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Review of Scientific Instruments

Issue 3 • Date Mar 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 65
  • Charged particle velocity map image reconstruction with one-dimensional projections of spherical functions

    Page(s): 033101 - 033101-10
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    Velocity map imaging (VMI) is used in mass spectrometry and in angle resolved photo-electron spectroscopy to determine the lateral momentum distributions of charged particles accelerated towards a detector. VM-images are composed of projected Newton spheres with a common centre. The 2D images are usually evaluated by a decomposition into base vectors each representing the 2D projection of a set of particles starting from a centre with a specific velocity distribution. We propose to evaluate 1D projections of VM-images in terms of 1D projections of spherical functions, instead. The proposed evaluation algorithm shows that all distribution information can be retrieved from an adequately chosen set of 1D projections, alleviating the numerical effort for the interpretation of VM-images considerably. The obtained results produce directly the coefficients of the involved spherical functions, making the reconstruction of sliced Newton spheres obsolete. View full abstract»

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  • Coherent synchrotron radiation for broadband terahertz spectroscopy

    Page(s): 033102 - 033102-4
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    We present the first high resolution (10-3 cm-1) interferometric measurements in the 200–750 GHz range using coherent synchrotron radiation, achieved with a low momentum compaction factor. The effect of microbunching on spectra is shown, depending on the bunch current. A high signal-to-noise ratio is reached thanks to an artifact correction system based on a double detection scheme. Combined to the broad emitted spectral range and high flux (up to 105 times the incoherent radiation), this study demonstrates that coherent synchrotron radiation can now be used for stability-demanding applications, such as gas-phase studies of unstable molecules. View full abstract»

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  • An optically transparent thin-layer electrochemical cell for the study of vibrational circular dichroism of chiral redox-active molecules

    Page(s): 033103 - 033103-4
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    An optically transparent thin-layer electrochemical (OTTLE) cell with a locally extended optical path has been developed in order to perform vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy on chiral molecules prepared in specific oxidation states by means of electrochemical reduction or oxidation. The new design of the electrochemical cell successfully addresses the technical challenges involved in achieving sufficient infrared absorption. The VCD-OTTLE cell proves to be a valuable tool for the investigation of chiral redox-active molecules. View full abstract»

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  • Momentum-imaging apparatus for the study of dissociative electron attachment dynamics

    Page(s): 033104 - 033104-6
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    An ion-momentum spectrometer is used to study the dissociative dynamics of electron attachment to molecules. A skimmed, supersonic gas jet is crossed with a pulsed beam of low-energy electrons, and the resulting negative ions are extracted toward a time- and position-sensitive detector. Calculations of the momentum in three dimensions may be used to determine the angular dependence of dissociative attachment as well as the energetics of the reaction. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a lens table for a double toroidal electron spectrometer

    Page(s): 033105 - 033105-7
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    We report here on the method we developed to build a lens table for a four-element electrostatic transfer lens operated together with a double toroidal electron energy analyzer designed by one of us, and whose original design and further improvements are described in detail in Miron etal [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3728 (1997)] and Le Guen etal [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3885 (2002)]. Both computer simulations and laboratory instrument tuning were performed in order to build this lens table. The obtained result was tested for a broad range of electron kinetic energies and analyzer pass energies. Based on this new lens table, allowing to easily computer control the spectrometer working conditions, we could routinely achieve an electron energy resolution ranging between 0.6% and 0.8% of the analyzer pass energy, while the electron count rate was also significantly improved. The establishment of such a lens table is of high importance to relieve experimentalists from the tedious laboring of the lens optimization, which was previously necessary prior to any measurement. The described method can be adapted to any type of electron/ion energy analyzer, and will thus be interesting for all experimentalists who own, or plan to build or improve their charged particle energy analyzers. View full abstract»

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  • Compact high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography system for multiphase flow studies

    Page(s): 033106 - 033106-10
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    In this paper, a compact high-resolution gamma-ray Computed Tomography (CompaCT) measurement system for multiphase flow studies and tomographic imaging of technical objects is presented. Its compact and robust design makes it particularly suitable for studies on industrial facilities and outdoor applications. Special care has been given to thermal ruggedness, shock resistance, and radiation protection. Main components of the system are a collimated 137Cs isotopic source, a thermally stabilised modular high-resolution gamma-ray detector arc with 112 scintillation detector elements, and a transportable rotary unit. The CompaCT allows full CT scans of objects with a diameter of up to 130 mm and can be operated with any tilting angle from 0° (horizontal) to 90° (vertical). View full abstract»

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  • Broadband wide-angle dispersion measurements: Instrumental setup, alignment, and pitfalls

    Page(s): 033107 - 033107-7
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    The construction, alignment, and performance of a setup for broadband wide-angle dispersion measurements, with emphasis on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements, are presented in comprehensive detail. In contrast with most SPR instruments working with a monochromatic source, this setup takes advantage of a broadband/white light source and has full capability for automated angle vs. wavelength dispersion measurements for any arbitrary nanostructure array. A cylindrical prism is used rather than a triangular one in order to mitigate refraction induced effects and allow for such measurements. Although seemingly simple, this instrument requires use of many non-trivial methods in order to achieve proper alignment over all angles of incidence. Here we describe the alignment procedure for such a setup, the pitfalls introduced from the finite beam width incident onto the cylindrical prism, and deviations in the reflected/transmitted beam resulting from the finite thickness of the sample substrate. We address every one of these issues and provide experimental evidences on the success of this instrument and the alignment procedure used. View full abstract»

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  • Arbitrary waveform generator for quantum information processing with trapped ions

    Page(s): 033108 - 033108-6
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    Atomic ions confined in multi-electrode traps have been proposed as a basis for scalable quantum information processing. This scheme involves transporting ions between spatially distinct locations by use of time-varying electric potentials combined with laser or microwave pulses for quantum logic in specific locations. We report the development of a fast multi-channel arbitrary waveform generator for applying the time-varying electric potentials used for transport and for shaping quantum logic pulses. The generator is based on a field-programmable gate array controlled ensemble of 16-bit digital-to-analog converters with an update frequency of 50 MHz and an output range of ±10 V. The update rate of the waveform generator is much faster than relevant motional frequencies of the confined ions in our experiments, allowing diabatic control of the ion motion. Numerous pre-loaded sets of time-varying voltages can be selected with 40 ns latency conditioned on real-time signals. Here we describe the device and demonstrate some of its uses in ion-based quantum information experiments, including speed-up of ion transport and the shaping of laser and microwave pulses. View full abstract»

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  • A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source

    Page(s): 033301 - 033301-7
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    Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms/molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms/molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of 14O (71 s), 42K (12.4 h), 43K (22.2 h), and 41Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 103 particles per second (pps). About 3.2 × 103 pps of 1.4 MeV 14O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future. View full abstract»

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  • A flash-lamp based device for fluorescence detection and identification of individual pollen grains

    Page(s): 033302 - 033302-7
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    We present a novel optical aerosol particle detector based on Xe flash lamp excitation and spectrally resolved fluorescence acquisition. We demonstrate its performances on three natural pollens acquiring in real-time scattering intensity at two wavelengths, sub-microsecond time-resolved scattering traces of the particles’ passage in the focus, and UV-excited fluorescence spectra. We show that the device gives access to a rather specific detection of the bioaerosol particles. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation and optimization of a 10 A electron gun with electrostatic compression for the electron beam ion source

    Page(s): 033303 - 033303-5
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    Increasing the current density of the electron beam in the ion trap of the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) in BNL's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider facility would confer several essential benefits. They include increasing the ions’ charge states, and therefore, the ions’ energy out of the Booster for NASA applications, reducing the influx of residual ions in the ion trap, lowering the average power load on the electron collector, and possibly also reducing the emittance of the extracted ion beam. Here, we discuss our findings from a computer simulation of an electron gun with electrostatic compression for electron current up to 10 A that can deliver a high-current-density electron beam for EBIS. The magnetic field in the cathode-anode gap is formed with a magnetic shield surrounding the gun electrodes and the residual magnetic field on the cathode is (5 ÷ 6) Gs. It was demonstrated that for optimized gun geometry within the electron beam current range of (0.5 ÷ 10) A the amplitude of radial beam oscillations can be maintained close to 4% of the beam radius by adjusting the injection magnetic field generated by a separate magnetic coil. Simulating the performance of the gun by varying geometrical parameters indicated that the original gun model is close to optimum and the requirements to the precision of positioning the gun elements can be easily met with conventional technology. View full abstract»

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  • Key elements of space charge compensation on a low energy high intensity beam injector

    Page(s): 033304 - 033304-5
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    Space charge effect (SCE) along the beam line will decrease beam quality. Space charge compensation (SCC) with extra gas injection is a high-efficiency method to reduce SCE. In this paper, we will report the experimental results on the beam profile, potential distribution, beam emittance, and beam transmission efficiency of a 35 keV/90 mA H+ beam and a 40 keV/10 mA He+ beam compensated by Ar/Kr. The influence of gas type, gas flow, and injection location will be discussed. Emphasis is laid on the consideration of SCC when designing and commissioning a high intensity ion beam injector. Based on measured data, a new definition of space charge compensation degree is proposed. View full abstract»

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  • A large-acceptance beam-deceleration module for retrofitting into ion-source beam lines

    Page(s): 033305 - 033305-7
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    We describe a large-acceptance deceleration module capable of decelerating large-emittance full-intensity ion beams typical of ECR ion sources to very low energies with high efficiency. The deceleration module is designed to permit convenient retrofitting into an existing beam line to replace, e.g., the first Faraday cup after magnetic analysis of the beam extracted from the ion source. For starting energies of 10 keV, and incident ion currents as large as 300 μA, deceleration efficiencies have been measured to be greater than 80% for final energies as low as 70 eV. The decelerated beam intensity can be monitored either by insertion of a beam catcher floating at the final deceleration voltage or from the current to the exit grid itself, with suitable correction applied for the grid transparency factor. The behavior of the deceleration optics was modeled using SIMION, incorporating the effects of intra-beam space charge repulsion. We describe a recent application of this deceleration module to study near-surface He bubble and blister formation of a W target heated to 1250 K and irradiated with a 98 eV He ion beam with a flux of ∼1016 cm-2 s-1. View full abstract»

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  • A low energy beam transport system for proton beam

    Page(s): 033306 - 033306-5
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    A low energy beam transport (LEBT) system has been built for a compact pulsed hadron source (CPHS) at Tsinghua University in China. The LEBT, consisting of two solenoids and three short-drift sections, transports a pulsed proton beam of 60 mA of energy of 50 keV to the entrance of a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). Measurement has shown a normalized RMS beam emittance less than 0.2 π mm mrad at the end of the LEBT. Beam simulations were carried out to compare with the measurement and are in good agreement. Based on the successful CPHS LEBT development, a new LEBT for a China ADS projector has been designed. The features of the new design, including a beam chopper and beam simulations of the LEBT are presented and discussed along with CPHS LEBT development in this article. View full abstract»

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  • Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    Page(s): 033501 - 033501-7
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    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage (∼100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device. View full abstract»

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  • Scanning retarding field analyzer for plasma profile measurements in the boundary of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Page(s): 033502 - 033502-14
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    A new Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) head has been created for the outer-midplane scanning probe system on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The new probe head contains back-to-back retarding field analyzers aligned with the local magnetic field. One faces “upstream” into the field-aligned plasma flow and the other faces “downstream” away from the flow. The RFA was created primarily to benchmark ion temperature measurements of an ion sensitive probe; it may also be used to interrogate electrons. However, its construction is robust enough to be used to measure ion and electron temperatures up to the last-closed flux surface in C-Mod. A RFA probe of identical design has been attached to the side of a limiter to explore direct changes to the boundary plasma due to lower hybrid heating and current drive. Design of the high heat flux (>100 MW/m2) handling probe and initial results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal neutron detection using a silicon pad detector and 6LiF removable converters

    Page(s): 033503 - 033503-7
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    A semiconductor detector coupled with a neutron converter is a good candidate for neutron detection, especially for its compactness and reliability if compared with other devices, such as 3He tubes, even though its intrinsic efficiency is rather lower. In this paper we show a neutron detector design consisting of a 3 cm × 3 cm silicon pad detector coupled with one or two external 6LiF layers, enriched in 6Li at 95%, placed in contact with the Si active surfaces. This prototype, first characterized and tested at INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and then at JRC Ispra, was successfully shown to detect thermal neutrons with the expected efficiency and an outstanding gamma rejection capability. View full abstract»

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  • A compact capacitive probe for high-voltage diagnostic in Z-pinches

    Page(s): 033504 - 033504-4
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    A capacitive divider was arranged on Qiangguang pulsed power generator during a series of wire-array Z-pinch experiments. This divider was designed to measure the voltage acted on the gap of the cathode and anode boards. The probe has a compact construction and is conveniently assembled on the facility. It is also a cheap voltage probe and easy to build by research groups. The probe can monitor a 1 MV high voltage with a 100 ns rise time. The calibration results showed that the probe had an attenuation ratio of 3.3 × 105 and a response time less than 5 ns. The uncertainty was estimated to be 3%. View full abstract»

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  • A microwave interferometer for small and tenuous plasma density measurements

    Page(s): 033505 - 033505-7
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    The non-intrusive density measurement of the thin plasma produced by a mini-helicon space thruster (HPH.com project) is a challenge, due to the broad density range (between 1016 m-3 and 1019 m-3) and the small size of the plasma source (2 cm of diameter). A microwave interferometer has been developed for this purpose. Due to the small size of plasma, the probing beam wavelength must be small (λ = 4 mm), thus a very high sensitivity interferometer is required in order to observe the lower density values. A low noise digital phase detector with a phase noise of 0.02° has been used, corresponding to a density of 0.5 × 1016 m-3. View full abstract»

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  • A compact stilbene crystal neutron spectrometer for EAST D-D plasma neutron diagnostics

    Page(s): 033506 - 033506-7
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    A new compact stilbene crystal neutron spectrometer has been investigated and applied in the neutron emission spectroscopy on the EAST tokamak. A new components analysis method is presented to study the anisotropic light output in the stilbene crystal detector. A Geant4 code was developed to simulate the neutron responses in the spectrometer. Based on both the optimal light output function and the fitted pulse height resolution function, a reliable neutron response matrix was obtained by Geant4 simulations and validated by 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV neutron measurements at a 4.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The spectrometer was used to diagnose the ion temperature in plasma discharges with lower hybrid wave injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating on the EAST tokamak. View full abstract»

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  • Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope

    Page(s): 033701 - 033701-7
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    Synchrotron based x-ray microscopy established itself as a prominent tool for noninvasive investigations in many areas of science and technology. Many facilities around the world routinely achieve sub-micrometer resolution with a few instruments capable of imaging with the spatial resolution better than 100 nm. With an ongoing effort to push the 2D/3D resolution down to 10 nm in the hard x-ray regime both fabrication of the nano-focusing optics and stability of a microscope become extremely challenging. In this work we present our approach to overcome technical challenges on the path towards high spatial resolution hard x-ray microscopy and demonstrate the performance of a scanning fluorescence microscope equipped with the multilayer Laue lenses focusing optics. View full abstract»

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  • An active one-particle microrheometer: Incorporating magnetic tweezers to total internal reflection microscopy

    Page(s): 033702 - 033702-9
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    We present a novel microrheometer by incorporating magnetic tweezers in the total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) that enables measuring of viscoelastic properties of materials near solid surface. An evanescent wave generated by a solid/liquid interface in the TIRM is used as the incident light source in the microrheometer. When a probe particle (of a few micrometers diameter) moves near the interface, it can interact with the evanescent field and reflect its position with respect to the interface by the scattered light intensity. The exponential distance dependence of the evanescent field, on the one hand, makes this technique extremely sensitive to small changes from z-fluctuations of the probe (with a resolution of several nanometers), and on the other, it does not require imaging of the probe with high lateral resolution. Another distinct advantage is the high sensitivity in determining the z position of the probe in the absence of any labeling. The incorporated magnetic tweezers enable us to effectively manipulate the distance of the embedded particle from the interface either by a constant or an oscillatory force. The force ramp is easy to implement through a coil current ramp. In this way, the local viscous and elastic properties of a given system under different confinements can therefore be measured by resolving the near-surface particle motion. To test the feasibility of applying this microrheology to soft materials, we measured the viscoelastic properties of sucrose and poly(ethylene glycol) solutions and compared the results to bulk rheometry. In addition, we applied this technique in monitoring the structure and properties of deformable microgel particles near the flat surface. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a scanning gate microscope for mesoscopic electron systems in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator

    Page(s): 033703 - 033703-11
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    We report on our design of a scanning gate microscope housed in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator with a base temperature of 15 mK. The recent increase in efficiency of pulse tube cryocoolers has made cryogen-free systems popular in recent years. However, this new style of cryostat presents challenges for performing scanning probe measurements, mainly as a result of the vibrations introduced by the cryocooler. We demonstrate scanning with root-mean-square vibrations of 0.8 nm at 3 K and 2.1 nm at 15 mK in a 1 kHz bandwidth with our design. Using Coulomb blockade thermometry on a GaAs/AlGaAs gate-defined quantum dot, we demonstrate an electron temperature of 45 mK. View full abstract»

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  • Surface-sensitive conductivity measurement using a micro multi-point probe approach

    Page(s): 033901 - 033901-8
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    An instrument for microscale electrical transport measurements in ultra-high vacuum is presented. The setup is constructed around collinear lithographically-created multi-point probes with a contact spacing down to 500 nm. Most commonly, twelve-point probes are used. These probes are approached to the surface via piezoelectric positioners. Standard four-point resistance measurements can be performed using any combination of contacts out of the twelve available. Current/voltage measurements are taken semi-automatically for a variety of the possible contact configurations, effectively emulating measurements with an equidistant four-point probe for a wide range of contact spacings. In this way, it is possible to distinguish between bulk-like and surface-like conduction. The paper describes the design of the instrument and the approach to data and error analysis. Application examples are given for epitaxial graphene on SiC and degenerately doped Bi2Se3. View full abstract»

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  • An experimental system for high temperature X-ray diffraction studies with in situ mechanical loading

    Page(s): 033902 - 033902-12
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    An experimental system with in situ thermomechanical loading has been developed to enable high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies of crystalline materials. The system applies and maintains loads of up to 2250 N in uniaxial tension or compression at a frequency of up to 100 Hz. The furnace heats the specimen uniformly up to a maximum temperature of 1200 °C in a variety of atmospheres (oxidizing, inert, reducing) that, combined with in situ mechanical loading, can be used to mimic processing and operating conditions of engineering components. The loaded specimen is reoriented with respect to the incident beam of x-rays using two rotational axes to increase the number of crystal orientations interrogated. The system was used at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source to conduct experiments on single crystal silicon and polycrystalline Low Solvus High Refractory nickel-based superalloy. The data from these experiments provide new insights into how stresses evolve at the crystal scale during thermomechanical loading and complement the development of high-fidelity material models. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Review of Scientific Instruments, published by the American Institute of Physics, is devoted to scientific instruments, apparatus, and techniques.

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Albert T. Macrander
Argonne National Laboratory