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Oceanic Engineering, IEEE Journal of

Issue 2 • Date April 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
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  • Excellence in Review 2012

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 209 - 210
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  • Modeling and Simulation of an AUV Simulator With Guidance System

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 211 - 225
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2929 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An intelligent autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) simulator with path-planning capability was developed. A guidance system of the simulator automatically generates continuous-curvature paths of a cubic B-spline class constrained by the minimum turning radius of the marine vehicle and waypoints. The simulator of the guidance system includes a line-of-sight (LOS) algorithm and a horizontal proportional-derivative (PD) controller, adapting the Euler-Rodriguez quaternion method on the base of 3-D Euler-Lagrange formulation. A web-based interactive simulation system can animate the attitudes and position of the AUV in real time. A 3000-T AUV was used to test the guidance system. Comparisons of linear and cubic path-planning strategies were discussed, including a straight line and a conventional cubic spline method, three parametric methods for planning cubic B-spline paths, and an iterative method for improving and expanding the function of the path generator. Simulation results of the tracking performance tests show that the AUV can precisely approach targets and waypoints using the proposed method. The improvement in the cross-tracking error was approximately 80%, whereas reduction in traveling time was 5%. View full abstract»

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  • Vehicle Motion in Currents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 226 - 242
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a nonlinear dynamic model for the motion of a rigid vehicle in a dense fluid flow that comprises a steady, nonuniform component and an unsteady, uniform component. In developing the basic equations, the nonuniform flow is assumed to be inviscid, but containing initial vorticity; further rotational flow effects may then be incorporated by modifying the angular rate used in the viscous force and moment model. The equations capture important flow-related forces and moments that are absent in simpler models. The dynamic equations are presented in terms of both the vehicle's inertial motion and its flow-relative motion. Model predictions are compared with exact analytical solutions for simple flows. Applications of the motion model include controller and observer design, stability analysis, and simulation of nonlinear vehicle dynamics in nonuniform flows. As illustrations, we use the model to analyze the motion of a cylinder in a plane laminar jet, a spherical Lagrangian drifter, and a slender underwater vehicle. For this last example, we compare predictions of the given model with those of simpler models and we demonstrate its use for flow gradient estimation. The results are applicable to not only underwater vehicles, but also to air vehicles of low relative density such as airships and ultralights. View full abstract»

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  • Motion Parameter Optimization and Sensor Scheduling for the Sea-Wing Underwater Glider

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 243 - 254
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1988 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Underwater gliders adjust buoyancy to generate gliding motion through water columns using a pair of wings. Various types of underwater gliders have been developed and have been tested as efficient long-distance, long-duration ocean sampling platforms. We introduce the Chinese Sea-Wing underwater glider and develop methods to increase its gliding range by optimizing the steady motion parameters to save energy. The methods are based on a model that relates gliding range to steady gliding motion parameters as well as energy consumption. A sensor scheduling strategy accounts for the distributed features of vertical profiles so that the sampling resolution is adjusted to reduce energy consumption of sensing. The effect of the proposed methods to increase gliding range is evaluated on the Sea-Wing glider. The proposed methods may be applicable to other types of underwater gliders. View full abstract»

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  • Linear Generator Connected to a Resonance-Rectifier Circuit

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 255 - 262
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1402 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a linear direct driven generator used for wave energy utilization. The generator is placed on the seabed and connected to a buoy on the ocean surface. Due to the reciprocating motion of the translator, an electrical conversion system is needed between the wave energy converter (WEC) and the grid. Depending on how the conversion system is designed, the generator will be subjected to different loads. A novel conversion system is presented in this paper where the voltage from the WEC is rectified in a resonance circuit. Both simulations and experiments are performed on the circuit. The results from the simulations show that a higher power absorption and power production can be achieved with the resonance circuit compared to a WEC connected to a passive rectifier. A WEC, L9, developed by Uppsala University (Uppsala, Sweden) was used in the experiment. Significantly higher power absorption was obtained for L9 compared to power data from the first installed WEC, L1, at the Lysekil research site. View full abstract»

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  • Identification for a Heading Autopilot of an Autonomous In-Scale Fast Ferry

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 263 - 274
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2475 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of this paper is to obtain a heading model for the purpose of control of an in-scale fast-ferry TF-120 physical model, including the dynamics and kinematics, using a remote experimentation platform for marine vehicles. The physical model is developed to be autonomous and is controlled remotely from a PC using WiFi communications. The identification and validation of the model dynamics is obtained with turning circle maneuverings. The tests with the autonomous in-scale physical model of the high-speed ship were carried out on the coastline of the Bay of Santander. The parametric model identified is used to design different classical control structures for a heading autopilot, and a simulation of this system is performed in Simulink. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical Improvements When Using the Second Harmonic Signal in Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 275 - 284
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    Acoustic Doppler current profilers and velocity logs are devices that compute the Doppler frequency shift undergone by a pulse after reflection by floating particles in water or by the seafloor. Using this Doppler shift, the velocity of the water currents carrying the reflecting particles or the speed of a vessel relative to the sea bottom can be estimated. The attainable performance of Doppler logs in terms of range and velocity estimate error are directly linked to the physical dimensions and geometry of the transceivers as well as the nature of the pulse transmitted. Beyond a certain transmitted power, distortion of the transmitted pulse due to nonlinear effects is significant. The second harmonic signal generated in that case can be used to estimate velocity in conjunction with the fundamental signal. It has a narrower mainlobe and a higher mainlobe-to-sidelobe ratio compared to the fundamental signal. Such geometrical properties contribute to a more localized velocity determination with less perturbations coming from scatterers away from the region of interest. Combining the velocity estimates using the fundamental and second harmonic signals also helps decreasing the velocity estimate error. For a Doppler log transmitting a pulse at 153.6 kHz using 250-W input power with a nominal range of 400 m, the attainable range for the second harmonic signal is estimated to around 221 m. View full abstract»

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  • Mapping Tidal Current Structures in Zhitouyang Bay, China, Using Coastal Acoustic Tomography

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 285 - 296
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4050 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The first Chinese coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) experiment for mapping the tidal currents in Zhitouyang Bay near Zhoushan Island was successfully performed with seven acoustic stations from July 12 to 13, 2009. Using CAT, the horizontal distributions of the tidal currents in the tomography domain were calculated by the inverse analysis, in which the travel time differences for sound traveling reciprocally between the station pairs are used as data. The specified tidal current structures, such as the strong east-west oscillation of the tidal current, the branched current, and the tidal vortices, were reconstructed as snapshots at the successive tidal phases. The relative vorticity calculated from the inverted current fields served to specify the current structures, such as tidal vortices. The inversion-estimated uncertainty of (0.02-0.08) m s-1 narrowed the root-mean-square difference (RMSD) of (0.00-0.11) m s-1 between the 3-min interval original data and the hourly mean data for all the sampled data, which may be regarded as a measure of error. Throughout the tidal phases, the divergence from the inverted current showed a positive (negative) distribution in the shallow (deep) region as an overall view. However, the divergence for the entire tomography domain was nearly equal to zero, corresponding to no net transport. This result implies that the observational errors are quite small for the present experiment. This experiment reaffirms that coastal acoustic tomography is an accurate and efficient observational method for continuously mapping tidal current structures in coastal regions that are characterized by heavy shipping traffic and active fishing. View full abstract»

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  • Improving Sonar Performance in Shallow Water Using Adaptive Beamforming

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 297 - 307
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2164 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multipath propagation degrades the performance of active, bottom-imaging sonars in shallow-water environments. One way to avoid multipath interference is to use a vertical array with a narrow enough angular response to separate the direct bottom return from the multipath. However, this requires a large array and is often infeasible for practical reasons. In this study, we focus on the use of adaptive beamforming on the receiver side to reduce multipath interference and hence improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Using a small, dense receiver array, we apply classical and adaptive beamformers to real data collected by the NATO Undersea Research Centre in a shallow-water environment. Our results show that the adaptive minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamformer offers an improvement in the estimated SNR compared to a conventional beamformer in most cases. However, the MVDR beamformer is suboptimal when the receiver consists of only a few elements. We propose using the low complexity adaptive (LCA) beamformer, which is based on the same optimization criteria as the MVDR beamformer, but is robust in a coherent environment without the need for spatial smoothing. For two to 4-element receivers, we observe an improvement of about 0.5-2.5 dB in the estimated SNR when using the LCA beamformer. In cases where the model indicates that the direct bottom return and the dominating multipath arrive from nearly the same angle, little or no improvement is observed. This is typically the case for first- or second-order multipaths reflected off the seafloor toward the receiver. The results from this study also show that with a small vertical array, a narrow mainlobe width is more important than low sidelobe levels, in terms of maximizing the SNR. Consequently, an unweighted conventional beamformer performs better than a conventional beamformer with a Hanning window applied for sidelobe suppression. View full abstract»

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  • Wideband Robust Capon Beamforming for Passive Sonar

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 308 - 322
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3829 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In passive sonar, narrowband adaptive beamforming techniques can be exploited to increase the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR), providing that array steering vector (ASV) errors and cross-spectral density matrix (CSDM) estimation errors can be controlled. When beamforming large aperture, many-element arrays in dynamic scenarios, the number of stationary snapshots available for CSDM estimation can be small compared to the number of array elements, leading to the problem of snapshot deficiency. Furthermore, common narrowband approaches become computationally prohibitive for large bandwidths. Here, we exploit the wideband nature of passive sonar signals to alleviate snapshot deficiency and reduce computational complexity. Narrowband robust Capon beamformers (RCBs), which exploit ellipsoidal ASV uncertainty sets to maintain high SINR, are extended to the wideband problem via the steered covariance matrix (STCM) method, yielding wideband RCBs (WBRCBs). To further reduce computational complexity and speed up algorithm convergence, subarray techniques are also incorporated, yielding wideband subarray RCBs (WBSARCBs). These algorithms, which are applicable to arbitrary array geometries, are evaluated using simulated and experimental passive sonar data. View full abstract»

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  • New Sparse Adaptive Algorithms Based on the Natural Gradient and the {L}_{0} -Norm

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 323 - 332
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2286 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new algorithmic framework for sparse channel identification is proposed. Although the focus of this paper is on sparse underwater acoustic channels, this framework can be applied in any field where sequential noisy signal samples are obtained from a linear time-varying system. A suit of new algorithms is derived by minimizing a differentiable cost function that utilizes the underlying Riemannian structure of the channel as well as the L0-norm of the complex-valued channel taps. The sparseness effect of the proposed algorithms is successfully demonstrated by estimating a mobile shallow-water acoustic channel. The clear superiority of the new algorithms over state-of-the-art sparse adaptive algorithms is shown. Moreover, the proposed algorithms are employed by a channel-estimate-based decision-feedback equalizer (CEB DFE). These CEB DFE structures are compared with a direct-adaptation DFE (DA DFE), which is based on sparse and nonsparse adaptation. Our results confirm the improved error-rate performance of the new CEB DFEs when the channel is sparse. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple-Resampling Receiver Design for OFDM Over Doppler-Distorted Underwater Acoustic Channels

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 333 - 346
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2996 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we focus on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) receiver designs for underwater acoustic (UWA) channels with user- and/or path-specific Doppler scaling distortions. The scenario is motivated by the cooperative communications framework, where distributed transmitter/receiver pairs may experience significantly different Doppler distortions, as well as by the single-user scenarios, where distinct Doppler scaling factors may exist among different propagation paths. The conventional approach of front-end resampling that corrects for common Doppler scaling may not be appropriate in such scenarios, rendering a post-fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) signal that is contaminated by user- and/or path-specific intercarrier interference. To counteract this problem, we propose a family of front-end receiver structures that utilize multiple-resampling (MR) branches, each matched to the Doppler scaling factor of a particular user and/or path. Following resampling, FFT modules transform the Doppler-compensated signals into the frequency domain for further processing through linear or nonlinear detection schemes. As part of the overall receiver structure, a gradient-descent approach is also proposed to refine the channel estimates obtained by standard sparse channel estimators. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed receivers are demonstrated via simulations, as well as emulations based on real data collected during the 2010 Mobile Acoustic Communications Experiment (MACE10, Martha's Vineyard, MA) and the 2008 Kauai Acomms MURI (KAM08, Kauai, HI) experiment. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Results of Two Iterative Receivers for Distributed MIMO OFDM With Large Doppler Deviations

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 347 - 357
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1878 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper studies a distributed orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system with multiple quasi-synchronous users, where different users may transmit different numbers of parallel data streams. The distinction from most existing work is that the multipath channels for different users have significantly different Doppler scales. Such a setting with two single-transmitter users was first studied in a recent publication by Tu et al. (2010). This paper presents two iterative receivers, termed as multiuser detection (MUD)-based receivers and single-user detection (SUD)-based receivers. The MUD-based receiver adopts a frequency-domain-oversampling front end on each receive element, then performs joint channel estimation and multiuser data detection iteratively. The SUD-based receiver adopts conventional single-user processing modules, but adds a critical step of multiuser interference (MUI) cancellation, where the MUI reconstruction explicitly considers different resampling factors used by different users. Experimental data sets from the 2010 Mobile Acoustic Communications Experiment (MACE10, Martha's Vineyard, MA) and the 2008 Surface Processes and Acoustic Communications Experiment (SPACE08) are used to emulate a distributed OFDM system with different numbers of users and different numbers of data streams per user. Performance results in different settings validate the effectiveness of the proposed iterative receivers. View full abstract»

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  • NEMO-SN1 Abyssal Cabled Observatory in the Western Ionian Sea

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 358 - 374
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6191 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory-Submarine Network 1 (NEMO-SN1) seafloor observatory is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, Western Ionian Sea, off Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy) at 2100-m water depth, 25 km from the harbor of the city of Catania. It is a prototype of a cabled deep-sea multiparameter observatory and the first one operating with real-time data transmission in Europe since 2005. NEMO-SN1 is also the first-established node of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory (EMSO), one of the incoming European large-scale research infrastructures included in the Roadmap of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) since 2006. EMSO will specifically address long-term monitoring of environmental processes related to marine ecosystems, climate change, and geohazards. NEMO-SN1 has been deployed and developed over the last decade thanks to Italian funding and to the European Commission (EC) project European Seas Observatory NETwork-Network of Excellence (ESONET-NoE, 2007-2011) that funded the Listening to the Deep Ocean-Demonstration Mission (LIDO-DM) and a technological interoperability test (http://www.esonet-emso.org). NEMO-SN1 is performing geophysical and environmental long-term monitoring by acquiring seismological, geomagnetic, gravimetric, accelerometric, physico-oceanographic, hydroacoustic, and bioacoustic measurements. Scientific objectives include studying seismic signals, tsunami generation and warnings, its hydroacoustic precursors, and ambient noise characterization in terms of marine mammal sounds, environmental and anthropogenic sources. NEMO-SN1 is also an important test site for the construction of the Kilometre-Cube Underwater Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT), another large-scale research infrastructure included in the ESFRI Roadmap based on a large volume neutrino telescope. The description of the observatory and its most recent implementations is presented. On June 9, 2012, NEMO-SN1 was successfully de- loyed and is working in real time. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Analysis of Motion of Crawler-Type Remotely Operated Vehicles

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 375 - 382
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A crawler system has the potential to expand research and development on seafloors with irregular steep terrain and sand. Characteristic parameters in water, such as added mass, buoyancy, and hydrodynamic forces, considerably affect and decrease the mobility of crawler-type remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). To study and evaluate the mobile performance of a crawler system, it is important to investigate the dynamic motion of the crawler system by considering these effects. This paper presents a mathematical model of an underwater crawler system to show the dynamic effects on the vehicle's motion; experiments were conducted on a crawler-type ROV climbing over a bump in a water tank to examine the slip characteristics at sea. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental results. The mathematical model presented in this paper simulates the dynamic motion for climbing over a bump and the slip characteristics very well, and it reveals the physics of the crawler-type ROV's motion. The proposed mathematical model is useful for dynamic analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Development and Performance Tests of a Sensor Suite for a Long-Term Borehole Monitoring System in Seafloor Settings in the Nankai Trough, Japan

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 383 - 395
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3149 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), the long-term borehole monitoring system (LTBMS) has been planned for installation into boreholes in seafloor settings in the Nankai Trough, Japan. The LTBMS sensors are extremely sensitive instruments for collecting broadband dynamics to elucidate the mechanisms of megathrust earthquakes, which occur repeatedly in plate subduction zones. However, during IODP Expedition 319, it became apparent that the strong ocean current “Kuroshio” causes vortex-induced vibration (VIV) that damages sensors during installation. Consequently, the LTBMS sensors must be not only highly sensitive but also robust to prevail against VIV. Therefore, sensors with antivibration mechanisms were developed by a Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC, Kanagawa, Japan) project team. After development was completed, noise evaluation tests and vibration and shock tests simulating vibration and shock in the installation scheme were conducted to confirm that the antivibration mechanism was functional. Power spectral density analysis was conducted using background noise recorded in a low-noise location before and after the vibration and shock tests. Results show that the sensor response was not changed by the vibration or shock tests. Finally, all sensors were loaded onto D/V Chikyu for installation at the C0002 site during IODP Expedition 332. View full abstract»

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  • New Step for Broadband Seismic Observation on the Seafloor: BBOBS-NX

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 396 - 405
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    Essential information for clarifying geodynamic processes is obtained by imaging the Earth's interior through geophysical observations. Huge oceanic areas are important locations for conducting such observations. The broadband ocean-bottom seismometer (BBOBS) that we developed has been used since 1999 in several array observations, which gave us new information. But, the BBOBS's noise model in periods longer than 10 s indicates the high noise level in horizontal components above the new high noise model (NHNM), although the vertical one is between the NHNM and the new low noise model (NLNM). It makes it difficult to apply modern analysis methods using horizontal component waveforms even from the data of the one-year-long observation at a single station. Recently, we have developed a geophysical instrument to investigate the oceanic mantle, namely the next-generation broadband ocean-bottom seismometer (BBOBS-NX), operated by a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). The BBOBS-NX provides data of much higher quality than the conventional BBOBS, because it shows a comparable noise model in horizontal components with that of land seismic stations in periods longer than 10 s. Comparison between bottom currents and horizontal particle motions of the BBOBS-NX and conventional BBOBSs clearly indicates the effective reduction of the noise due to the bottom current in this period range. A preliminary receiver function analysis also shows the advantage of the BBOBS-NX to the conventional BBOBS, even if the observation period of the former was shorter than a quarter of that of the latter. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Erratum to “Challenges, Benefits, and Opportunities in Installing and Operating Cabled Ocean Observatories: Perspectives from NEPTUNE Canada” [C. R. Barnes, M. M. R. Best , F. R. Johnson, L. Pautet, and B. Pirenne, IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 144–157, Jan. 2013]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 406
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (106 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the authors' biographies section of [1], the location of Laurentian University was incorrect. Instead of Ottawa, the location should be Sudbury. In addition, Lucie Pautet was incorrectly listed as being Associate Director for NEPTUNE Canada, Victoria, BC, Canada, from 2009 to 2011. The dates should be from 2010 to 2012. View full abstract»

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  • Open Access

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 407
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  • IEEE Xplore Digital Library

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 408
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  • IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society Information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C3
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering (ISSN 0364-9059) is published quarterly by the IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society (IEEE OES). The scope of the Journal is the field of interest of the IEEE OES, which encompasses all aspects of science, engineering, and technology that address research, development, and operations pertaining to all bodies of water. This includes the creation of new capabilities and technologies from concept design through prototypes, testing, and operational systems to sense, explore, understand, develop, use, and responsibly manage natural resources.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
N. Ross Chapman
School of Earth & Ocean Sciences
University of Victoria
3800 Finnerty Road
Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 Canada
chapman@uvic.ca