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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in

Volume 6: 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Table of Contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering information for authors

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C3
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  • 2013 Index IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering Vol. 6

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 189 - 192
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  • Open Access

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 188
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  • Fluorescence Imaging in Surgery

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 178 - 187
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although the modern surgical era is highlighted by multiple technological advances and innovations, one area that has remained constant is the dependence of the surgeon's vision on white-light reflectance. This renders different body tissues in a limited palette of various shades of pink and red, thereby limiting the visual contrast available to the operating surgeon. Healthy tissue, anatomic variations, and diseased states are seen as slight discolorations relative to each other and differences are inherently limited in dynamic range. In the upcoming years, surgery will undergo a paradigm shift with the use of targeted fluorescence imaging probes aimed at augmenting the surgical armamentarium by expanding the “visible” spectrum available to surgeons. Such fluorescent “smart probes” will provide real-time, intraoperative, pseudo-color, high-contrast delineation of both normal and pathologic tissues. Fluorescent surgical molecular guidance promises another major leap forward to improve patient safety and clinical outcomes, and to reduce overall healthcare costs. This review provides an overview of current and future surgical applications of fluorescence imaging in diseased and nondiseased tissues and focus on the innovative fields of image processing and instrumentation. View full abstract»

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  • The Role of Technology and Engineering Models in Transforming Healthcare

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 156 - 177
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3187 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The healthcare system is in crisis due to challenges including escalating costs, the inconsistent provision of care, an aging population, and high burden of chronic disease related to health behaviors. Mitigating this crisis will require a major transformation of healthcare to be proactive, preventive, patient-centered, and evidence-based with a focus on improving quality-of-life. Information technology, networking, and biomedical engineering are likely to be essential in making this transformation possible with the help of advances, such as sensor technology, mobile computing, machine learning, etc. This paper has three themes: 1) motivation for a transformation of healthcare; 2) description of how information technology and engineering can support this transformation with the help of computational models; and 3) a technical overview of several research areas that illustrate the need for mathematical modeling approaches, ranging from sparse sampling to behavioral phenotyping and early detection. A key tenet of this paper concerns complementing prior work on patient-specific modeling and simulation by modeling neuropsychological, behavioral, and social phenomena. The resulting models, in combination with frequent or continuous measurements, are likely to be key components of health interventions to enhance health and wellbeing and the provision of healthcare. View full abstract»

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  • Understanding the Metabolic Syndrome: A Modeling Perspective

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 143 - 155
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1150 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The prevalence of obesity is growing at an alarming rate, placing many at risk for developing diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, or a combination of disorders known as “metabolic syndrome”. The evidence to date suggests that metabolic syndrome results from an imbalance in the mechanisms that link diet, physical activity, glucose-insulin control, and autonomic cardiovascular control. There is also growing recognition that sleep-disordered breathing and other forms of sleep disruption can contribute significantly to autonomic dysfunction and insulin resistance. Chronic sleep deprivation resulting from sleep-disordered breathing or behavioral causes can lead to excessive daytime sleepiness and lethargy, which in turn contribute to increasing obesity. Analysis of this complex dynamic system using a model-based approach can facilitate the delineation of the causal pathways that lead to the emergence of the metabolic syndrome. In this paper, we provide an overview of the main physiological mechanisms associated with obesity and sleep-disordered breathing that are believed to result in metabolic and autonomic dysfunction, and review the models and modeling approaches that are relevant in characterizing the interplay among the multiple factors that underlie the development of the metabolic syndrome. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of Artifact Detection in Critical Care: A Methodological Review

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 127 - 142
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3812 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Artifact detection (AD) techniques minimize the impact of artifacts on physiologic data acquired in critical care units (CCU) by assessing quality of data prior to clinical event detection (CED) and parameter derivation (PD). This methodological review introduces unique taxonomies to synthesize over 80 AD algorithms based on these six themes: 1) CCU; 2) physiologic data source; 3) harvested data; 4) data analysis; 5) clinical evaluation; and 6) clinical implementation. Review results show that most published algorithms: a) are designed for one specific type of CCU; b) are validated on data harvested only from one OEM monitor; c) generate signal quality indicators (SQI) that are not yet formalized for useful integration in clinical workflows; d) operate either in standalone mode or coupled with CED or PD applications; e) are rarely evaluated in real-time; and f) are not implemented in clinical practice. In conclusion, it is recommended that AD algorithms conform to generic input and output interfaces with commonly defined data: 1) type; 2) frequency; 3) length; and 4) SQIs. This shall promote: a) reusability of algorithms across different CCU domains; b) evaluation on different OEM monitor data; c) fair comparison through formalized SQIs; d) meaningful integration with other AD, CED and PD algorithms; and e) real-time implementation in clinical workflows. View full abstract»

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  • Emerging Robotic Platforms for Minimally Invasive Surgery

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 111 - 126
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2199 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent technological advances in surgery have resulted in the development of a range of new techniques that have reduced patient trauma, shortened hospitalization, and improved diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic outcome. Despite the many appreciated benefits of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) compared to traditional approaches, there are still significant drawbacks associated with conventional MIS including poor instrument control and ergonomics caused by rigid instrumentation and its associated fulcrum effect. The use of robot assistance has helped to realize the full potential of MIS with improved consistency, safety and accuracy. The development of articulated, precision tools to enhance the surgeon's dexterity has evolved in parallel with advances in imaging and human-robot interaction. This has improved hand-eye coordination and manual precision down to micron scales, with the capability of navigating through complex anatomical pathways. In this review paper, clinical requirements and technical challenges related to the design of robotic platforms for flexible access surgery are discussed. Allied technical approaches and engineering challenges related to instrument design, intraoperative guidance, and intelligent human-robot interaction are reviewed. We also highlight emerging designs and research opportunities in the field by assessing the current limitations and open technical challenges for the wider clinical uptake of robotic platforms in MIS. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging: Theory, Instrumentation and Applications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 99 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2340 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) is a wide field of view, non scanning optical technique for observing blood flow. Speckles are produced when coherent light scattered back from biological tissue is diffracted through the limiting aperture of focusing optics. Mobile scatterers cause the speckle pattern to blur; a model can be constructed by inversely relating the degree of blur, termed speckle contrast to the scatterer speed. In tissue, red blood cells are the main source of moving scatterers. Therefore, blood flow acts as a virtual contrast agent, outlining blood vessels. The spatial resolution ( ~ 10 μm) and temporal resolution (10 ms to 10 s) of LSCI can be tailored to the application. Restricted by the penetration depth of light, LSCI can only visualize superficial blood flow. Additionally, due to its non scanning nature, LSCI is unable to provide depth resolved images. The simple setup and non-dependence on exogenous contrast agents have made LSCI a popular tool for studying vascular structure and blood flow dynamics. We discuss the theory and practice of LSCI and critically analyze its merit in major areas of application such as retinal imaging, imaging of skin perfusion as well as imaging of neurophysiology. View full abstract»

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  • Computer-Aided Breast Cancer Detection Using Mammograms: A Review

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 77 - 98
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2908 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends women aged 40 and above to have a mammogram every year and calls it a gold standard for breast cancer detection. Early detection of breast cancer can improve survival rates to a great extent. Inter-observer and intra-observer errors occur frequently in analysis of medical images, given the high variability between interpretations of different radiologists. Also, the sensitivity of mammographic screening varies with image quality and expertise of the radiologist. So, there is no golden standard for the screening process. To offset this variability and to standardize the diagnostic procedures, efforts are being made to develop automated techniques for diagnosis and grading of breast cancer images. A few papers have documented the general trend of computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer, making a broad study of the several techniques involved. But, there is no definitive documentation focusing on the mathematical techniques used in breast cancer detection. This review aims at providing an overview about recent advances and developments in the field of Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) of breast cancer using mammograms, specifically focusing on the mathematical aspects of the same, aiming to act as a mathematical primer for intermediates and experts in the field. View full abstract»

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  • From Cellular Cultures to Cellular Spheroids: Is Impedance Spectroscopy a Viable Tool for Monitoring Multicellular Spheroid (MCS) Drug Models?

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 63 - 76
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1156 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of 3-D multicellular spheroid (MCS) models is increasingly being accepted as a viable means to study cell-cell, cell-matrix and cell-drug interactions. Behavioral differences between traditional monolayer (2-D) cell cultures and more recent 3-D MCS confirm that 3-D MCS more closely model the in vivo environment. However, analyzing the effect of pharmaceutical agents on both monolayer cultures and MCS is very time intensive. This paper reviews the use of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), a label-free whole cell assay technique, as a tool for automated screening of cell drug interactions in MCS models for biologically/physiologically relevant events over long periods of time. EIS calculates the impedance of a sample by applying an AC current through a range of frequencies and measuring the resulting voltage. This review will introduce techniques used in impedance-based analysis of 2-D systems; highlight recently developed impedance-based techniques for analyzing 3-D cell cultures; and discuss applications of 3-D culture impedance monitoring systems. View full abstract»

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  • The Expanding World of Tissue Engineering: The Building Blocks and New Applications of Tissue Engineered Constructs

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 47 - 62
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The field of tissue engineering has been growing in the recent years as more products have made it to the market and as new uses for the engineered tissues have emerged, motivating many researchers to engage in this multidisciplinary field of research. Engineered tissues are now not only considered as end products for regenerative medicine, but also have emerged as enabling technologies for other fields of research ranging from drug discovery to biorobotics. This widespread use necessitates a variety of methodologies for production of tissue engineered constructs. In this review, these methods together with their non-clinical applications will be described. First, we will focus on novel materials used in tissue engineering scaffolds; such as recombinant proteins and synthetic, self assembling polypeptides. The recent advances in the modular tissue engineering area will be discussed. Then scaffold-free production methods, based on either cell sheets or cell aggregates will be described. Cell sources used in tissue engineering and new methods that provide improved control over cell behavior such as pathway engineering and biomimetic microenvironments for directing cell differentiation will be discussed. Finally, we will summarize the emerging uses of engineered constructs such as model tissues for drug discovery, cancer research and biorobotics applications. View full abstract»

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  • On-Chip Biomedical Imaging

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 29 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4113 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have been rapidly emerging to pave the way toward ultra-compact, efficient, mass producible and cost-effective biomedical research and diagnostic tools. Although such microfluidic and microelectromechanical systems have achieved high levels of integration, and are capable of performing various important tasks on the same chip, such as cell culturing, sorting and staining, they still rely on conventional microscopes for their imaging needs. Recently, several alternative on-chip optical imaging techniques have been introduced, which have the potential to substitute conventional microscopes for various lab-on-a-chip applications. Here we present a critical review of these recently emerging on-chip biomedical imaging modalities, including contact shadow imaging, lens-free holographic microscopy, fluorescent on-chip microscopy and lens-free optical tomography. View full abstract»

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  • In the Spotlight: Tissue Engineering

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 27 - 28
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    This paper is based on tissue engineering. Here a scaffold created outside the body to provide key biophysical or chemical signals to stem cells or prime the body endogenously such that it is more hospitable to injected stem cells, it is clear that simply injecting naked stem cells may not yield their full potential. View full abstract»

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  • In the Spotlight: Neuroengineering

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 24 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (351 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Considering the high volume of publications and ever increasing attendance at the international conferences, including the 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Conference (IEEE EMBC 2012), Neuroengineering appears to be evolving as an independent discipline by itself. Continuing the legacy of the previous years' conferences, neuroengineering was one of the most represented topics at the IEEE EMBC 2012, held this year in San Diego, CA. Contributing to the interest were three workshops that focused on systems level concepts in neuroengineering: namely, Brain - Machine - Body Interfaces (led by Gert Cauwenberghs, University of California, San Diego), Brain Dynamics in Human Motor Control (led by David Peterson, University of California, San Diego) and Brain-Computer Interfaces and Electrocorticography (led by Robert Prueckl, Guger Technologies). These and other related works are briefly reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • In the Spotlight: Health Information Systems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 21 - 23
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Healthcare systems deal with only a part of the health continuum as they are organized to diagnose and treat patients. The Connected Health paradigm covers the continuum and includes the healthy and at risk individuals and chronically ill patients. The current system has been characterized as health profession centric; patients seek medical care which is delivered by healthcare professionals. In Connected Health, individuals are equal partners with healthcare professionals and take part in managing their health, wellness and care. Connected Health can be construed as being made up of one vertical layer providing privacy, security and interoperability services so that the users are able to use and trust the services and of five interacting horizontal layers as follows. The bottom layer houses the communications infrastructure, data stores (e.g. EHRs and PHRs) etc. The second layer health IT applications that enable and support the services on the third layer. The third layer is the one where health services are delivered. These cover the health continuum from end-to-end. The services span, e.g., wellness, self-management, retail clinics, policlinics, surgical operations and intensive care. The users see these as one integrated and accessible bundle. The fourth layer deals with reimbursement of health services. Providers can be paid on fee for service, capitation or pay for performance basis or a combination of these. The fifth layer sets the laws, regulations and policies that govern how health services are delivered and consumed. Health systems are already costly. Changes in demographics, our lifestyles and innovations in life sciences, medicine and technology are enabling new and improved care for all, which adds pressure to increase health expenditures. View full abstract»

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  • In the Spotlight: Cardiovascular Engineering

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 19 - 20
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  • In the Spotlight: Biomedical Signal Processing

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 17 - 18
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    The author has taken the inspiration for drafting this short report from the Annual IEEE-EMBS Conference which was held in San Diego, CA, USA, last August. This conference is the most important event for being informed about the state of the art in Biomedical Engineering and for meeting the most distinguished experts in this area of research and the relevant applications. Again this year, the Theme of Biomedical Signal Processing scored among the most popular ones with more than 400 contributions. The great importance of this Theme has been confirmed by the excellent keynote speakers: many of them made reference to the importance of proper signal and data processing. It is argued that the basic challenge to realize a really successful tool for primary preventive medicine is to transfer (hopefully in an 'easy' fashion) to micro/nano scales the processing algorithms and devices, which were implemented and successfully tested in the last decades for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This statement serves as the author's opportunity to inform readers on the European Union vision for ICT Research Programs in the next years. View full abstract»

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  • In the Spotlight: Biomedical Imaging

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 13 - 16
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    In this spotlight, advances in four topics in biomedical imaging are described. This does not begin to cover all of the advances in the field, but include topics that remain the most compelling in terms of mortality (cardiovascular disease) and increasing concern (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, (COPD)). We also report on some very exciting progress in making methods of MR spectroscopy more reliable and robust, thus suitable for wider clinical use. Finally, we describe recent developments in nuclear and molecular imaging related to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. View full abstract»

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  • In the Spotlight: BioInstrumentation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 9 - 12
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    The present review deals with three notable topics from recent publications in the field of bioinstrumentation. These are: (1) new conducting polymer electrodes for in vivo bio-electrical measurements; (2) mHealth technology using mobile communication devices such as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs); and (3) noninvasive in vivo measurement of blood constituents. These topics are of recent or renewed interest and, where appropriate, progress since the previous reviews [1], [2] will be highlighted. View full abstract»

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  • In the Spotlight: Bioinformatics

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3 - 8
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    During 2012, next generation sequencing (NGS) has attracted great attention in the biomedical research community, especially for personalized medicine. Also, third generation sequencing has become available. Therefore, state-of-art sequencing technology and analysis are reviewed in this Bioinformatics spotlight on 2012. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is high-throughput nucleic acid sequencing technology with wide dynamic range and single base resolution. The full promise of NGS depends on the optimization of NGS platforms, sequence alignment and assembly algorithms, data analytics, novel algorithms for integrating NGS data with existing genomic, proteomic, or metabolomic data, and quantitative assessment of NGS technology in comparing to more established technologies such as microarrays. NGS technology has been predicated to become a cornerstone of personalized medicine. It is argued that NGS is a promising field for motivated young researchers who are looking for opportunities in bioinformatics. View full abstract»

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  • Editorial

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • IEEE Reviews on Biomedical Engineering publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
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  • Front cover

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering reviews the state-of-the-art and trends in the emerging field of biomedical engineering.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Jose C. Principe
Department of Biomedical Engineering
University of Florida