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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date April 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Table of Contents

    Page(s): C1 - 685
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  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Nonlinear Model-Based Approach for Accurate Stability Prediction of One-Bit Higher-Order Delta–Sigma Modulators

    Page(s): 686 - 692
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (473 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The current approaches on predicting the stability of delta-sigma (Δ-Σ) modulators are mostly confined to dc inputs. This poses limitations as practical applications of Δ-Σ modulators involve a wide range of signals other than dc. In this paper, a quasi-linear model for Δ-Σ modulators with nonlinear feedback control analysis is presented, which accurately predicts the stability of higher-order single-loop 1-bit Δ-Σ modulators for various types of input signals, such as single sinusoids, dual sinusoids, multiple sinusoids, and Gaussian. Theoretical values are shown to match closely with simulation results. The results of this paper would significantly speed up the design and evaluation of higher-order single-loop 1-bit Δ-Σ modulators for various applications, including those that may require multiple-sinusoidal inputs or any general input composed of a finite number of sinusoidal components, circumventing the need to perform detailed time-consuming simulations to quantify stability limits. By using the proposed method, the difference between the predicted and the actual stable amplitude limits results in an error of less than 1 dB in the in-band signal-to-noise ratio for the third-order and higher-order Δ-Σ modulators for single-sinusoidal inputs. For single-sinusoidal, dual-sinusoidal, multiple-sinusoidal, and Gaussian inputs, the error is less than 2 dB for the fifth-order modulator and reduces to less than 1 dB for the sixth-order and higher-order Δ-Σ modulators. View full abstract»

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  • Strain Gauge Amplifier Circuits

    Page(s): 693 - 700
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    This paper presents several amplifier circuits for use with strain gauges. The circuits are inherently linear, produce four times the output of the standard Wheatstone bridge, and can easily be extended to accommodate multiple strain gauges. The implementation platform is the low-cost operational amplifier instead of the more expensive instrumentation amplifier, and circuit functionality has been verified using PSPICE simulations, and laboratory tests. View full abstract»

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  • The OpenPMU Platform for Open-Source Phasor Measurements

    Page(s): 701 - 709
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (957 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    OpenPMU is an open platform for the development of phasor measurement unit (PMU) technology. A need has been identified for an open-source alternative to commercial PMU devices tailored to the needs of the university researcher and for enabling the development of new synchrophasor instruments from this foundation. OpenPMU achieves this through open-source hardware design specifications and software source code, allowing duplicates of the OpenPMU to be fabricated under open-source licenses. This paper presents the OpenPMU device based on the Labview development environment. The device is performance tested according to the IEEE C37.118.1 standard. Compatibility with the IEEE C37.118.2 messaging format is achieved through middleware which is readily adaptable to other PMU projects or applications. Improvements have been made to the original design to increase its flexibility. A new modularized architecture for the OpenPMU is presented using an open messaging format which the authors propose is adopted as a platform for PMU research. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Analysis of PTP Components for IEC 61850 Process Bus Applications

    Page(s): 710 - 719
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1415 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New substation automation applications, such as sampled value (SV) process buses and synchrophasors, require a sampling accuracy of 1 μs or better. The Precision Time Protocol (PTP), IEEE Std. 1588, achieves this level of performance and integrates well into Ethernet-based substation networks. This paper takes a systematic approach to the performance evaluation of commercially available PTP devices (grandmaster, slave, transparent, and boundary clocks) from a variety of manufacturers. The “error budget” is set by the performance requirements of each application. The “expenditure” of this error budget by each component is valuable information for a system designer. The component information is used to design a synchronization system that meets the overall functional requirements. The quantitative performance data presented show that this testing is effective and informative. Results from testing PTP performance in the presence of SV process bus traffic demonstrate the benefit of a “bottom-up” component testing approach combined with “top-down” system verification tests. A test method that uses a precision Ethernet capture card, rather than dedicated PTP test sets, to determine the correction field error of transparent clocks is presented. This test is particularly relevant for highly loaded Ethernet networks with stringent timing requirements. The methods presented can be used for development purposes by manufacturers or by system integrators for acceptance testing. An SV process bus was used as the test application for the systematic approach described in this paper. The test approach was applied, components were selected, and the system performance was verified to meet the application's requirements. Systematic testing, as presented in this paper, is applicable to a range of industries that use, rather than develop, PTP for time transfer. View full abstract»

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  • Processing Dependent Systematic Contributions to Measurement Uncertainty

    Page(s): 720 - 731
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (949 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the measurement field, the correlation of two uncertainty contributions is a form of probabilistic association that can significantly affect the final uncertainty associated to the measurement result. The Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement recommends a mathematical approach to deal with correlated random contributions to measurement uncertainty. A similar kind of association, or dependence, can characterize also different systematic contributions to uncertainty and should be taken into account when evaluating their effect on the final measurement uncertainty. This paper discusses a new approach to handle such systematic contributions when they are represented by symmetric possibility distributions (PDs) of the same shape. This method allows one to build the joint PD of two systematic contributions, both dependent and independent, and propagate them through a generic measurement function. View full abstract»

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  • A Built-In Voltage Measurement Technique for the Calibration of RF Mixers

    Page(s): 732 - 742
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    A built-in technique to measure internal DC voltage levels used for the calibration of radio frequency (RF) mixers is presented in this paper. According to a common alternate test approach, RF mixer calibration is based on the prediction of the circuit's performance characteristics that requires the acquisition of a set of DC voltage observables obtained from specific nodes of the mixer operating in homodyne mode. These observables, however, often correspond to internal nodes where direct access is not always possible. Furthermore, accurate calibration might require a relatively large set of voltage observables whose direct access would lead to a waste of resources and to increased cost. The proposed built-in technique provides digital readings for the DC levels at all nodes of interest through a single interface by exploiting the use of a voltage acquisition circuit implemented by a simple analog to digital converter, which consists of a ring-type voltage controlled oscillator and a counter. A reading correction method to minimize the uncertainty introduced by process variations and device mismatches in the acquisition circuit itself is also described. The efficiency of the proposed technique has been validated by its application to the calibration procedure of a typical differential RF mixer designed in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology. Simulation results have been obtained and assessed, both for the proposed built-in voltage measurement technique and for the direct voltage measurement approach, in favor of comparison. View full abstract»

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  • Shielding Effectiveness of Carbon–Fiber Composite Aircraft Using Large Cavity Theory

    Page(s): 743 - 751
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (894 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper extends reverberation chamber theory to include chambers constructed out of non-metallic composite materials. This extension allows reverberation chamber theory to predict the shielding effectiveness (SE) of modern aluminum and composite aircraft. Existing theory is based on a power balance approach for aperture-excited cavities, and this paper extends it to include leakage through the cavity walls. Cavity excitation and power dissipation mechanisms are examined in detail, and the cavity SE is related to cavity energy loss in terms of the “quality factor.” SE measurements were made on a partially assembled Uncrewed Aerial System constructed with a carbon-fiber composite skin. The test-analysis agreement shows a high degree of correlation. View full abstract»

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  • Bilateral Teleoperation of Holonomic Constrained Robotic Systems With Time-Varying Delays

    Page(s): 752 - 765
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4798 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, adaptive control is proposed for hybrid position/force synchronization of master-slave teleoperation systems with time-varying delays in communication channels. Different from previous works on bilateral teleoperation systems, we investigate position/force control of bilateral teleoperation systems subject to time-varying delays and dynamical uncertainties. Using partial feedback linearization, the dynamics of both master and slave are transformed into two subsystems: local master/slave position/force control with unmodeled dynamics and delayed position/force synchronization. An adaptive control is proposed to deal with the dynamical uncertainties and robust against time delays, which guarantees the position/force synchronization trajectories converge to the desired manifolds with prescribed performance. The stability of the closed-loop system and the boundedness of synchronization tracking errors are proved using linear matrix inequalities based on Lyapunov stability synthesis. The position/force tracking error up to an ultimately bounded error is achieved. The proposed adaptive controls are robust against relative motion disturbances, parametric uncertainties, and time delays, and are validated by experimental studies. View full abstract»

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  • Metrological Performances of a Plantar Pressure Measurement System

    Page(s): 766 - 776
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    Plantar pressure measurements provide useful information to diagnose a diverse range of foot disorders; unfortunately, the commercially available measurement systems are undesirably sensitive to several disturbances, but this aspect is mostly neglected in the literature. This paper describes the results of an experimental campaign aiming at the identification of pressure measuring system metrological performances, at system modeling, and at the implementation of correction procedures. The sensor model was implemented using the results of static and dynamic tests performed on a pedar-X plantar pressure measurement system. The static calibration was performed by analyzing the effect of temperature, single sensor coverage area, local curvature, tangential forces, long-term stability (creep), and sensor crosstalk on the system performances. The dynamic calibration was performed on an electrodynamic shaker, identifying the single sensor frequency response function and the hysteresis under different average loads. The dynamic sensor model is based on the Kelvin-Voigt model, which is representative of the viscoelastic behavior of the material. The model allowed us to compensate both the creep (i.e., the behavior under static loads) and the nonunitary frequency response function. A deconvolution-based algorithm has been proposed to compensate the sensor crosstalk effects, although its implementation requires additional investigations. Experimental results of bobbing and gait tests showed that, with the adoption of the proposed compensation algorithms, the force and center of pressure errors could be reduced by more than 50% of their initial values. View full abstract»

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  • A Digital Frequency-Locked Loop System for Capacitance Measurement

    Page(s): 777 - 784
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (753 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Similar to phase-locked loops, frequency-locked loops (FLLs) are useful in many applications involving waveform synchronization or synthesis. Simple logic circuit-based relaxation oscillators convert capacitance to frequency, which is a characteristic inverse relationship between output frequency and input capacitance. The oscillator's logic level square-wave output can be fed into an all-digital FLL that will frequency lock to the input signal and produce a digital output word N, where N is inversely proportional to the input frequency. The result is that N is linearly proportional to the unknown capacitance in the oscillator. This novel approach allows a simple FFL implementation for capacitance measurement and is demonstrated in hardware using a capacitive sensor that measures the mass of small quantities of water with an output capacitance range of 75-185 pF. View full abstract»

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  • Multifrequency Lock-In Detection With Nonsinusoidal References

    Page(s): 785 - 793
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a lock-in detection scheme, which simultaneously computes the amplitude and phase of several signals using nonsinusoidal references that have odd harmonics only. By stating constraints on the frequencies of the references and on the measurement time, we guarantee perfect discrimination of the sources. Using square-wave references, we simplify the lock-in algorithm, rendering it suitable to an implementation directly in logic. Furthermore, we apply this scheme to the design of a moisture sensor for industrial real-time measurement applications. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-Loaded Modulated Scatterer Technique for Sensing Applications

    Page(s): 794 - 805
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1872 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modulated scatterer technique (MST) probes have been commonly used for near-field mapping application in antenna measurements as well as in imaging applications. Although they can be used as a general sensor, they present limitations in the amount of information that can be obtained. The paper proposes a new configuration for MST probes that can be used for sensing applications, which consists in using a set of impedances (at least three different impedances) instead of the conventional two impedance loads. Additional sensitive loads, such as thermistors, can be added to the multi-load MST sensor, in order to remotely sense their variation and perform further sensing of parameters which could not always be sensed by conventional MST. The paper presents the formulation and approaches that can be used to exploit the sensing capabilities of such multi-loaded MST sensor, as well as experimental validations through the measurement of the temperature in the neighborhood of the sensor. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Calibration of a Laser Dynamic Deflectometer

    Page(s): 806 - 813
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    The bearing capacity of the road pavement is one of the most important indices that reflect the road condition. To collect such data, various deflectometers were developed in the past three decades. Note that the newly developed Traffic-Speed Deflectometer (TSD) declares to perform a nondestructive measuring at traffic speeds. However, TSD is limited as it needs more than 4 h to calibrate the system before a measuring task. This paper introduces a Laser Dynamic Deflectometer (LDD) developed at the Transportation Research Center of Wuhan University. LDD applies four laser Doppler sensors mounted on a measuring beam to capture the deflection velocity of the pavement surface. Unlike TSD using a servo to keep the beam static, LDD utilizes a gyroscope to measure and compensate the vibration of the beam. Moreover, in the procedure of calibration, LDD applies an efficient relative-motion method to calculate the relative angles between each two Doppler lasers, which reduces the time of system calibration to about 2 h. View full abstract»

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  • A Comprehensive Multi-Modal NDE Data Fusion Approach for Failure Assessment in Aircraft Lap-Joint Mimics

    Page(s): 814 - 827
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    Multi-modal data fusion techniques are commonly used to enhance decision-making processes. In previous research, a comprehensive structural analysis process was developed for quantizing and evaluating characteristics of defects in aircraft lap-joint mimics using eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) data collected for structural health monitoring. In this research, a comprehensive multi-modal structural analysis process is presented that includes intra- and inter-modal NDE data fusion based on EC, millimeter wave (MW), and ultrasonic (UT) data obtained from five lap-joint mimic test panels. The process includes defect detection, defect characterization, and finite-element modeling-based simulated fatigue loading for structural analysis. The multi-modal structural analysis process is evaluated using four test panels with corroded patches at different layers of the lap joints and one painted pristine panel used as a reference. The test panels are subjected to two rounds of mechanical loading, preceded by multi-modal NDE data obtained before each round. Different NDE modality combinations are examined for test panel modeling, including: 1) EC, 2) UT, 3) MW, 4) EC and UT, 5) EC and MW, and 6) EC, UT, and MW. Experiments are performed to compare the simulated fatigue loading, based on models determined from the different modality combinations, and the mechanical loading results to find susceptible-to-failure areas in the test panels. Experimental results showed that the EC and UT modality combination yielded a correct vulnerable (crack) location recognition rate of 98.8%, an improvement of 14.7% over any individual modality, demonstrating the potential for multi-modal data fusion for characterizing corrosion and defects. View full abstract»

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  • A Motion Monitor Using Hetero-Core Optical Fiber Sensors Sewed in Sportswear to Trace Trunk Motion

    Page(s): 828 - 836
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    In this paper, a cameraless motion monitor has been described by introducing very thin sensor modules into sportswear, in which a single-mode hetero-core optical fiber sensor is fabricated. An elbow joint motion and a trunk motion are monitored by a sportswear on which the hetero-core optical fiber sensor modules are sewed so as to be sensitive to stretch on the wear. In order to get rid of the restriction to the human body, a two-plane model has been proposed in which only two sets of sensors simplify three kinds of motions at the trunk, which are anteflexion, lateral bending, and rotation. Additionally, the real-time monitoring system has been tested when golf swing motion is performed. As a result, it has been indicated that the motion, which consists of a composite of three motions, can be significantly analyzed by means of the two sensors. The developed system is viable to an unconstrained motion capture system intended for a teaching device in sports and rehabilitation fields. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a New Optical Reference Technique in the Field of Biology

    Page(s): 837 - 844
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (738 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new optical reference technique for biosensing applications is proposed. An association of a biosensor, based on a polymer planar cyclic microresonator vertically coupled to a straight waveguide, with a phase-sensitive optical low-coherence interferometer, based on two Michelson interferometers, is described. Such a technique gives information in the spatial and the spectral domains. The theory and the first measurements on biological molecules are presented. The results show that the proposed technique is relevant for biosensing since the concentration detection limit meets already the expected needs. View full abstract»

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  • A Low-Cost Contactless Transducer for the Measurement of DC Currents Up to 13 kA for the Industry of Anodized Aluminum

    Page(s): 845 - 852
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1217 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is concerned with the development and the characterization of an ad hoc transducer for the contactless measurement of a high-intensity direct current (dc) for industrial applications. Specifically, the proposed transducer will be used to measure the oxidation process current in a continuous aluminum coil anodizing line (standard sulfuric acid anodizing). In this oxidation process, the current measurement is required to control the thickness of the obtained aluminum oxide, the most important parameter in determining the overall quality of the process. Starting from the features of the considered process, the transducer must measure, without contact, dc currents up to 13 kA in continuous aluminum strips, whose width and thickness can be up to 1600 and 5 mm, respectively; the mass of each coil can be greater than 4700 kg, and the length can be more than 800 m. The dc current is supplied by an ac/dc converter, but due to the features of the oxidation process, only a fraction of the supplied current flows in the aluminum strip and concurs to the oxidation process; the remaining current flows as a leakage current in the acid solution, creating undesired phenomena and energy losses. In this paper, we propose a low-cost current transducer, whose sensing element consists of an iron core equipped with two windings; the first excites the core, while the second is used to measure the variation in the magnetic saturation of the core due to the dc current to measure. The transducer output is conditioned by an electronic circuit that gives a continuous voltage proportional to the input current. A prototype of the proposed transducer has been designed and implemented; a series of characterization tests has been conducted, and the obtained results are discussed in this paper. The transducer is able to measure up to 13 kA, with an overall accuracy of 1.5% for currents over 11 kA. View full abstract»

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  • Detection and Quantification of the Influence of Time Variation in Closed-Loop Frequency-Response-Function Measurements

    Page(s): 853 - 863
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (879 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, a method has been developed for detecting and quantifying the time variation in frequency response function (FRF) measurements using arbitrary excitations. The following basic assumptions have been made: 1) The input is known exactly (generalized output error stochastic framework), and 2) the time-variant system operates in an open loop. The latter excludes any interaction between the time-variant system and the generator/actuator. In this paper, we extend the results of the work by Pintelon to noisy input-output observations (errors-in-variables stochastic framework) of time-variant systems operating in a closed loop. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement information for authors

    Page(s): 864
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  • IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society Information

    Page(s): C3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement institutional listings

    Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703