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Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date APRIL 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 59
  • Table of Contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): c1
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  • Cover 2

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): c2
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  • From the Editor

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1
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  • Multiple Signal Detection Digital Wideband Receiver using Hardware Accelerators

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 706 - 715
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3715 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A three gigasample per second (GSPS) digital wideband receiver that operates in a 1.25-GHz instantaneous bandwidth (IBW) is proposed. In addition to building such systems, offloading of computation-intensive tasks to a combination of specialized hardware accelerators such as graphics processing units (GPUs) and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to increase the overall receiver's dynamic performance is analyzed. The receiver detects up to 15 signals with a maximum attainable instantaneous dynamic range (IDR) of 62.5 dB before the next set of data arrives for processing. View full abstract»

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  • TFRC-Satellite: A TFRC Variant with a Loss Differentiation Algorithm for Satellite Networks

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 716 - 725
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4571 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is an increasing number of multimedia applications featured in satellite networks. However, the performance of the transmission control protocol (TCP) friendly rate control (TFRC) protocol, which is used to transfer multimedia data in satellite networks, is much poorer than that of traditional wired networks because of the long propagation delay and the high link error rates in satellite networks. An extended end-to-end TFRC protocol, TFRC-satellite, is proposed, which uses a loss differentiation algorithm (LDA) to differentiate packet losses and to avoid TFRC's misclassifications. The LDA depends on the queuing delay calculated based on the round-trip time (RTT) measurement and makes the loss event rate calculation of the equation of TFRC more accurate. TFRC-satellite requires no modifications to the network infrastructure and other protocols. Simulations show that TFRC-satellite acquires much higher throughput compared with the original TFRC, and the utilization of the bottleneck link is improved greatly. View full abstract»

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  • Sea Clutter Texture Estimation: Exploiting Decorrelation and Cyclostationarity

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 726 - 743
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (10940 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent work sea clutter has been modeled as the product of two components. The first one, referred to as speckle, is modeled as a stationary Gaussian process. It is characterized by a short correlation time. The second component, referred to as texture, is modeled as a stationary or cyclostationary process. It is characterized by a long correlation time. Two approaches for the estimation of the texture are introduced here. The first approach involves the correlation properties of texture and speckle. The texture spectrum is modeled as an autoregressive (AR) process, while the texture range profile within one pulse repetition interval (PRI) is identified by combining the AR estimation of the sea clutter sample auto-covariance with the empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis. The second approach involves a mixed ℓ2-ℓ1 norm minimization criterion to account for the sparse harmonic structure of the texture, considered herein as a cyclostationary process within multiple coherent processing intervals (CPI). View full abstract»

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  • Hierarchical Decentralized Receding Horizon Control of Multiple Vehicles with Communication Failures

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 744 - 759
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4857 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents a new approach for designing decentralized receding horizon controllers (DRHC) for cooperative multiple vehicle systems with inter-vehicle communication delays arising from communication failures. Using DRHC each vehicle plans its own state trajectory over a finite prediction time horizon. The neighboring vehicles then exchange their predicted trajectories at each sample time to maintain cooperation objectives. Such communication failures lead to large, inter-vehicle communication delays of exchanged information. Large inter-vehicle communication delays can potentially lead to degraded cooperation performance and unsafe vehicle motion. To maintain desired cooperation performance during faulty conditions, the proposed fault-tolerant DRHC architecture estimates the tail part of the neighboring vehicle trajectory that is unavailable due to communication delays. Furthermore, to address the safety of the team against possible collisions during faulty situations, a fault-tolerant DRHC is developed, which provides safety using a safe protection zone called a tube around the trajectory of faulty neighboring vehicles. The radius of the tube increases with communication delay and maneuverability. A communication failure diagnosis algorithm is also developed. The required communication capability for the fault-diagnosis algorithm and fault-tolerant DRHC suggests a hierarchical fault-tolerant DRHC architecture. Simulations of formation flight of miniature hovercrafts are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant DRHC architecture. View full abstract»

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  • DOA Estimation for Sparse Array via Sparse Signal Reconstruction

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 760 - 773
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4303 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for sparse array is addressed. The perspective that DOA estimation in virtual array response model can be cast as the problem of sparse recovery is introduced. Two methods are proposed, based on different optimization problems, which are solvable using second-order cone (SOC) programming. Without the knowledge of the number of sources, the proposed methods yield superior performances, which are verified by numerical simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-Band Radar Receiver Design Approach for Minimum Bandpass Sampling

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 774 - 785
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2316 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multi-frequency radars, which are employed in a plurality of emerging applications, exploit the echoes for different bands that come from illuminated targets. A compact multi-function architecture that makes use of direct sampling could be a preferable choice for these new-generation radar systems, with RF front-end design a first step in their development. Here, within the framework of multi-frequency radars, an analytical tool for simultaneously acquiring the signal bands by using the minimum sub-Nyquist sampling frequency is addressed. Although the dual-band radar scenario is exhaustively analyzed, keys to understand the acquisition of more-than-two-band systems are also provided. Moreover, as the core of the associated RF architecture to carry out arbitrary multi-band signal pre-selections, a new class of microwave planar multi-passband filters based on stepped-impedance-line signal-interference concepts is reported. Also, for validation, the construction and testing of a microstrip spectrally-asymmetrical dual-passband filter prototype for a specific example of minimum-sampling dual-frequency radar RF front-end are shown. View full abstract»

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  • An Efficient Subcarrier Allocation Method for AeroMACS-Based Communication Systems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 786 - 797
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2749 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The work presented here deals with an IEEE 802.16e-based system for airport surface communications, named AeroMACS. Such a system has been proposed as a possible solution to satisfy the growing demand of new communication services and needs of next generation air traffic management (ATM) systems. By focusing on a specific airport environment, a resource allocation algorithm is proposed that allows the communication system capacity to be increased by exploiting the tap correlation related to each user communication channel. Optimal resource allocation using tap correlation has been previously shown to have a significant gain with respect to different alternatives, but also suffers from severe computational complexity. In order to relax this drawback, a novel suboptimal method is proposed that allows the implementation complexity to be lowered and the derivation of channel parameters to be made affordable, in particular in the case of fast varying propagation conditions or high estimation latency. The performance of the proposed algorithm is validated by comparisons with those achieved by the optimal approach and alternative solutions under different application conditions and users speed values. The final result shown here is a significant performance improvement for the proposed algorithm with respect to standard alternatives. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced SLB Architectures with Invariant Receivers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 798 - 818
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5689 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sidelobe blanking (SLB) system design in the presence of both homogeneous Gaussian clutter plus noise and jammer entering through the sidelobes of the antenna is considered. A new SLB structure using invariant receivers on the two channels is introduced and analyzed. A general theoretical framework is developed and applied to the special case of Kelly's receiver [1] on the two channels. Closed-form expressions for the performance probabilities in the blanking and detection regions are derived, and the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) behavior of the architecture is remarked. Finally, several numerical simulations of the proposed SLB system with typical parameters are obtained and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Processing of Ultrahigh-Resolution Spaceborne Sliding Spotlight SAR Data on Curved Orbit

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 819 - 839
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3638 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In high-resolution spaceborne synthetic aperture radars (SARs), with increasing synthetic aperture length on curved orbits, the hyperbolic range history (HRH) assumption deteriorates, and simple analytic transfer functions in the Doppler domain used in SAR processing do not exist. A subsection HRH model is proposed. Ultra- high-resolution sliding spotlight SAR data can be handled satisfactorily, and simple analytic transform functions are used all the same. The proposed range history model is also applicable to bistatic SARs. View full abstract»

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  • UAV Path Planning with Tangent-plus-Lyapunov Vector Field Guidance and Obstacle Avoidance

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 840 - 856
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5369 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A dynamic path-planning algorithm is proposed for routing unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in order to track ground targets under path constraints, wind effects, and obstacle avoidance requirements. We first present the tangent vector field guidance (TVFG) and the Lyapunov vector field guidance (LVFG) algorithms. We demonstrate that the TVFG outperforms the LVFG as long as a tangent line is available between the UAV's turning circle and an objective circle, which is a desired orbit pattern over a target. Based on a hybrid version of the TVFG and LVFG, we then derive a theoretically shortest path algorithm with UAV operational constraints given a target position and the current UAV dynamic state. This algorithm has the efficiency of the TVFG when UAV is outside the standoff circle and the ability to follow the path via the LVFG when inside the standoff circle. In addition we adopt point-mass approximation of the target state probability density function (pdf) for target motion prediction by exploiting road network information and target dynamics as well as obstacle avoidance strategies. Overall, the proposed technical approach is practical and competitive, supported by solid theoretical analysis on several aspects of the algorithm performance. With extensive simulations we show that the tangent-plus-Lyapunov vector field guidance (T+LVFG) algorithm provides effective and robust tracking performance in various scenarios, including a target moving according to waypoints or a random kinematics model in an environment that may include obstacles and/or winds. View full abstract»

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  • Near-Field Localization of Partially Polarized Sources with a Cross-Dipole Array

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 857 - 870
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2524 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of near-field partially polarized electromagnetic source localization using an array of cross-dipoles, each of which consists of one x-axis dipole and one y-axis dipole, is addressed. The maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm for estimating the angle and range parameters is developed. This algorithm requires no search over the polarization parameters. We also show that the ML algorithm can be implemented by processing the x-axis dipole data and the y-axis dipole data separately. In addition, a subspace-based algorithm, which is based on the ideas of MUSIC and generalized ESPRIT, is presented. This algorithm decouples the two-dimensional (2D) search into two successive one-dimensional (1D) searches, where the angle and range parameters are estimated in succession. The deterministic Cramer-Rao bound (CRB), for the problem under consideration, is also derived. The performance of the subspace-based algorithm is evaluated and compared with that of the ML algorithm and the CRB. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency Invariant Uniform Concentric Circular Arrays with Directional Elements

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 871 - 884
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new approach for designing frequency invariant (FI) uniform concentric circular arrays (UCCAs) with directional elements is proposed, and their applications to direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and adaptive beamforming are studied. By treating the sensors along the radial direction of the UCCA as linear subarrays and using appropriately designed beamformers, each subarray is transformed to a virtual element with appropriate directivity. Consequently, the whole UCCA can be viewed as a virtual uniform circular array (UCA) with desired element directivity for broadband processing. By extending the approach for designing FI-UCAs, the frequency dependency of the phase modes of the virtual UCA is compensated to facilitate broadband DOA and adaptive beamforming. Both the linear array beamformers (LABFs) and compensation filters can be designed separately using second- order cone programming (SOCP). Moreover, a new method to tackle the possible noise amplification problem in such large arrays by imposing additional norm constraints on the design of the compensation filters is proposed. The advantages of this decoupled approach are 1) the complicated design problem of large UCCAs can be decoupled into simpler problems of designing the LABFs and compensation filters, and 2) directional elements, which are frequently encountered, can be treated readily under the proposed framework. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and improvement of the proposed methods in DOA estimation, adaptive beamforming, and elevation control over the conventional FI-UCCA design method. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical Performance of GNSS Receivers using Interference Mitigation Techniques

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 885 - 906
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7292 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The interest in using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for applications with demanding requirements for security and integrity, such as civil aviation, has focused attention on the robustness of GNSS receivers against external interferences. This issue can be even more relevant considering that GNSS modernization will share new spectral bands with other systems already in use. Some recent works address the problem through the use of an interference mitigation technique (IMT) in the receiver. Here, the focus is on theoretically predicting the time of arrival (TOA) estimation error of such receivers which incorporate either of the two most extended IMTs: time-domain blanking (TDB) and frequency-domain adaptive filtering (FDAF). These techniques are currently working and being used. The theoretical expressions provided herein are suitable for receivers based on a code-tracking loop that uses an early-late processor and are accurate for small-error conditions. Besides, the performance analysis is particularized for periodic-pulsed interferences for TDB, while it is particularized for narrowband and linear frequency modulated interferences for FDAF. The most relevant conclusion is that both techniques are able to largely maintain the performance of the receiver in the presence of the respective interferences considered. These results are also validated with computer simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Pitch Autopilot Design for Agile Missiles with Uncertain Aerodynamic Coefficients

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 907 - 914
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1964 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The work presented here proposes two pitch autopilot designs for agile missiles which experience high pitch angles or angles of attack (AoA) during their manoeuvres. One great challenge pertaining to high AoA is that aerodynamic coefficients cannot be precisely predicted in a conventional wind tunnel environment. To directly address this challenge, the proposed autopilot designs (based on the integrator backstepping and H-norm minimization) do not require precise knowledge of such aerodynamic coefficients and so has a strong practical merit. Simulation results clearly testify this practical merit. View full abstract»

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  • Cognitive Radar Network: Cooperative Adaptive Beamsteering for Integrated Search-and-Track Application

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 915 - 931
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6953 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cognitive radar (CR) is a paradigm shift from a traditional radar system in that previous knowledge and current measurements obtained from the radar channel are used to form a probabilistic understanding of its environment. Moreover, CR incorporates this probabilistic knowledge into its task priorities to form illumination and probing strategies, thereby rendering it a closed-loop system. Depending on the hardware's capabilities and limitations, there are various degrees of freedom that a CR may utilize. Here we concentrate on spatial illumination as a resource, where adaptive beamsteering is used for search-and-track functions. We propose a multiplatform cognitive radar network (CRN) for integrated search-and-track application. Specifically, two radars cooperate in forming a dynamic spatial illumination strategy, where beamsteering is matched to the channel uncertainty to perform the search function. Once a target is detected and a track is initiated, track information is integrated into the beamsteering strategy as part of CR's task prioritization. View full abstract»

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  • Fusion of Spatially Referring Natural Language Statements with Random Set Theoretic Likelihoods

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 932 - 944
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6154 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Localisation via the fusion of spatially referring natural language statements is considered here. The contribution lies in the underlying problem formulation and a robust modelling framework. Random-set-based estimation is the underlying mathematical formalism. Each statement generates a generalised likelihood function. A Bayesian filter is outlined that takes a sequence of likelihoods generated by multiple statements. The idea is to recursively build a map over the state space that can be used to infer the state. View full abstract»

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  • WiMAX OFDM for Passive SAR Ground Imaging

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 945 - 959
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modern communication systems provide myriad opportunities for passive radar applications. Research is introduced here on the passive use of worldwide inoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveforms for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ground imaging. The anatomy of the waveform is presented followed by a brief bistatic ambiguity function analysis. The monostatic and bistatic models for OFDM range compression are derived and validated with experimental data. We conclude with SAR imaging results and a discussion on future research. View full abstract»

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  • Physical and Statistical Properties of the Complex Monopulse Ratio

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 960 - 968
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (774 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Angular glint gives rise to random pointing errors, which can deteriorate the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation accuracy. In monopulse radars the glint manifests itself through a complex valued process known as the complex monopulse ratio (CMR). Physical and statistical properties of the glint are considered. It is proposed to use the Poynting vector formalism for the CMR physical interpretation. The complex probability density function (pdf) and correlation function of CMR are derived. View full abstract»

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  • Square Wave Decomposition for Fast Correlation in DSSS Receivers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 969 - 981
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5452 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Despreading is the most computationally demanding task of a direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) receiver. This operation can be efficiently performed by exploiting bit-wise parallel algorithms using quantized local carriers. The correlation loss due to the use of a quantized local carrier is determined, and a new class of bit-wise parallel correlation algorithms is obtained by decomposing the local carrier into a linear combination of bipolar square waves minimizing the correlation loss. View full abstract»

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  • Sidelobe Blanking with Generalized Swerling-Chi Fluctuation Models

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 982 - 1005
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4972 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The work presented here focuses on the performance analysis of the sidelobe blanking (SLB) system with noncoherent integration in the presence of white Gaussian noise and jammer entering through the sidelobes of the antenna. Closed-form performance probabilities, in terms of either the generalized Marcum or Nuttall Q-function, are derived for nonfluctuating target and jammer, both in the blanking and the detection regions. The analysis is then extended to account for arbitrary correlated, possibly nonidentically distributed, fluctuating target and/or jamming returns among a given number of integrated pulses. Finally, several numerical results are given, and the effects of typical SLB parameters are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Velocity/Position Integration Formula Part I: Application to In-Flight Coarse Alignment

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1006 - 1023
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (11978 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The in-flight alignment is a critical stage for airborne inertial navigation system/Global Positioning System (INS/GPS) applications. The alignment task is usually carried out by the Kalman filtering technique that necessitates a good initial attitude to obtain a satisfying performance. Due to the airborne dynamics, the in-flight alignment is much more difficult than the alignment on the ground. An optimization-based coarse alignment approach that uses GPS position/velocity as input, founded on the newly-derived velocity/position integration formulae is proposed. Simulation and flight test results show that, with the GPS lever arm well handled, it is potentially able to yield the initial heading up to 1 deg accuracy in 10 s. It can serve as a nice coarse in-flight alignment without any prior attitude information for the subsequent fine Kalman alignment. The approach can also be applied to other applications that require aligning the INS on the run. View full abstract»

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  • Velocity/Position Integration Formula Part II: Application to Strapdown Inertial Navigation Computation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1024 - 1034
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3849 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Inertial navigation applications are usually referenced to a rotating frame. Consideration of the navigation reference frame rotation in the inertial navigation algorithm design is an important but so far less seriously treated issue, especially for super high-speed flying vehicles or the future ultraprecision navigation system of several meters per hour. A rigorous approach is proposed to tackle the issue of navigation frame rotation in velocity/position computation by use of the newly-devised velocity/position integration formulae in the Part I companion paper. The two integration formulae set a well-founded cornerstone for the velocity/position algorithms' design that makes the comprehension of the inertial navigation computation principle more accessible to practitioners, and different approximations to the integrals involved give birth to various velocity/position update algorithms. Two-sample velocity and position algorithms are derived to exemplify the design process. In the context of level-flight airplane examples, the derived algorithm is analytically and numerically compared with the typical algorithms that exist in the literature. The results throw light on the problems in existing algorithms and the potential benefits of the derived algorithm. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems focuses on the equipment, procedures, and techniques applicable to the organization, installation, and operation of functional systems designed to meet the high performance requirements of earth and space systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Lance Kaplan
Army Research Laboratory