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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4  Part 1 • Date April 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 48
  • Table of Contents

    Page(s): C1 - 1501
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  • IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial for the Special Issue on Antennas and Propagation at mm- and Sub mm-Waves

    Page(s): 1502 - 1507
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  • Theory, Modeling and Features of Optical Nanoantennas

    Page(s): 1508 - 1517
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    Recent advances in nanofabrication have produced increased interest in the scattering and emission properties of nanoparticles and confined optical sources. In this context, the new area of optical antennas aims at achieving the bridge between nanoscale optical sources, light-matter interaction and far-field radiation. In some senses the operation of optical antennas is analogous to that of conventional radio-frequency (RF) antennas, which transfer confined electrical signals into radiated propagating electromagnetic waves. Even if their functionality is similar, optical and RF antennas show drastic differences in physics, material properties and excitation features. In this paper, we review some of the concepts of optical antenna theory, design and applications and we highlight how the optical nanocircuit paradigm may be applied to achieve optical impedance matching, loading and tuning in the optical domain. We also provide an overview of how these concepts may have relevant applications in a variety of fields of optics, such as sensing, optical communications and nonlinear nanodevices. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Characterization of High Absorption Sub-Wavelength Optical Nanostructure Photovoltaics for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Page(s): 1518 - 1527
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    This paper presents a detailed numerical electromagnetic characterization of GaAs photovoltaic (PV) nanopillar array solar cells recently developed for solar energy harvesting. Through electromagnetic theory, full-wave simulations, and an optical measurement, a deeper understanding of the electromagnetic operation of these nanostructure arrays is achieved by revealing the mechanisms that allow for its inherent improvement of optical absorption over conventional PV solar cells. Initial investigations include incorporating and verifying material optical properties through measurements of bulk GaAs samples, simulating the effects of nanopillar geometry and configuration, and an analysis of the optical absorption mechanism of the nanopillar arrays through the graphical visualization of the electric fields in the vicinity of the nanopillars. These investigations will offer critical insights into the effects of pillar dimensions and configuration that can significantly increase optical solar energy absorption approximately 1.5 times that of conventional solar cells spanning the entire visible spectrum and for angles of incidence up to 60 °. Furthermore, comparisons between nanopillar arrays with and without substrates will demonstrate the mechanism that drives the efficient optical absorption. In addition, the importance of the nanopillar structure (i.e., dimensions) and reflecting substrate in providing energy coupling and improving the air-to-array interface will be discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Terahertz Antenna Phase Shifters Using Integrally-Gated Graphene Transmission-Lines

    Page(s): 1528 - 1537
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    We propose the concept and design of terahertz (THz) phase shifters for phased antenna arrays based on integrally-gated graphene parallel-plate waveguides (GPPWGs). We show that an active transmission-line may be realized by combining GPPWGs with double-gate electrodes, in which the applied gate voltage can control the guiding properties of the gated sections. This may enable the realization of THz electronic switches and tunable loaded-lines for sub mm-wave antenna systems. Based on these active components, we theoretically and numerically demonstrate several digital and analog phase shifter designs for THz frequencies, with a wide range of phase shifts and small return loss, insertion loss and phase error. The proposed graphene-based phase shifters show significant advantages over other available technology in this frequency range, as they combine the low-loss and compact-size features of GPPWGs with electrically-programmable phase tuning. We envision that these electronic phase shifters may pave the way to viable phased-arrays and beamforming networks for THz communications systems, as well as for high-speed, low-RC-delay, inter/intra-chip communications. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical Modeling of a Photoconductive Antenna in a Terahertz Pulsed System

    Page(s): 1538 - 1546
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    The most common device for terahertz (THz) wave generation and detection is a THz photoconductive antenna. This paper examines the factors which affect the radiated power and optical-to-THz power conversion efficiency of the antenna. A novel equivalent circuit model using lumped elements is developed for analyzing the performance of these antennas. In this model, whilst keeping the simplicity of the lumped element approach, the underlying physical behavior of the device is taken into account when calculating the circuit elements. Based on the model, the influence of various parameters on the optical-to-THz power conversion efficiency and radiated power is then investigated. The simulated results agree well with published measured results. The model predicts that an increase in the laser power and/or bias voltage, and a reduction in reflections from the air-substrate can improve the optical-to-THz power conversion efficiency of the device. This novel model is very useful for both designing a THz antenna and tuning a THz system to achieve maximized optical-to-THz power conversion efficiency and THz radiated power. View full abstract»

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  • Low Mass Calibration Target for MM-Wave Remote Sensing Instruments

    Page(s): 1547 - 1556
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    The reliability of millimeter and sub-millimeter wave radiometer measurements is dependent on the accuracy of the loads they employ as calibration targets. In the recent past on-board calibration loads have been developed for a variety of satellite remote sensing instruments. Unfortunately some of these have suffered from calibration inaccuracies which had poor thermal performance of the calibration target as the root cause. Stringent performance parameters of the calibration target such as low reflectivity, high temperature uniformity, low mass and low power consumption combined with low volumetric requirements remain a challenge for the space instrument developer. In this paper we present a novel multi-layer absorber concept for a calibration load which offers an excellent compromise between very good radiometric performance and temperature uniformity and the mass and volumetric constraints required by space-borne calibration targets. View full abstract»

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  • Bonding Wire Loop Antenna in Standard Ball Grid Array Package for 60-GHz Short-Range Wireless Communication

    Page(s): 1557 - 1563
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    High-speed short-range wireless communication systems are expected to utilize the 60-GHz band. This paper presents a bonding wire loop antenna in a standard ball grid array (BGA) package for 60-GHz short-range wireless communication. The proposed antenna has a loop shape and consists of two bonding wires connecting to a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chip and a metal plate on an interposer in a BGA package. The antenna can be fabricated at low cost by a conventional BGA package fabrication process. The BGA package is mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) that consists of resin substrate, such as FR-4. The broadband impedance characteristic is achieved by adjusting the position of the metal pad for wire bonding. The antenna gain is improved by forming cranked ledges and notches in the metal patterns of the PCB, and the wide-angle radiation characteristic is realized. The sizes of the fabricated antenna and BGA package are approximately 0.6 mm × 1.0 mm × 0.3 mm and 9.0 mm × 9.0 mm × 0.9 mm, respectively. Performing measurements, the antenna gain with the PCB is from - 2.4 to 4.9 dBi over the 57- to 65-GHz frequency range and over an angular range of 60° in the horizontal plane. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated 122-GHz Antenna on a Flexible Polyimide Substrate With Flip Chip Interconnect

    Page(s): 1564 - 1572
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    A packaging solution for the integration of an MMIC and a thin film antenna into a single surface-mountable package is presented. It is based on an air cavity in the package base into which the MMIC is placed. All package-to-MMIC interconnects are routed through the antenna substrate and all connections are realized using flip chip technology. Thus wire bonds are eliminated within the whole package. A broadband flip chip interconnect is used to connect MMIC and antenna. As the antenna is situated above an air cavity, a large bandwidth is also achieved for the antenna. An antenna-in-package prototype is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the assembly process and to test the antenna performance including the flip chip interconnect. The influence of an additional package cover is analyzed by measuring the antenna covered with two different lids. View full abstract»

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  • Grid Assembly-Free 60-GHz Antenna Module Embedded in FR-4 Transceiver Carrier Board

    Page(s): 1573 - 1580
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1711 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel antenna module solution which dramatically alleviates cost and fabrication related limitations of traditional 60-GHz antenna modules is demonstrated. The antenna topology is wholly devised using industry standard FR-4 PCB and is integrated into the 60-GHz transceiver carrier board. As a result, the proposed approach effectively bypasses the need for any complicated grid array assemblies for the first time to the author's best knowledge. The antenna element is first designed and confirmed to exhibit more than 9-GHz bandwidth and 71% average radiation efficiency from 57-66 GHz. The design is further expanded into an 8-element phased array module and integrated with a 60-GHz RFIC transceiver and digital interface. The overall footprint of the antenna module within the carrier board is 20 × 20 × 0.838 mm3. System-level evaluation confirms the 8-element phased array module to be highly sufficient in scan range, side lobe levels and radiation efficiency for 60-GHz wireless systems, particularly in the field of consumer electronics. View full abstract»

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  • Millimeter-Wave Horn-Type Antenna-in-Package Solution Fabricated in a Teflon-Based Multilayer PCB Technology

    Page(s): 1581 - 1590
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    An antenna-in-package solution is introduced for millimeter-wave applications. The solution is implemented in an asymmetric PCB technology incorporating 4 laminates of a Teflon-based and one laminate of a Ceramic-based material. A Horn-like element embedded in the PCB technology is designed and manufactured. The simulated and measured return losses are better than 10 dB in the frequency band 55-68 GHz, which makes the element suitable to be used for 60 GHz multi-Gb/Sec applications. The antenna element also provides 6 dB of gain with a ripple less that 0.5 dB from 53 GHz to 60 GHz. Moreover, 3 different arrays have been designed using the same Horn-like antenna as the radiating element. The simulated and measured radiation characteristics of all the antennas are investigated at different frequencies. It is shown that the antenna element is capable of being arrayed for applications where non-line-of-sight communication is needed or multi-path spatial diversity techniques are to be implemented. View full abstract»

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  • Design Aspects of an Antenna-MMIC Interface Using a Stacked Patch at 71–86 GHz

    Page(s): 1591 - 1598
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    A bond-wire-free interconnection between monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) and antenna using a stacked patch configuration is investigated. An edge-fed patch on a gallium arsenide (GaAs) MMIC chip drives a patch antenna integrated in the lid of the MMIC package. The lid is formed using a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate. The first implementation using a laminated multichip module (MCM-L) process is presented that covers the designated E-band spectrum for long-range wireless communications (71-86 GHz). Electromagnetic simulations and measurements of antenna radiation patterns agree well over the whole frequency range of interest. Important design aspects and manufacturing tolerances specific for the implementation of the interface in MCM-L millimeter-wave front-ends are presented. An alternative design is proposed for improved radiation patterns across the band. View full abstract»

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  • Slot-Coupled Millimeter-Wave Dielectric Resonator Antenna for High-Efficiency Monolithic Integration

    Page(s): 1599 - 1607
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    A readily mass-producible, flip-chip assembled, and slot-coupled III-V compound semiconductor dielectric resonator antenna operating in the millimeter-wave spectrum has been fabricated and characterized. The antenna has a 6.1% relative bandwidth, deduced from its 10 dB return loss over 58.8-62.5 GHz, located around the resonance at 60.5 GHz. Gating in the delay-domain alleviated the analysis of the complex response from the measured structure. The radiation efficiency is better than -0.1 dB in simulations fed from the on-chip coupling-structure, but reduced by 3.7 dB insertion loss through the measurement assembly feed. Antenna gain measurements show distortion in relation to the simulated pattern, which has a maximum gain of 6 dBi, mainly caused by interference from the electrically large connector used in the assembly. Mode degeneration in the utilized quadratic-footprint resonator was not seen to influence the performance of the antenna. The antenna is intended for on-chip integration and the fabrication technology allows scaling of the operation frequency over the complete millimeter-wave spectrum. View full abstract»

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  • New Movable Plate for Efficient Millimeter Wave Vertical on-Chip Antenna

    Page(s): 1608 - 1615
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    A new movable plate concept is presented in this paper to realize mm-wave vertical on-chip antennas through MEMS based post-processing steps in a CMOS compatible process. By virtue of its vertical position, the antenna is isolated from the lossy Si substrate and hence performs with a better efficiency as compared to the horizontal position. In addition, the movable plate concept enables polarization diversity by providing both horizontal and vertical polarizations on the same chip. Through a first iteration fractal bowtie antenna design, dual band (60 and 77 GHz) operation is demonstrated in both horizontal and vertical positions without any change in dimensions or use of switches for two different mediums (Si and air). To support the movable plate concept, the transmission line and antenna are designed on a flexible polyamide, where the former has been optimized to operate in the bent position. The design is highly suitable for compact, low cost and efficient SoC solutions. View full abstract»

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  • 60-GHz End-Fire Fan-Like Antennas With Wide Beamwidth

    Page(s): 1616 - 1622
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    A patent-pending end-fire planar fan-like antenna is proposed for wide beamwidth applications. Two wideband antipodal tapered slot (ATS) elements are utilized to configure a fan-like structure for generating wide-angle radiation. The antennas are prototyped using RO4003 printed-circuit board (PCB) at 60 GHz. One antenna with a size of 13 × 12 × 0.203 mm3 achieves a beamwidth up to 184° at 60 GHz, |S11| of less than -11 dB, and gain of 1.6 to 6 dBi over 59 to 64 GHz. The other antenna prototype with a size of 15.5 × 13.6 × 0.203 mm3 exhibits a beamwidth up to 104° at 60 GHz, |S11| of less than -18 dB and gain of 3.4 to 7.6 dBi over 59 to 64 GHz. The proposed antenna can be used for deployment in low-cost 60-GHz ultra-high-speed wireless file-transfer systems. View full abstract»

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  • The Design of Broadband 60 GHz AMC Antenna in Multi-Chip RF Data Transmission

    Page(s): 1623 - 1630
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    This paper presents the design of a 60 GHz antenna to be used in multi-core multi-chip (MCMC) computing systems. The antenna in package (AiP) solution has a ground-shielded metal and a periodically-patched artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) structure to widen the reflection coefficient bandwidth. The designed antenna with AMC layer broadcasts signals in the horizontal direction. Both simulated and measured results demonstrate that a -10 dB reflection coefficient is achieved for a 10 GHz bandwidth and that radiation in the horizontal (chip-to-chip) direction is maintained. View full abstract»

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  • 60 GHz Ultrawideband Polarimetric MIMO Sensing for Wireless Multi-Gigabit and Radar

    Page(s): 1631 - 1641
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    Polarimetric radio wave processing becomes of increasing interest for very high-data rate wireless transmission and for short-range radar at millimeter-waves (mm-W). This goes along with the huge bandwidth of 7 to 9 GHz, which is available worldwide in the 60 GHz unlicensed band. In this paper, we propose a 60 GHz ultra-wideband (UWB) polarimetric multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) sensing system architecture and polarimetric signal processing for short-range communications and radar. Demonstration measurements were made by using an UWB radar interface. By measurements in multipath rich environments it is demonstrated that tap-wise polarimetric filtering in delay domain can enhance the 60 GHz link budget by filtering some paths and then reducing shadowing due to human activity. Additionally, optimum MIMO polarimetric filtering is proposed to reduce heavy clutter for mm-W radar, increasing by about 30 dB the signal-to-clutter-plus-noise-ratio. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Ring-Slot Array Antenna Using Hybrid Matrix Formulation

    Page(s): 1642 - 1650
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2080 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The analysis of ring-slot elements backed by the ground plane via cavities is performed using a hybrid matrix formulation. The cavity region of the structure is modeled as a two-port network and the network parameters are determined using current and voltage sources at the two ports, respectively. These dissimilar port-excitations result in hybrid matrices' representation for the network. The aperture radiation is incorporated through the aperture admittance matrix. The numerical results are validated with a finite integration method of analysis. Radiation characteristics of ring-slot elements in an array environment are presented. The design of a wideband element with about 30% bandwidth is shown. Circular polarization using degenerate modes is achieved by incorporating offset vias, and the radiation characteristics of such configurations are explored. For millimeter-wave applications, such an “aperture type” of element is desirable because of its high-pass characteristic that helps reduce interference with the lower bands. Furthermore, the radiation efficiency is reasonably good because the loss is found to be less than 0.6 dB. Monte-Carlo simulation suggests that the performance is acceptable with respect to the fabrication tolerance. View full abstract»

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  • Feasibility Study of Optically Transparent CPW-Fed Monopole Antenna at 60-GHz ISM Bands

    Page(s): 1651 - 1657
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    This paper presents a feasibility study on an optically transparent planar monopole lozenge antenna at the 60-GHz industrial-scientific-medical (ISM) band. The feeding of this antenna is composed of a 50-Ω meshed coplanar waveguide. The size of the proposed antenna is around 2.3 × 2.3 mm2. The transparent and conductive material used to fabricate the proposed antenna is made of a gold grid layer deposited on a 0.2-mm-thick fused silica 7980 Corning substrate. The theoretical transparency equals 83% with a sheet resistance of 0.44 Ω/sq. The simulated and measured results of the transparent monopole antenna are compared to a nontransparent (but identical) antenna. It was found that both antennas have the same performances in terms of bandwidth, radiation pattern, and gain. The measurements show the same behavior for transparent and nontransparent antennas. These results confirm the absence of ohmic and skin depth losses in the gold grid layer at 60-GHz ISM bands and provide the possibility of implementing transparent antennas with performances absolutely identical to the nontransparent ones, with the advantage of a soft visual impact. View full abstract»

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  • Shaped Lens-Like Dome for UWB Antennas With a Gaussian-Like Radiation Pattern

    Page(s): 1658 - 1664
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1884 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A multi-shell lens-like dome antenna (LLDA) with an axis-symmetrical Gaussian-like radiation pattern is presented. The dome profile is optimized using in-house software based on the genetic algorithm and Geometrical Optics/Physical Optics technique. Stable radiation characteristics are achieved within the entire V-band (50-75 GHz), thanks to the optimized shape and also the introduction of two matching layers inside and outside of the dome. The dome core and matching layers of the LLDA are fabricated in Rexolite and foam, respectively. A good agreement between the measured and simulated data is obtained. The capability of a multi-shell dome antenna to produce a low-dispersive gain and Gaussian-like radiation pattern is illustrated. View full abstract»

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  • Millimeter-Wave Electronically Steerable Integrated Lens Antennas for WLAN/WPAN Applications

    Page(s): 1665 - 1671
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (814 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents design and experimental verification of electronically steerable integrated lens antennas (ILAs) for WLAN/WPAN communication systems operating in the 60-GHz frequency band. The antenna is comprised of a quartz extended hemispherical lens, four switched aperture coupled microstrip antenna (ACMA) elements, and a distribution circuit based on SPDT MMIC switches. The designed ILAs are capable of electronic steering between four different antenna main beam directions in one plane. Fixed beam and electronically steerable ILA prototypes are fabricated and tested. The results are given for two quartz dielectric lenses with the radii of 7.5 and 12.5 mm in order to meet a wide range of WLAN/WPAN requirements. The measured maximum gains of the designed ILAs are 18.4 and 23.2 dBi. The experimental results of the fabricated electronically steerable quartz ILA prototypes prove the simulation results and show ±35° and ±22° angle sector coverage for the lenses with the 7.5 and 12.5 mm radii, respectively. The bandwidth of the ILAs exceeds the frequency band of 57-66 GHz allocated for WLAN/WPAN applications. The designed ILAs meet all the requirements for steerable directional antennas of 60-GHz WLAN/WPAN systems. View full abstract»

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  • An Active Reconfigurable Antenna at 60 GHz Based on Plate Inhomogeneous Lens and Feeders

    Page(s): 1672 - 1678
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    The conception and performances of a 60 GHz active antenna, reconfigurable in terms of radiation pattern is described in this paper. This antenna is based on a plate inhomogeneous Luneburg lens fed by several ridged waveguide sources. The manufacturing technique of the plate lens is briefly described and its measured radiation patterns are given, showing the good performances of this lens. Simulated and measured radiation patterns are given for a passive lens antenna fed by several sources. The results show the beam scanning capability of this antenna. The active antenna is described and measurements of radiation patterns for several beams are given and demonstrate the beam scanning and beam shaping reconfigurability. View full abstract»

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  • 270-GHz LTCC-Integrated High Gain Cavity-Backed Fresnel Zone Plate Lens Antenna

    Page(s): 1679 - 1687
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    A compact cavity-backed Fresnel zone plate (FZP) lens antenna, integrated in low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) is proposed to achieve high gain at 270 GHz band. The gain is enhanced by using the back cavity formed by a via sidewall and a ground plane. A compact feeding transition is proposed to realize the broadband impedance matching in order to reduce the considerably large reflection at high permittivity substrate-air interface when the antenna is directly fed by an external air-filled waveguide. The measured results show that the proposed cavity-backed FZP lens antenna achieves a boresight gain of 20.8 dBi at 270 GHz and a 3-dB gain bandwidth of 9.1 GHz (266.2-275.3 GHz). View full abstract»

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  • The Photo-Injected Fresnel Zone Plate Antenna: Optoelectronic Beam Steering at mm-Wave Frequencies

    Page(s): 1688 - 1696
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1617 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an overview of the photo-injected Fresnel zone plate antenna (piFZPA) method for non-mechanical optoelectronic beam steering. The piFZPA method enables rapid beam steering, over moderate field-of-views, at both mm-wave and submm-wave frequencies, that is suitable for a wide range of imaging and non-imaging applications. This paper develops a theoretical framework that details the design of piFZPAs and provides an understanding to, and optimization of, the piFZPA performance. As an example device, we present preliminary experimental scanning data on a transmission-type piFZPA, operating at 94 GHz, that relies on commercially available visible display technologies for plasma generation and reconfiguration. The experimental data is shown to agree well with numerical simulations and validates the theoretical framework. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation includes theoretical and experimental advances in antennas.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief                                                 Kwok W. Leung