designs of PC devices with Kerr nonlinearity. The theory presented in this paper will be helpful for the precise designs of nonlinear PC devices. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Electrically Tunable Goos–Hänchen Shift of Light Beam Reflected From a Graphene-on-Dielectric Surface

    Article#: 6500108
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (602 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have theoretically investigated the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift of the TM-polarized beam reflected from a graphene-on-dielectric surface near the Brewster angle. It is shown that even a single-layer graphene allows for notable variation of the GH shift. The GH shift can be enlarged and switched from positive to negative or vice versa. Importantly, the GH shift depends on the Fermi energy, and thus, it can be electrically controlled through electrical or chemical modification of the charge carrier density of the graphene. Furthermore, the relationship between the GH shift and the electron-phonon relaxation time and the number of graphene layers is clarified. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Obtaining High Fringe Precision in Self-Mixing Interference Using a Simple External Reflecting Mirror

    Article#: 6500207
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (850 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on the study of laser diode self-mixing interference effects, a simple and effective method that can improve fringe precision is presented. By employing an external reflecting mirror, theoretical and experimental results show an assured increase about two or three times in the resolution of the displacement measurement, which means a fringe shift is corresponding to a near 1/6 wavelength displacement of the target. At a small angle range, when the fringe precision is not fixed, this method can still have a relative high precision and a large measurement range. The maximum measurable displacement and error of precision are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Terahertz Waveforms Generated by Second-Order Nonlinear Polarization in GaAs/AlAs Coupled Multilayer Cavities Using Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    Article#: 6500308
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    Temporal terahertz waveforms generated from GaAs/AlAs coupled multilayer cavity structures were simulated and compared with experimental results. Femtosecond laser pulses covering two cavity-mode frequencies were used for the difference frequency generation (DFG) in the terahertz region. The Fourier components dependent on the frequency and spatial position were determined for the second-order nonlinear polarization induced by a 100-fs Gaussian pulse injection. When the temporal waveform was simulated using the Fourier components, the oscillating behavior due to the efficient DFG of the two cavity modes was clearly observed after the initial ultrafast response near the incident surface. Assuming the exponential decay of signal sensitivity in the high-frequency region, the simulated results were consistent with the experimentally measured ones for coupled cavity structures grown on (113)B GaAs substrates. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Scattering Loss Estimation Using 2-D Fourier Analysis and Modeling of Sidewall Roughness on Optical Waveguides

    Article#: 6601010
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (601 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report an accurate scattering loss 3-D modeling technique of sidewall roughness of optical SOI waveguides based on Fourier and finite-difference time domain (FDTD) analysis methods. The Fourier analysis method is based on the image recovery technique used in magnetic resonant imaging. Losses for waveguides with isotropic and anisotropic roughness are calculated for wavelengths ranging from 1550 to 3800 nm and compared with reported results in literature. Our simulations show excellent agreement with published experimental results and provide an accurate prediction of roughness-induced loss of 3-D arbitrary shaped optical waveguides. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Optical Isolator for TE Polarized Light Realized by Adhesive Bonding of Ce:YIG on Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Circuits

    Article#: 6601108
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (763 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An optical isolator for transverse electric (TE) polarized light is demonstrated by adhesive bonding of a ferrimagnetic garnet die on top of a 380 nm thick silicon waveguide circuit. Polarization rotators are implemented in the arms of a nonreciprocal Mach-Zehnder interferometer to rotate the polarization to transverse magnetic in the nonreciprocal phase shifter regions. Calculation of the nonreciprocal phase shift (NRPS) as a function of bonding layer thickness experienced by the TM mode in the interferometer arms is presented, together with the simulation of the robustness of the polarization rotator. Experimentally, 32 dB isolation is measured at 1540.5 nm wavelength using a magnetic field transverse to the light propagation directions. This paves the way to the cointegration of laser diodes and optical isolators on a silicon photonics platform. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Balanced InP/InGaAs Photodiodes With 1.5-W Output Power

    Article#: 6800307
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (807 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report InP/InGaAs modified unitraveling-carrier balanced photodiodes (PDs). The back-illuminated PDs were flip-chip bonded on diamond submounts for enhanced heat sinking. The device demonstrated a 3-dB bandwidth of 8 GHz and a 30-dB common-mode rejection ratio at frequencies of <; 10 GHz. High saturation current of > 320 mA, maximum output power of 31.7 dBm (1.5 W) into a 50-Ω load, and good linearity with a third-order intercept point of up to 47 dBm were measured at the 3-dB bandwidth frequency of 8 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Noise Reduction in Digital Hologram Using Wavelet Transforms and Smooth Filter for Three-Dimensional Display

    Article#: 6800414
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A noise reduction method of Fresnel computer-generated hologram (CGH) using wavelet transform and smooth filter is presented. Noise in hologram is very difficult to remove because an interference pattern is recorded on a digital camera during the digital processing. It also occurs in the reconstruction process, which is affected by discrete quantizing levels and optical experiment setup. So, we develop an algorithm that is capable of changing pixel values at different scales with imaginary or real value according to the requirements of each position in the hologram. A new algorithm is proposed to satisfy the above requirements using a mathematical transformation between the smooth filter function and mother wavelet function in a wavelet transform. In this paper, a theoretical model to predict the effect of noise is described and verified by the experimental results. Based on this, the resultant noises in the reconstructed image by Fresnel CGH algorithm are decreased clearly when spatial light modulator (SLM) for 3D object is placed at distance from 260 mm to 900 mm. The enhanced 3D images can be obtained from digital holograms using efficient noise reduction algorithm to apply this proposed model. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Lossless Compression of Dithered Images

    Article#: 6800508
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to display high-bit resolution images on low-bit resolution displays, bit resolution needs to be reduced. This problem is vital especially for low-cost or small (mobile) devices. To untangle the bit reduction problem, special color quantization algorithms, called dithering, are employed on high-bit resolution images. The dithering process helps to remedy the problem, but it does not help much in terms of storage and transmission of images. To reduce storage needs and lower data transmission, numerous special compression techniques have been proposed in the last several decades. While the well-known compression algorithms, such as gzip, help lower image file sizes, usually, they are not adequate. To improve the compression gain, special compression techniques that take into account structure of image data must be developed. In this paper, we show that, when the pseudo-distance technique (PDT) is used for dithered images, it yields better compression results than GIF and PNG. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Microring-Based $N times N$ Scalable Polymeric Electrooptic Routing Switch Array: Theory, Architecture, and Design Scheme

    Article#: 7200620
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1949 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Device architecture and design scheme of an N × N scalable electrooptic (EO) routing switch array (RSA) are proposed using electric-field-induced EO polymeric microrings. The basic 2 × 2 /cross/bar EO switching element is optimized under 1550-nm wavelength, and the ring radius is only 13.76 μm with <; 10-4 dB/cm bending loss. The basic element reveals a free spectral range (FSR) of 17 nm, a switching voltage of 5 V, and response times of 70/140 ps, and the crosstalk under cross and bar states are about -28.8 and -39.9 dB, respectively. Using 2 × 2 switching elements, 4 × 4, 8 × 8, 16 × 16, and 32 × 32 RSAs are presented, under all routing paths, their maximum insertion losses are 2.57, 5.19, 5.99 and 7.59 dB, respectively, and their maximum crosstalk are - 28.7, -28.7, - 26.27 and -25.07 dB, respectively. Universal structure, routing scheme, electrical/optical responses, and dynamic power consumption (PC) of N × N RSA are then demonstrated, and dependence relations between routing performances and the RSA size N are achieved through data fitting. Comparisons with other reported passive/active routers/switches confirm that, due to superiority on fewer rings, picosecond faster response speed, zero static PC, and lower insertion loss and crosstalk, this polymer-based routing scheme can be a good candidate in on-chip optical systems. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Photonic Crystal Fiber in Photonic Crystal Fiber for Residual Dispersion Compensation Over ${rm E} + {rm S} + {rm C} + {rm L} + {rm U}$ Wavelength Bands

    Article#: 7200607
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (694 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A photonic crystal fiber in photonic crystal fiber (PCF-in-PCF) architecture is numerically investigated for residual dispersion compensation in optical transmission link. The optimized structure shows a flattened and high average dispersion of -457.4 ps/nm/km in the wavelength range of 1360 nm to 1690 nm. The sensitivity of the fiber dispersion properties to a ±2% variation in the optimum parameters is studied for practical conditions. Additionally, the effect of variation in the structure parameters on effective mode area is simulated to understand its relationship to light confinement. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Photonic-Assisted Ultrawideband Pulse Generator With Tunable Notch Filtering Based on Polarization-to-Intensity Conversion

    Article#: 7900909
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    A photonic approach to generating ultrawideband (UWB) pulses with tunable band-rejection behavior and a chirp-free property, which is based on a nonlinear operated polarization-to-intensity converter, is proposed and demonstrated. As an initial phase shift of the incident light φ0 = π, a high-order UWB pulse fully satisfied the indoor mask regulated by the Federal Communications Commission was synthesized by a pair of polarity-inverted and doublet-like pulses at the output port of the polarization beam combiner. Moreover, the notch band will occur dynamically on the power spectra of the UWB signals from 3 to 16 GHz through adjusting the relative delay time between both doublet-like pulses from 333 to 62.5 ps due to the effect of microwave photonic filtering, which means that the spectrum-overlay-induced interference between UWB and other narrow-band communication systems could be real-time averted. In addition, the polarity switch of the synthesized UWB pulse could be implemented by adjusting angle α between the x-axis component of modulated light and the principal axis of the arm of transverse electric mode by the polarization controller. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Wavelength Routers for Optical Networks-on-Chip Using Optimized Photonic Crystal Ring Resonators

    Article#: 7901011
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1020 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose an optical 1 × 2 passive wavelength router (λ-router), based on photonic crystal ring resonators. The router, as basic building block to be assembled into higher order routing matrices, exploits a broadband crossing between two photonic crystal waveguides and a photonic crystal ring resonator. Moreover, we analyze the behavior of a 4 × 4 λ-router configuration obtained by assembling eight 1 × 2 routers. The design criteria are pointed out, and the numerical results, obtained by the finite-difference time-domain and the plane-wave expansion methods, are reported. The 4 × 4 λ-router has a footprint of 30 μm × 30 μm, and it is capable of connecting four transmitters with four receivers with a maximum crosstalk between the ports equal to -13.9 dB. View full abstract»

    Open Access

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IEEE Photonics is an online-only rapid publication archival journal of top quality research at the fore-front of Photonics.  Photonics integrates quantum electronics and optics to accelerate progress in the generation of novel photon sources and in their utilization in emerging applications at the micro and nano scales spanning from the far-infrared/THz to the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Carmen S. Menoni
Colorado State University