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Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date March 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 53
  • Table of Contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology publication information

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Special Section on Condition Monitoring and Fault Accommodation in Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Systems

    Page(s): 962 - 964
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  • A Control Reconfiguration Strategy for Post-Sensor FTC in Induction Motor-Based EVs

    Page(s): 965 - 971
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1338 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with experimental validation of a reconfiguration strategy for sensor fault-tolerant control (FTC) in induction-motor-based electric vehicles (EVs). The proposed active FTC system is illustrated using two control techniques: indirect field-oriented control (IFOC) in the case of healthy sensors and speed control with slip regulation (SCSR) in the case of failed current sensors. The main objective behind the reconfiguration strategy is to achieve a short and smooth transition when switching from a controller using a healthy sensor to another sensorless controller in the case of a sensor failure. The proposed FTC approach performances are experimentally evaluated on a 7.5-kW induction motor drive. View full abstract»

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  • Passive Actuator Fault-Tolerant Control for a Class of Overactuated Nonlinear Systems and Applications to Electric Vehicles

    Page(s): 972 - 985
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    This paper presents a passive actuator fault-tolerant (FT) controller for a class of overactuated nonlinear systems and its experimental investigations on an electric vehicle. As the actuator fault information is unknown before the fault detection and diagnosis procedure finishes, the passive FT control is of great necessity in maintaining system stability and achieving acceptable performance. In this paper, three types of actuator faults are considered, and a passive FT controller that works for all of the studied fault types is designed. By grouping control efforts that have similar effects on the system into the same subsystem, the proposed control method can automatically distribute the higher level control signals to the actuators while minimizing a defined cost function. The FT control method was applied to control of a four-wheel-independently-actuated (FWIA) electric ground vehicle. Experimental results obtained on a FWIA electric vehicle show the effectiveness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control of an Electric Vehicle Overactuated

    Page(s): 986 - 994
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1523 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with an embedded fault detection and isolation (FDI)-fault-tolerant control approach applied to an overactuated electric vehicle. This method is described in the following three major steps: 1) trajectory planning based on the inverse kinematic modeling of the vehicle; 2) model-based fault diagnosis of the traction system; and 3) vehicle control reconfiguration in faulty situations. Autonomous vehicles, as studied in this paper, are very suited to accomplish missions in confined space or in hostile environments (in radioactive environments and spatial programs), where the success of the mission is more important than the cost of the additional actuators. The proposed FDI approach provides an early detection of the faults, allowing safe reconfiguration of the system control. Cosimulation results using experimental data show the performances and advantages of the presented approach. View full abstract»

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  • A Method for Fault Detection and Isolation Based on the Processing of Multiple Diagnostic Indices: Application to Inverter Faults in AC Drives

    Page(s): 995 - 1009
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    A general method for fault detection and isolation (FDI) is proposed and applied to inverter faults in drives of electric vehicles (EVs). This method is based on a change detection algorithm, which allows multiple fault indices (FIs) to be combined to retrieve the most likely state of the drive. The drive topology under study is a six-leg inverter associated with a three-phase open-end winding machine. Due to the inherent fault-tolerant topology, the conventional FIs are no longer effective. Therefore, an analysis of simulations under faulty conditions leads to the derivation of suitable FIs. These are based on the envelope of the phase currents, as well as their instantaneous frequency. Specific operating conditions related to the EV environment are taken into account, such as the flux-weakening region and energy recovery. In these modes of operation, FDI can be affected by uncontrolled currents circulating through the free-wheeling diodes. Finally, the performances of the FDI scheme are evaluated under steady-state and nonstationary conditions through simulations and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • A Noniterative Method for Locating Soft Faults in Complex Wire Networks

    Page(s): 1010 - 1019
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    Reflectometry-based methods are the standard choice for fault-detection techniques in wire networks. While effective when dealing with simple networks and relatively hard faults, their results can be of more difficult interpretation if a network presents more than two branches. In this paper, we propose the use of an alternative technique based on a coherent multiport characterization of a network under test. The data thus collected are used to define excitation signals that will be focusing over the position of a fault, following a method already successfully applied in geophysical prospection techniques and nondestructive testing, namely, the DORT method, based on the synthesis of time-reversed signals. It is shown that a direct transposition of this technique to wire networks is not possible, due to the guided nature of wave propagation in wire networks, leading to the impossibility of assuming a dominant direction of propagation, as opposed to the case of propagation in open media. A differential version of the DORT method is introduced, enabling an accurate identification of the original position of faults. Numerical and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. View full abstract»

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  • State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles Using Extended Kalman Filtering

    Page(s): 1020 - 1030
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2354 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a more accurate battery state of charge (SOC) estimation method for electric drive vehicles is developed based on a nonlinear battery model and an extended Kalman filter (EKF) supported by experimental data. A nonlinear battery model is constructed by separating the model into a nonlinear open circuit voltage and a two-order resistance-capacitance model. EKF is used to eliminate the measurement and process noise and remove the need of prior knowledge of initial SOC. A hardware-in-the-loop test bench was built to validate the method. The experimental results show that the proposed method can estimate the battery SOC with high accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Energy Detection Based Spectrum Sensing Over \kappa {-}\mu and \kappa {-}\mu Extreme Fading Channels

    Page(s): 1031 - 1040
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    Energy detection (ED) is a simple and popular method of spectrum sensing in cognitive radio systems. It is also widely known that the performance of sensing techniques is largely affected when users experience fading effects. This paper investigates the performance of an energy detector over generalized κ-μ and κ- μ extreme fading channels, which have been shown to provide remarkably accurate fading characterization. Novel analytic expressions are firstly derived for the corresponding average probability of detection for the case of single-user detection. These results are subsequently extended to the case of square-law selection (SLS) diversity and for collaborative detection scenarios. As expected, the performance of the detector is highly dependent upon the severity of fading since even small variations of the fading conditions affect significantly the value of the average probability of detection. Furthermore, the performance of the detector improves substantially as the number of branches or collaborating users increase in both severe and moderate fading conditions, whereas it is shown that the κ- μ extreme model is capable of accounting for fading variations even at low signal-to-noise values. The offered results are particularly useful in assessing the effect of fading in ED-based cognitive radio communication systems; therefore, they can be used in quantifying the associated tradeoffs between sensing performance and energy efficiency in cognitive radio networks. View full abstract»

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  • A Model-Predictive-Control-Based Torque Demand Control Approach for Parallel Hybrid Powertrains

    Page(s): 1041 - 1052
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1668 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a torque-demand-based control approach is developed for parallel hybrid powertrains that consist of a torque distributor, a load observer, and two feedback control loops for an internal combustion engine and an electric motor, respectively. The torque distributor is composed of the torque demand, torque split, torque compensation, and torque limit. The torque control law for the engine is constructed with model predictive control based on a nonlinear mean-value model. A proportional-integral (PI) observer is designed to estimate the torque load of the powertrain, which is Lyapunov stable. For the electric motor, a linear model predictive control law is designed with current feedback. To validate the proposed torque demand control approach, simulation results that were conducted on a simulator are demonstrated, in which full-scaled dynamics of the powertrain are simulated. View full abstract»

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  • Design Optimization of a Surface-Mounted Permanent-Magnet Motor With Concentrated Windings for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Page(s): 1053 - 1064
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    This paper describes design techniques for electric vehicle (EV) traction machines to achieve high efficiency against a defined driving cycle such as the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) while satisfying the required torque-speed operating range. A fractional-slot concentrated-winding (FSCW) surface-mounted permanent-magnet (SPM) machine has been identified as a suitable candidate for EV applications due to its high power/torque density, high efficiency, and good flux-weakening capability compared with other competing machine topologies. Based on the vehicle characteristics and the reference driving cycle, the motor specifications are established, and the design constraints for the SPM machine to satisfy the peak torque and flux-weakening capabilities are derived. Furthermore, the influence of the key parameters, such as slot-pole number combination, machine inductance, axial length, and number of turns, on the machine copper and iron losses over the NEDC is evaluated. Optimizations were carried for these parameters to minimize the total energy losses over the driving cycle. It has been shown that conventional design methodologies that aim to maximize efficiency in the region close to the rated operating condition may lead to less optimal designs and higher energy losses over the NEDC. A prototype motor for a front- and rear-wheel-driven EV has been designed, manufactured, and tested. The experimental results validate the proposed design methodology. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Energy-Harvesting Shock Absorbers: Design, Modeling, and Road Tests

    Page(s): 1065 - 1074
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    This paper presents the design, modeling, bench experiments, and road tests for a retrofit regenerative shock absorber based on a permanent magnetic generator and a rack-pinion mechanism for the purposes of energy harvesting and vibration damping. Results show that variable damping coefficients and the asymmetric feature in jounce and rebound motions are achieved by controlling the electrical load of the shock absorber. Improved efficiency and reliability are achieved by utilizing a roller to guide the rack and preload on the gear transmission to reduce backlash and friction. A peak power of 68 W and average power of 19 W are attained from one prototype shock absorber when the vehicle is driven at 48 km/h (30 mi/h) on a fairly smooth campus road. View full abstract»

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  • Virtual-Sensor-Based Maximum-Likelihood Voting Approach for Fault-Tolerant Control of Electric Vehicle Powertrains

    Page(s): 1075 - 1083
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a sensor fault-tolerant control (FTC) for electric-vehicle (EV) powertrains. The proposed strategy deals with speed sensor failure detection and isolation within a reconfigurable induction-motor direct torque control (DTC) scheme. To increase the vehicle powertrain reliability regarding speed sensor failures, a maximum-likelihood voting (MLV) algorithm is adopted. It uses two virtual sensors [extended Kalman filter (EKF) and a Luenberger observer (LO)] and a speed sensor. Experiments on an induction-motor drive and simulations on an EV are carried out using a European urban and extraurban driving cycle to show that the proposed sensor FTC approach is effective and provides a simple configuration with high performance in terms of speed and torque responses. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Cost Antenna Attitude Estimation by Fusing Inertial Sensing and Two-Antenna GPS for Vehicle-Mounted Satcom-on-the-Move

    Page(s): 1084 - 1096
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2182 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we develop a low-cost method to determine the vehicle attitude for vehicle-mounted satellite-communication (satcom)-on-the-move (SOTM) using a micro inertial measurement unit (MIMU) and a two-antenna global positioning system (GPS). An adaptive Euler-angle-based unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is utilized to fuse these sensors to guard against the effects induced by GPS outages and vehicle accelerations. When the two-antenna GPS can provide the vehicle yaw angle, the vehicle accelerations that introduce large errors to the accelerometer-measured gravitational acceleration can be corrected by the GPS-measured velocity and sideslip angle. When the two-antenna GPS fails to provide the yaw angle and needed information, the yaw angle is estimated only by integrating gyroscopes. The estimation of the pitch and roll angles is adaptively controlled by the vehicle acceleration detection rules. These rules make full use of the gyroscope output and the filtering results, which are more compatible with vehicle use than conventional accelerometer norm-based rule. The proposed method is verified with driving tests, suggesting that this technique is a viable candidate for low-cost SOTM. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Analysis of a Novel Multimode Transmission for a HEV Using a Single Electric Machine

    Page(s): 1097 - 1110
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1853 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the mathematical modeling and analysis of a novel multimode transmission (MMT) for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) using a single electric machine (EM), which implies compactness and low cost. The single-EM solution avoids losses from another EM and its power electronics, which are employed in many existing HEVs. The topology of the MMT planetary gearset is the same as that of conventional four-speed automatic transmissions (ATs). The MMT realizes five power flow modes, which are developed into 16 operation modes, including one Motor_only mode, four Engine_only modes, four Compound driving modes, six Braking modes, and one Charging while parking mode. The properly arranged clutches transmit power flow more flexibly, allow direct mechanical power transmission from the engine to the drive shaft, and avoid spin loss for the engine and energy conversion loss for the electric components. Simulation under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) shows that the fuel consumption of the proposed HEV is comparable to a benchmark “THS II-like” vehicle, which uses a planetary gearset, two EMs, and no clutch, which indicates the fuel economy potential of this concept. View full abstract»

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  • Subcarrier and Power Allocation for OFDMA-Based Cognitive Radio Systems With Joint Overlay and Underlay Spectrum Access Mechanism

    Page(s): 1111 - 1122
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    In this paper, we study a subcarrier-and-power-allocation problem for orthogonal-frequency-division multiple-access (OFDMA)-based cognitive radio (CR) systems. In a departure from existing works in the literature that considered resource allocation for either an overlay spectrum access mechanism (OSAM) or an underlay spectrum access mechanism (USAM), we propose subcarrier-and-power-allocation schemes for a joint overlay and underlay spectrum access mechanism (JOUSAM). In particular, for such a CR system, the total transmission rate of CR users is maximized for a given power budget while keeping the interference introduced to the primary-user (PU) receivers' below given thresholds with a certain probability. As the optimal scheme can be highly complex, we also propose a low-complexity suboptimal subcarrier-and-power-allocation scheme. The selected numerical results show that a significant gain in terms of total achievable transmission rate can be obtained over an USAM or an OSAM. These selected numerical results also show that the proposed suboptimal scheme, which has a very low complexity, provides a significant improvement in performance over either underlay or overlay spectrum access mechanism. The proposed optimal scheme can lead to an unfairness among CR users in sharing the total transmission rate; therefore, we also propose a suboptimal subcarrier-allocation scheme that can guarantee a certain level of fairness among CR users. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Complexity Decoding in DF MIMO Relaying System

    Page(s): 1123 - 1137
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We derive a maximum-likelihood (ML) decoder for decode-and-forward (DF) based multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) cooperative systems having an equal number of antennas at the source and relay nodes, and utilizing an arbitrary complex-valued M-ary constellation. The DF-based MIMO cooperative system considered in this paper utilizes orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBCs) for the transmission of data of the source to the destination. To reduce the decoding complexity, a suboptimal piecewise linear (PL) decoder is also derived, which performs close to the ML decoder. The proposed ML and PL decoders are applicable to arbitrary complex-valued M -ary constellations and require the destination node to possess knowledge of the channel statistics of the source-relay (S-R) links, whereas the existing decoder of multi-antenna-based DF cooperative systems needs to know the exact channel coefficients of the S-R link at the destination. The proposed decoders outperform an amplify-and-forward (AF)-protocol-based multi-antenna cooperative system. We obtain an expression of the average probability of error of the proposed PL decoder using an M-phase-shift keying (M-PSK) constellation and a single MIMO relay. The approximate symbol error rate (SER) of the proposed PL decoder is derived with multiple MIMO relays, M-PSK constellation, and asymptotically high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the S-R links. It is analytically shown that the proposed ML and PL decoders achieve maximum possible diversity in the multi-antenna cooperative system with a single relay. View full abstract»

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  • On Diversity Order and Coding Gain of Multisource Multirelay Cooperative Wireless Networks With Binary Network Coding

    Page(s): 1138 - 1157
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    In this paper, a multisource multirelay cooperative wireless network with binary modulation and binary network coding is studied. The system model encompasses 1) a Demodulate-and-Forward (DemF) protocol at the relays, where the received packets are forwarded, regardless of their reliability, and 2) a maximum-likelihood optimum demodulator at the destination, which accounts for possible demodulation errors at the relays. An asymptotically tight and closed-form expression of the end-to-end error probability is derived, which showcases the diversity order and coding gain of each source. Unlike other papers available in the literature, the proposed framework has three main distinguishable features: 1) It is useful for general network topologies and arbitrary binary encoding vectors; 2) it shows how network code and two-hop forwarding protocol affect diversity order and coding gain; and 3) it accounts for realistic fading channels and demodulation errors at the relays. The framework provides four main conclusions: 1) Each source achieves a diversity order equal to the separation vector of the network code; 2) the design of diversity-achieving network codes is equivalent to the design of systematic block codes over fully interleaved point-to-point links; 3) the coding gain of each source decreases with the number of mixed packets at the relays; and 4) if the destination cannot take into account demodulation errors at the relays, it loses approximately half of the diversity order. Our theoretical findings are validated through extensive Monte Carlo simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Cooperative TDMA in Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Page(s): 1158 - 1168
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    The time-division-multiple-access-based (TDMA) protocol has been widely utilized as a reliable media access control (MAC) mechanism. By allocating each user a dedicated time slot, a given TDMA user transmits its packets in its exclusively assigned time slots, whereas other users are in idle mode (not transmitting). However, in this paper, a cooperative TDMA (C-TDMA) method is investigated, which enables cooperative transmissions among multiple TDMA users to improve the probability of success of packet transmissions. Specifically, a TDMA user not only transmits packets in its assigned slots but monitors/overhears other users' packets in other time slots as well. It will then be able to assist the other users, if needed, to retransmit their failed packets through cooperative diversity. For performance evaluations, expressions of three metrics, i.e., network throughput, packet-dropping rate, and average packet delay, are derived, considering a Rayleigh fading channel. Both theoretical and simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the throughput, dropping rate, and delay performance are all improved significantly with the use of C-TDMA. View full abstract»

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  • AF Cooperative CDMA Outage Probability Analysis in Nakagami- m Fading Channels

    Page(s): 1169 - 1176
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The performance of amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems is analyzed over independent nonidentical (i.n.i.) Nakagami-m fading channels. In the underlying AF relaying scheme, each relay applies interference suppression to the received signal to mitigate the effect of multiple-access interference (MAI) where a soft estimate is obtained before signal amplification takes place. The outage probability of the system is analyzed using the cumulative distribution function (cdf) of the total signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the base station. In that, we derive a simplified yet tight lower bound for the AF relaying system. We also define an approximation for the probability density function (pdf) of the total SNR, which enables us to derive an asymptotic outage probability of the system. The derived asymptotic outage probability is used to evaluate the achievable diversity order for various system parameters. Simulations are presented to verify the accuracy of our analytical results. View full abstract»

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  • Weighted Sum Capacity Maximization Using a Modified Leakage-Based Transmit Filter Design

    Page(s): 1177 - 1188
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    This paper proposes a linear transmit filter design to maximize weighted sum capacity (WSC) in multiuser multiple-input-multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems. The proposed scheme is based on a modified signal-to-leakage-plus-noise ratio (SLNR) criterion, which integrates receiver structures and power allocations into the precoder design and can efficiently exploit unused receiver subspaces. Based on the proposed transmitter (TX) design with receive matched filters (MFs), the WSC maximization problem can be simplified to power-allocation and data-stream selection problems. A power-allocation algorithm for finding a local optimal solution is also proposed and is shown to be obtained by the iteration of closed-form water-filling (WF) solutions. Furthermore, a low-complexity user and substream selection is proposed as an alternative solution to maximize WSC. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms outperform the conventional scheme and achieve comparable performance to a joint transceiver design, despite requiring simpler receiver structures. View full abstract»

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  • Improving the DMT Performance for MIMO Communication With Linear Receivers

    Page(s): 1189 - 1200
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (668 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) linear receivers are often of more practical interest than maximum-likelihood (ML) receivers due to their low decoding complexity but at the cost of worse diversity gain performance. Such a statement on performance loss is due to the assumption of using an independent identically distributed complex Gaussian vector as channel input. By removing this assumption, we find that the diversity performance of MIMO linear receivers can be significantly improved. In an extreme case, it can be the same as that of ML receivers. Specifically, in this paper, we investigate the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) performance of MIMO linear receivers with colored and possibly degenerate Gaussian channel inputs. By varying the rank of the covariance matrix of the channel input vector and by allowing temporal coding across multiple channel uses, we show that the MIMO linear receiver can achieve a much better DMT performance than the currently known one. Explicit optimal code constructions are provided, along with simulation results, to justify the above findings. For the case of (2 × 2) and (3 × 3) MIMO linear receivers, simulation results show that the newly proposed codes provide significant gains of 10 and 12.08 dB in Eb/N0 at bit error rate 10-4 compared to the conventional schemes, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Joint Transmit Precoding for the Relay Interference Broadcast Channel

    Page(s): 1201 - 1215
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1367 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Relays in cellular systems are interference limited. The highest end-to-end sum rates are achieved when the relays are jointly optimized with the transmit strategy. Unfortunately, interference couples the links together, making joint optimization challenging. Further, the end-to-end multihop performance is sensitive to rate mismatch when some links have a dominant first link, whereas others have a dominant second link. This paper proposes an algorithm for designing the linear transmit precoders at the transmitters and relays of the relay interference broadcast channel, which is a generic model for relay-based cellular systems, to maximize the end-to-end sum rates. First, the relays are designed to maximize the second-hop sum rates. Next, approximate end-to-end rates that depend on the time-sharing fraction and the second-hop rates are used to formulate a sum-utility maximization problem to design the transmitters. This problem is solved by iteratively minimizing the weighted sum of mean square errors (MSEs). Finally, the norms of the transmit precoders at the transmitters are adjusted to eliminate rate mismatch. The proposed algorithm allows for distributed implementation and has fast convergence. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms a reasonable application of single-hop interference management strategies separately on two hops. View full abstract»

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  • EXIT-Chart-Matching-Aided Near-Capacity Coded Modulation Design and a BICM-ID Design Example for Both Gaussian and Rayleigh Channels

    Page(s): 1216 - 1227
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Bit-interleaved coded modulation with iterative decoding (BICM-ID) is investigated, wherein a novel method of designing amplitude phase-shift keying (APSK) constellations is proposed, which is capable of outperforming both traditional quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and nonuniformly spaced QAM (NU-QAM). It is shown that the channel capacity can be approached by the proposed M-APSK constellation as M tends to infinity. Additionally, a new algorithm is introduced for finding the best bit-to-symbol mapping. Furthermore, when signal space diversity is also employed, our extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) chart analysis and Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the proposed BICM-ID schemes exhibit a near-Shannon-capacity performance for transmission over both additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading channels. For a block length of 64 800 bits, the bit-error-rate (BER) curve of the proposed BICM-ID 16/64-APSK scheme is only about 0.8 and 1.0 dB away from the Gaussian-input Shannon limit over AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels, respectively, at the BER of 10-5 and for a code rate of 1/2. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology covers land, airborne, and maritime mobile services, vehicular electrotechnology, equipment, and systems identified with the automotive industry.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yuguang Michael Fang
University of Florida