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Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date March 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Front Cover

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 109 - 110
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  • Candida albicans/MWCNTs: A Stable Conductive Bio-Nanocomposite and Its Temperature-Sensing Properties

    Page(s): 111 - 114
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3265 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A Candida albicans/multiwalled carbon nanotube (Ca/MWCNTs) composite material has been produced. It can be used as a temperature-sensing element operative in a wide temperature range (up to 100 °C). The Ca/MWCNTs composite has excellent linear current-voltage characteristics when combined with coplanar gold electrodes. We used growing cells of C. albicans to structure the CNT-based composite. The fungus C. albicans combined with MWCNTs coprecipitated as an aggregate of cells and nanotubes that formed a viscous material. Microscopic analyses showed that Ca/MWCNTs formed a sort of artificial tissue. Slow temperature cycling was performed up to 12 days showing a stabilization of the temperature response of the material. View full abstract»

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  • Programmable CMOS/Memristor Threshold Logic

    Page(s): 115 - 119
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    This paper proposes a hybrid CMOS/memristor implementation of a programmable threshold logic gate. In this gate, memristive devices implement ratioed diode-resistor logic, while CMOS circuitry is used for signal amplification and inversion. Due to the excellent scaling prospects and nonvolatile analog memory of memristive devices, the proposed threshold logic is in-field configurable and potentially very compact. The concept is experimentally verified by implementing a 4-input symmetric linear threshold gate with an integrated circuit CMOS flip-flop, silicon diodes, and Ag/a-Si/Pt memristive devices. View full abstract»

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  • Rate-Delay Tradeoff With Network Coding in Molecular Nanonetworks

    Page(s): 120 - 128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2668 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Molecular communication is a novel nanoscale communication paradigm, in which information is encoded in messenger molecules for transmission and reception. However, molecular communication is unreliable and has highly varying long propagation delays mainly due to the stochastic behavior of the freely diffusing molecules. Thus, it is essential to analyze its delay characteristics, as well as the tradeoff between the rate and delay, in order to reveal the capabilities and limitations of molecular information transmission in nanonetworks. In this paper, first, a new messenger-based molecular communication model, which includes a nanotransmitter sending information to a nanoreceiver, is introduced. The information is encoded on a polyethylene molecule, CH3 (CHX)n CH2F, where X stands for H and F atoms representing 0 and 1 bits, respectively. The emission of the molecules is modeled by puffing process which is inspired by the alarm pheromone release by animals in dangerous situations. In this work, the rate-delay characteristics of this messenger-based molecular communication model are explored. Then, a Nano-Relay is inserted in the model, which XOR's the incoming messages from two different nanomachines. Performance evaluation shows that indeed, a simple network coding mechanism significantly improves the rate given delay of the system, and vice versa. View full abstract»

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  • An Information Theoretical Analysis of Nanoscale Molecular Gap Junction Communication Channel Between Cardiomyocytes

    Page(s): 129 - 136
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    Molecular communication (MC) is a promising paradigm to communicate at nanoscale and it is inspired by nature. One of the MC methods in nature is the gap junction (GJ) communication between cardiomyocytes. The GJ communication is achieved by diffusion of ions through GJ channels between the cells. The transmission of the information is realized by means of the propagation of the action potential (AP) signal. The probabilities of both the AP propagation failure and the spontaneous AP initiation are obtained. For the first time in the literature, the GJ communication channel is modeled and analyzed from the information theoretical perspective to find the communication channel capacity. A closed-form expression is derived for the capacity of the GJ communication channel. The channel capacity, propagation delay, and information transmission rate are analyzed numerically for a three-cell network. The results of the numerical analyses point out a correlation between an increase in the incidence of several cardiac diseases and a decrease in the channel capacity, an increase in the propagation delay, and either an increase or a decrease in the transmission rate. The method that we use and results that are presented may help in the investigation, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiac diseases as well as help in the design of nanodevices communicating via GJ channels. View full abstract»

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  • Design of an Inertially Counterbalanced Z -Nanopositioner for High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy

    Page(s): 137 - 145
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1253 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In many conventional atomic force microscopes (AFMs), one of the key hurdles to high-speed scanning in constant-force contact mode is the low-feedback control bandwidth of the -axis loop. This paper presents the design of a fast -nanoposi-tioner to overcome this limitation. The -nanopositioner has its first resonant mode at 60 kHz and a travel range of 5 m. It consists of a piezoelectric stack actuator and a diaphragm flexure. The flexure serves as a linear spring to preload the actuator and to prevent it from getting damaged during high-speed operations. The -nanopositioner is mounted to an XY-nanopositioner. To avoid exciting the resonance of the XY -nanopositioner, an inertial counterbalance configuration was incorporated in the design of the -nanopositioner. With this configuration, the resonances of the XY-nanopositioner were not triggered. A closed-loop vertical control bandwidth of 6.5 kHz is achieved. High-speed constant-force contact-mode images were recorded at a resolution of 200 200 pixels at 10, 100, and 200 Hz line rates without noticeable image artifacts due to insufficient control bandwidth and vibrations. Images were also recorded at 312- and 400-Hz line rates. These images do not show significant artifacts. These line rates are much higher than the closed-loop bandwidth of a conventional AFM in which this nanopositioner was tested. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Measurement Under Atmospheric Conditions of PbSe Nanocrystal Thin Films Passivated by Remote Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition of Al _{\bf 2} O _{\bf 3}

    Page(s): 146 - 151
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    PbSe nanocrystal thin-film transistors (TFTs) were passivated using remote plasma atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a ~10 nm thick Al2O3 film at 150 °C. By using a highly reactive remote oxygen plasma source, the time for one complete ALD cycle was about 15 s with growth rates of ~1.1 Å/cycle. The effective mobilities measured under atmospheric condition from AlO-passivated PbSe nanocrystal TFTs were comparable to the values reported previously for air-free PbSe nanocrystal TFTs, demonstrating that ALD Al2O3 layers prevent oxidation and degradation of nanocrystal films from air exposure. The variation in the effective mobility of passivated devices was also found to be negligible under ambient conditions over a period of 30 days. The results show that remote plasma ALD processing of Al2O3 is capable of producing an effective passivation layer on air-sensitive nanocrystals with high deposition rates at reduced temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of the Substrate and Tip Shape on the Characterization of Thin Films by Electrostatic Force Microscopy

    Page(s): 152 - 156
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    Electrostatic force microscopy has been shown to be a useful tool to determine the dielectric constant of nanoscaled thin films that play a key role in many electrical, optical, and biological phenomena. Previous approaches have made use of simple analytical models to analyze the experimental data for these materials. Here, we show that the electrostatic force shows a completely different behavior when the shape of the tip and sample are taken into account. We present a complete study of the interaction between the whole tip and the layers below the thin film. We demonstrate that physical magnitudes such as the surface charge density distribution and the size of the materials have a strong influence on the EFM signal. The EFM sensitivity to the substrate below the thin film decreases with the substrate thickness and saturates for thicknesses above two times the length of the tip, when it is close to that of an infinite medium. View full abstract»

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  • Ga2O3(Gd2O3) as a Charge-Trapping Layer for Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    Page(s): 157 - 162
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (634 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The charge-trapping characteristics of Ga2O3 (Gd2O3) (denoted as GGO) with and without nitrogen incorporation were investigated based on Al/Al2O3/GGO/SiO2/Si (metalalumina-nitride-oxide-silicon) capacitors. Compared with the capacitor without nitrogen incorporation, the one with nitrided GGO showed a larger memory window (10 V at ±16 V, 1 s), a higher program speed with a low gate voltage (2.2V at +8 V, 100 μs), and a better retention property (charge loss of 9.7% after 104 s at 125°C) mainly due to higher charge-trapping efficiency of the nitrided GGO film and the nitrogen-induced suppressed formation of the undesirable silicate interlayer at the GGO/SiO2 interface, as confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. View full abstract»

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  • Antenna-Coupled Nanowire Thermocouples for Infrared Detection

    Page(s): 163 - 167
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    Unbiased, uncooled, and frequency-selective antenna-coupled nanowire thermocouples have been fabricated out of different metal combinations and characterized for infrared detection. The relative Seebeck coefficient of the nanowire thermocouples was measured with a characterization platform, which is colocated on the same chip as the detectors. The area of the hot junction of the nanowire thermocouple is approximately 75 nm × 75 nm. The antenna-coupled thermocouples show polarization dependence with a maximum normalized detectivity (D*) of 1.94 × 105 cm · √Hz/W. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation Study of Quasi-Ballistic Transport in Asymmetric DG-MOSFET by Directly Solving Boltzmann Transport Equation

    Page(s): 168 - 173
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, we simulate double-gate MOSFET using a 2-D direct Boltzmann transport equation solver. Simulation results are interpreted by quasi-ballistic theory. It is found that the relation between average carrier velocity at virtual source and back-scattering coefficient needs to be modified due to the oversimplified approximations of the original model. A 1-D potential profile model also needs to be extended to better determine the kT-layer length. The key expression for back-scattering coefficient is still valid, but a field-dependent mean free path is needed to be taken into account. View full abstract»

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  • Scalable Spray Deposition Process for High-Performance Carbon Nanotube Gas Sensors

    Page(s): 174 - 181
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (599 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A significant step toward commercialization of novel carbon nanotube (CNT) electronics involves the development of large area and high-throughput processes for the fabrication of high-quality CNT films. In this study, we report CNT-based gas sensors with exceptionally high as well as rapid response to various test gases. Highly uniform CNT thin films, prepared using a reliable and reproducible low-cost spray deposition process, are utilized as resistive networks for gas detection. Sensors show a clear and immediate change in resistance as a response to test gas exposure. The high uniformity and low density of the CNT films employed in our chemiresistor provide the means for achieving exceptional response under ambient conditions without any further functionalization, rendering them promising for adoption into a wide range of applications, especially where low-cost room-temperature operation is desired. In an attempt to further reduce production cost, we demonstrate the first implementation of a fully sprayed full-CNT gas sensor on low-cost substrates yielding reasonable device performance. View full abstract»

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  • Monitoring the Environmental Impact of TiO _{\bf 2} Nanoparticles Using a Plant-Based Sensor Network

    Page(s): 182 - 189
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    The increased manufacturing of nanoparticles for use in cosmetics, foods, and clothing necessitates the need for an effective system to monitor and evaluate the potential environmental impact of these nanoparticles. The goal of this research was to develop a plant-based sensor network for characterizing, monitoring, and understanding the environmental impact of TiO2 nanoparticles. The network consisted of potted Arabidopsis thaliana with a surrounding water supply, which was monitored by cameras attached to a laptop computer running a machine learning algorithm. Using the proposed plant sensor network, we were able to examine the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles in two systems: algae and terrestrial plants. Increased terrestrial plant growth was observed upon introduction of the nanoparticles, whereas algal growth decreased significantly. The proposed system can be further automated for high-throughput screening of nanoparticle toxicity in the environment at multiple trophic levels. The proposed plant-based sensor network could be used for more accurate characterization of the environmental impact of nanomaterials. View full abstract»

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  • AM-AFM System Analysis and Output Feedback Control Design With Sensor Saturation

    Page(s): 190 - 202
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    This paper analyzes the dynamics of an amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) system, and designs a novel output feedback robust adaptive control (OFRAC) law to improve the scanning performance of the AM-AFM system. That is, a control-oriented reduced model is proposed to approximate the mapping from tip-sample separation to oscillation amplitude, whose accuracy is verified by experimental results. Considering the facts that the parameters of an AM-AFM system vary with different combinations of piezo-scanner and cantilever as well as detected samples, and measurement saturation occurs frequently in dynamic AFM systems, an OFRAC strategy for the piezo-scanner is designed to keep the oscillation amplitude of the cantilever staying at the desired setpoint under various complex situations. It is shown theoretically that the proposed control strategy pushes the system away from the saturation state in finite time, and it ensures uniform ultimate boundedness result for the control error. The OFRAC strategy is applied to a virtual AM-AFM system, and the collected results clearly demonstrate that it presents superior imaging performance for high-speed scanning tasks. View full abstract»

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  • Exploring the Design of the Magnetic–Electrical Interface for Nanomagnet Logic

    Page(s): 203 - 214
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    Nanomagnet logic (NML) has received increasing attention as an alternative information processing technology given the potential for low energy dissipation, a relatively advanced experimental state of the art, and intangibles such as inherent radiation hardness and nonvolatility. In order to facilitate the integration of NML-based circuits with transistor-based circuits, a magnetic-electrical interface (MEI) is needed. This paper focuses on the output portion of MEI design, i.e., converting signals from the magnetic domain to the electrical domain. The basic idea of an MEI output is to employ fringing fields from an NML device to set the magnetization state of the free layer of a magnetic tunnel junction. A detailed study of four different MEI output designs is presented which considers metrics such as the clock energy required to set the output state, the magnetoresistance ratio, etc. Simulation-based analysis reveals the pros and cons of each design. A design where multiple NML devices (i.e., free layers) share a large synthetic antiferromagnet is most promising based on our simulation-based, quantitative analysis. View full abstract»

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  • A Scalable Signal Distribution Network for Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

    Page(s): 215 - 224
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    The authors describe a signal distribution network (SDN) for quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) devices. This network allows the distribution of a set of inputs to an arbitrary number of combinational functions, overcoming the challenges associated with wire crossings that have faced QCA systems for many years. As an additional benefit, the proposed SDN requires only four distinct clock signals, regardless of the number of inputs or outputs, and those clock signals each repeat a very simple pattern. Furthermore, this network is highly scalable, completing the distribution of inputs to an arbitrary number of distributed signals and an arbitrary number of outputs in 4 - 2 clock cycles. To illustrate its operation, the authors apply the SDN to a two-input/one-output exclusive OR operation, a three-input/two-output full adder, and a four-input/four-output multiplier. View full abstract»

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  • Stray Charge in Quantum-dot Cellular Automata: A Validation of the Intercellular Hartree Approximation

    Page(s): 225 - 233
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    The authors analyze the effect of stray charges near a line of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) cells. Considering both the ground-state polarization and the excitation energy of the system, it is determined that there is a 129-nm-wide region surrounding a QCA wire where a stray charge will cause the wire to fail. This calculation is the result of a full-basis-set simulation of a four-cell line. A comparison is made between cells with parallel-spin electrons and those with antiparallel spin electrons, showing that they yield essentially identical results. Therefore, the added complexity of accounting for antiparallel spins does not yield superior simulation results. Finally, a comparison is made between the full-basis calculations and the results of the same calculation using the intercellular Hartree approximation (ICHA). The similarity of these two results demonstrates that the ICHA method is a valid tool for studying the effect of stray charges in larger systems. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a Nanoprecision 3-DOF Vertical Positioning System With a Flexure Hinge

    Page(s): 234 - 245
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1347 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the conceptual design of an ultraprecision 3-DOF (Z, Ox, Oy) vertical positioning system with nanometer precision. The vertical out-of-plane positioning system can be used for various nanoalignment applications, such as optical instrument alignment. The proposed vertical positioning system is driven by three piezoelectric (PZT) actuators and is guided by three rotationally symmetric hinges. Because the displacement generated by a PZT actuator is very small, the proposed system also includes an amplification hinge mechanism. Because the relationships between the variables of the hinge parameters and system performance levels are complicated, an optimization procedure to obtain optimal design parameters, which maximize the system bandwidth, is developed. Based on the solution to the optimization problem, the design of a vertical positioning system and finite-element-method simulation results are presented. Finally, the stage is manufactured and tested for verification. The stroke of the translational movement is 190 mm, and the stroke of the rotational movement is 0.5 mrad, whereas their in-position stability levels are ±2 nm and ±20 nrad and resolutions are 5 nm and 80 nrad, respectively. The settling time is less than 45 ms. View full abstract»

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  • High-Speed AFM Image Scanning Using Observer-Based MPC-Notch Control

    Page(s): 246 - 254
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    This paper presents the design and experimental implementation of an observer-based model predictive control scheme with a notch filter to achieve accurate tracking and fast scanning for an atomic force microscope (AFM). The proposed controller reduces the tracking error by improving the damping of the resonant modes of the AFM piezoelectric tube scanner (PTS). The design of this controller is based on an identified model of the PTS. A Kalman filter is used to obtain full-state information in the presence of position sensor noise. A comparison of the experimentally obtained scanned images using the proposed controller and the existing AFM PI controller is given. The experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed controller. View full abstract»

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  • Development and Improvement of Carbon Nanotube-Based Ammonia Gas Sensors Using Ink-Jet Printed Interdigitated Electrodes

    Page(s): 255 - 262
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    Gas sensors have been widely used in many applications including environmental monitoring, industrial control, and detection in warfare or for averting security threats. High sensitivity, selectivity, and fast response time are required for application in real-time monitoring and detection of toxic gases. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) provide large specific surface area beneficial for gas adsorption thereby increasing sensor sensitivity. In this paper, ammonia (NH) gas sensors based on SWCNTs were developed using interdigitated silver electrodes printed with nanoparticulate ink on alumina substrates. Simple and inexpensive methods including shaking and dispersion in appropriate solvents were used to debundle SWCNTs for improving sensor response. The fabricated sensors showed a maximum response of 27.3% for 500 ppm NH at room temperature. Detection limit of the sensor devices at room temperature were estimated to be ~3 ppm. View full abstract»

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  • ZnO Branched Nanowires and the p-CuO/n-ZnO Heterojunction Nanostructured Photodetector

    Page(s): 263 - 269
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    The authors report the growth of ZnO branched nanowires on the CuO nanowires and the fabrication of p-CuO/n-ZnO heterojunction nanostructured photodetector (PD). It was found that the hydrothermally grown ZnO branched nanowires were reasonably uniform with an average length of 200 nm and an average diameter of 50 nm. Under forward bias, it was found that turn on voltage of the fabricated PD reduced from ~0.7 to ~0.2 V under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. It was also found that UV-to-visible rejection ratio of the fabricated device was larger than 100. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Read-Out Interconnects on the Polarization Characteristics of Nanoantennas for the Long-Wave Infrared Regime

    Page(s): 270 - 275
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    We report experimental and simulation studies of the effect of interconnects on the polarization characteristics of nanoscale dipole antennas. In the long-wave infrared (LWIR) regime, isolation of the postdetection dc circuit and the optical-frequency antenna currents is difficult because the wavelength of the incident radiation is comparable to the dimensions of the isolating elements, and because metal and dielectric losses limit the quality factor of reactive elements at LWIR frequencies. Thus, these “dc” interconnects can also contribute to the radiation pattern of the antenna, and affect the polarization characteristics of the antenna. Antenna-coupled metal-oxide-metal diodes (ACMOMD) based on planar half-wave dipole antennas with different detector read-out interconnect geometries are fabricated adjacent to each other on the same die. ACMOMDs with geometrically-different read-out interconnects have different associated polarization ellipses. 3-D, full-wave simulations in Ansoft high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS) are performed to obtain the polarization tilt angles for different read-out interconnect geometries. The relative shifts in polarization axes are measured experimentally and compared to the relative tilt angles of the polarization ellipses obtained through simulations. The simulated relative shifts in the polarization axes are in good agreement with the measured values. View full abstract»

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  • Open Access

    Page(s): 276
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology is devoted to the publication of manuscripts of archival value in the general area of nanotechnology, which is rapidly emerging as one of the fastest growing and most promising new technological developments for the next generation and beyond.

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Editor-in-Chief
Kang L. Wang
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