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Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date April 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • [Table of contents]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): c1
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    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): c2
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  • A Globally-Variant Locally-Constant Model for Fusion of Labels from Multiple Diverse Experts without Using Reference Labels

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 769 - 783
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1936 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Researchers have shown that fusion of categorical labels from multiple experts - humans or machine classifiers - improves the accuracy and generalizability of the overall classification system. Simple plurality is a popular technique for performing this fusion, but it gives equal importance to labels from all experts, who may not be equally reliable or consistent across the dataset. Estimation of expert reliability without knowing the reference labels is, however, a challenging problem. Most previous works deal with these challenges by modeling expert reliability as constant over the entire data (feature) space. This paper presents a model based on the consideration that in dealing with real-world data, expert reliability is variable over the complete feature space but constant over local clusters of homogeneous instances. This model jointly learns a classifier and expert reliability parameters without assuming knowledge of the reference labels using the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. Classification experiments on simulated data, data from the UCI Machine Learning Repository, and two emotional speech classification datasets show the benefits of the proposed model. Using a metric based on the Jensen-Shannon divergence, we empirically show that the proposed model gives greater benefit for datasets where expert reliability is highly variable over the feature space. View full abstract»

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  • An Automatic Iris Occlusion Estimation Method Based on High-Dimensional Density Estimation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 784 - 796
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    Iris masks play an important role in iris recognition. They indicate which part of the iris texture map is useful and which part is occluded or contaminated by noisy image artifacts such as eyelashes, eyelids, eyeglasses frames, and specular reflections. The accuracy of the iris mask is extremely important. The performance of the iris recognition system will decrease dramatically when the iris mask is inaccurate, even when the best recognition algorithm is used. Traditionally, people used the rule-based algorithms to estimate iris masks from iris images. However, the accuracy of the iris masks generated this way is questionable. In this work, we propose to use Figueiredo and Jain's Gaussian Mixture Models (FJ-GMMs) to model the underlying probabilistic distributions of both valid and invalid regions on iris images. We also explored possible features and found that Gabor Filter Bank (GFB) provides the most discriminative information for our goal. Finally, we applied Simulated Annealing (SA) technique to optimize the parameters of GFB in order to achieve the best recognition rate. Experimental results show that the masks generated by the proposed algorithm increase the iris recognition rate on both ICE2 and UBIRIS dataset, verifying the effectiveness and importance of our proposed method for iris occlusion estimation. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Caption Generation for News Images

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 797 - 812
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1547 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is concerned with the task of automatically generating captions for images, which is important for many image-related applications. Examples include video and image retrieval as well as the development of tools that aid visually impaired individuals to access pictorial information. Our approach leverages the vast resource of pictures available on the web and the fact that many of them are captioned and colocated with thematically related documents. Our model learns to create captions from a database of news articles, the pictures embedded in them, and their captions, and consists of two stages. Content selection identifies what the image and accompanying article are about, whereas surface realization determines how to verbalize the chosen content. We approximate content selection with a probabilistic image annotation model that suggests keywords for an image. The model postulates that images and their textual descriptions are generated by a shared set of latent variables (topics) and is trained on a weakly labeled dataset (which treats the captions and associated news articles as image labels). Inspired by recent work in summarization, we propose extractive and abstractive surface realization models. Experimental results show that it is viable to generate captions that are pertinent to the specific content of an image and its associated article, while permitting creativity in the description. Indeed, the output of our abstractive model compares favorably to handwritten captions and is often superior to extractive methods. View full abstract»

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  • Calibration of Ultrawide Fisheye Lens Cameras by Eigenvalue Minimization

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 813 - 822
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1434 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a new technique for calibrating ultrawide fisheye lens cameras by imposing the constraint that collinear points be rectified to be collinear, parallel lines to be parallel, and orthogonal lines to be orthogonal. Exploiting the fact that line fitting reduces to an eigenvalue problem in 3D, we do a rigorous perturbation analysis to obtain a practical calibration procedure. Doing experiments, we point out that spurious solutions exist if collinearity and parallelism alone are imposed. Our technique has many desirable properties. For example, no metric information is required about the reference pattern or the camera position, and separate stripe patterns can be displayed on a video screen to generate a virtual grid, eliminating the grid point extraction processing. View full abstract»

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  • Comparative Analysis and Fusion of Spatiotemporal Information for Footstep Recognition

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 823 - 834
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4334 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Footstep recognition is a relatively new biometric which aims to discriminate people using walking characteristics extracted from floor-based sensors. This paper reports for the first time a comparative assessment of the spatiotemporal information contained in the footstep signals for person recognition. Experiments are carried out on the largest footstep database collected to date, with almost 20,000 valid footstep signals and more than 120 people. Results show very similar performance for both spatial and temporal approaches (5 to 15 percent EER depending on the experimental setup), and a significant improvement is achieved for their fusion (2.5 to 10 percent EER). The assessment protocol is focused on the influence of the quantity of data used in the reference models, which serves to simulate conditions of different potential applications such as smart homes or security access scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • Explicit Modeling of Human-Object Interactions in Realistic Videos

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 835 - 848
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3034 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We introduce an approach for learning human actions as interactions between persons and objects in realistic videos. Previous work typically represents actions with low-level features such as image gradients or optical flow. In contrast, we explicitly localize in space and track over time both the object and the person, and represent an action as the trajectory of the object w.r.t. to the person position. Our approach relies on state-of-the-art techniques for human detection [32], object detection [10], and tracking [39]. We show that this results in human and object tracks of sufficient quality to model and localize human-object interactions in realistic videos. Our human-object interaction features capture the relative trajectory of the object w.r.t. the human. Experimental results on the Coffee and Cigarettes dataset [25], the video dataset of [19], and the Rochester Daily Activities dataset [29] show that 1) our explicit human-object model is an informative cue for action recognition; 2) it is complementary to traditional low-level descriptors such as 3D--HOG [23] extracted over human tracks. We show that combining our human-object interaction features with 3D-HOG improves compared to their individual performance as well as over the state of the art [23], [29]. View full abstract»

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  • Image Denoising Using the Higher Order Singular Value Decomposition

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 849 - 862
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3154 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a very simple and elegant patch-based, machine learning technique for image denoising using the higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). The technique simply groups together similar patches from a noisy image (with similarity defined by a statistically motivated criterion) into a 3D stack, computes the HOSVD coefficients of this stack, manipulates these coefficients by hard thresholding, and inverts the HOSVD transform to produce the final filtered image. Our technique chooses all required parameters in a principled way, relating them to the noise model. We also discuss our motivation for adopting the HOSVD as an appropriate transform for image denoising. We experimentally demonstrate the excellent performance of the technique on grayscale as well as color images. On color images, our method produces state-of-the-art results, outperforming other color image denoising algorithms at moderately high noise levels. A criterion for optimal patch-size selection and noise variance estimation from the residual images (after denoising) is also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Incremental Learning of 3D-DCT Compact Representations for Robust Visual Tracking

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 863 - 881
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4567 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Visual tracking usually requires an object appearance model that is robust to changing illumination, pose, and other factors encountered in video. Many recent trackers utilize appearance samples in previous frames to form the bases upon which the object appearance model is built. This approach has the following limitations: 1) The bases are data driven, so they can be easily corrupted, and 2) it is difficult to robustly update the bases in challenging situations. In this paper, we construct an appearance model using the 3D discrete cosine transform (3D-DCT). The 3D-DCT is based on a set of cosine basis functions which are determined by the dimensions of the 3D signal and thus independent of the input video data. In addition, the 3D-DCT can generate a compact energy spectrum whose high-frequency coefficients are sparse if the appearance samples are similar. By discarding these high-frequency coefficients, we simultaneously obtain a compact 3D-DCT-based object representation and a signal reconstruction-based similarity measure (reflecting the information loss from signal reconstruction). To efficiently update the object representation, we propose an incremental 3D-DCT algorithm which decomposes the 3D-DCT into successive operations of the 2D discrete cosine transform (2D-DCT) and 1D discrete cosine transform (1D-DCT) on the input video data. As a result, the incremental 3D-DCT algorithm only needs to compute the 2D-DCT for newly added frames as well as the 1D-DCT along the third dimension, which significantly reduces the computational complexity. Based on this incremental 3D-DCT algorithm, we design a discriminative criterion to evaluate the likelihood of a test sample belonging to the foreground object. We then embed the discriminative criterion into a particle filtering framework for object state inference over time. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed tracker. View full abstract»

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  • Monocular Visual Scene Understanding: Understanding Multi-Object Traffic Scenes

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 882 - 897
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5788 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Following recent advances in detection, context modeling, and tracking, scene understanding has been the focus of renewed interest in computer vision research. This paper presents a novel probabilistic 3D scene model that integrates state-of-the-art multiclass object detection, object tracking and scene labeling together with geometric 3D reasoning. Our model is able to represent complex object interactions such as inter-object occlusion, physical exclusion between objects, and geometric context. Inference in this model allows us to jointly recover the 3D scene context and perform 3D multi-object tracking from a mobile observer, for objects of multiple categories, using only monocular video as input. Contrary to many other approaches, our system performs explicit occlusion reasoning and is therefore capable of tracking objects that are partially occluded for extended periods of time, or objects that have never been observed to their full extent. In addition, we show that a joint scene tracklet model for the evidence collected over multiple frames substantially improves performance. The approach is evaluated for different types of challenging onboard sequences. We first show a substantial improvement to the state of the art in 3D multipeople tracking. Moreover, a similar performance gain is achieved for multiclass 3D tracking of cars and trucks on a challenging dataset. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple Target Tracking by Learning-Based Hierarchical Association of Detection Responses

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 898 - 910
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4122 KB)  

    We propose a hierarchical association approach to multiple target tracking from a single camera by progressively linking detection responses into longer track fragments (i.e., tracklets). Given frame-by-frame detection results, a conservative dual-threshold method that only links very similar detection responses between consecutive frames is adopted to generate initial tracklets with minimum identity switches. Further association of these highly fragmented tracklets at each level of the hierarchy is formulated as a Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) problem that considers initialization, termination, and transition of tracklets as well as the possibility of them being false alarms, which can be efficiently computed by the Hungarian algorithm. The tracklet affinity model, which measures the likelihood of two tracklets belonging to the same target, is a linear combination of automatically learned weak nonparametric models upon various features, which is distinct from most of previous work that relies on heuristic selection of parametric models and manual tuning of their parameters. For this purpose, we develop a novel bag ranking method and train the crucial tracklet affinity models by the boosting algorithm. This bag ranking method utilizes the soft max function to relax the oversufficient objective function used by the conventional instance ranking method. It provides a tighter upper bound of empirical errors in distinguishing correct associations from the incorrect ones, and thus yields more accurate tracklet affinity models for the tracklet association problem. We apply this approach to the challenging multiple pedestrian tracking task. Systematic experiments conducted on two real-life datasets show that the proposed approach outperforms previous state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of tracking accuracy, in particular, considerably reducing fragmentations and identity switches. View full abstract»

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  • Optimizing Nondecomposable Loss Functions in Structured Prediction

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 911 - 924
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1719 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We develop an algorithm for structured prediction with nondecomposable performance measures. The algorithm learns parameters of Markov Random Fields (MRFs) and can be applied to multivariate performance measures. Examples include performance measures such as $(F_{beta })$ score (natural language processing), intersection over union (object category segmentation), Precision/Recall at k (search engines), and ROC area (binary classifiers). We attack this optimization problem by approximating the loss function with a piecewise linear function. The loss augmented inference forms a Quadratic Program (QP), which we solve using LP relaxation. We apply this approach to two tasks: object class-specific segmentation and human action retrieval from videos. We show significant improvement over baseline approaches that either use simple loss functions or simple scoring functions on the PASCAL VOC and H3D Segmentation datasets, and a nursing home action recognition dataset. View full abstract»

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  • Orientation Field Estimation for Latent Fingerprint Enhancement

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 925 - 940
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
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    Identifying latent fingerprints is of vital importance for law enforcement agencies to apprehend criminals and terrorists. Compared to live-scan and inked fingerprints, the image quality of latent fingerprints is much lower, with complex image background, unclear ridge structure, and even overlapping patterns. A robust orientation field estimation algorithm is indispensable for enhancing and recognizing poor quality latents. However, conventional orientation field estimation algorithms, which can satisfactorily process most live-scan and inked fingerprints, do not provide acceptable results for most latents. We believe that a major limitation of conventional algorithms is that they do not utilize prior knowledge of the ridge structure in fingerprints. Inspired by spelling correction techniques in natural language processing, we propose a novel fingerprint orientation field estimation algorithm based on prior knowledge of fingerprint structure. We represent prior knowledge of fingerprints using a dictionary of reference orientation patches. which is constructed using a set of true orientation fields, and the compatibility constraint between neighboring orientation patches. Orientation field estimation for latents is posed as an energy minimization problem, which is solved by loopy belief propagation. Experimental results on the challenging NIST SD27 latent fingerprint database and an overlapped latent fingerprint database demonstrate the advantages of the proposed orientation field estimation algorithm over conventional algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Visual Tracking Using an Adaptive Coupled-Layer Visual Model

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 941 - 953
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3442 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the problem of tracking objects which undergo rapid and significant appearance changes. We propose a novel coupled-layer visual model that combines the target's global and local appearance by interlacing two layers. The local layer in this model is a set of local patches that geometrically constrain the changes in the target's appearance. This layer probabilistically adapts to the target's geometric deformation, while its structure is updated by removing and adding the local patches. The addition of these patches is constrained by the global layer that probabilistically models the target's global visual properties, such as color, shape, and apparent local motion. The global visual properties are updated during tracking using the stable patches from the local layer. By this coupled constraint paradigm between the adaptation of the global and the local layer, we achieve a more robust tracking through significant appearance changes. We experimentally compare our tracker to 11 state-of-the-art trackers. The experimental results on challenging sequences confirm that our tracker outperforms the related trackers in many cases by having a smaller failure rate as well as better accuracy. Furthermore, the parameter analysis shows that our tracker is stable over a range of parameter values. View full abstract»

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  • Spectral 6DOF Registration of Noisy 3D Range Data with Partial Overlap

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 954 - 969
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present Spectral Registration with Multilayer Resampling (SRMR) as a 6 Degrees Of Freedom (DOF) registration method for noisy 3D data with partial overlap. The algorithm is based on decoupling 3D rotation from 3D translation by a corresponding resampling process of the spectral magnitude of a 3D Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) calculation on discretized 3D range data. The registration of all 6DOF is then subsequently carried out with spectral registrations using Phase Only Matched Filtering (POMF). There are two main aspects for the fast and robust registration of Euler angles from spherical information in SRMR. First of all, there is the permanent use of phase matching. Second, based on the FFT on a discrete Cartesian grid, not only one spherical layer but also a complete stack of layers are processed in one step. Experiments are presented with challenging datasets with respect to interference and overlap. The results include the fast and robust registration of artificially transformed data for ground-truth comparison, scans from the Stanford Bunny dataset, high end 3D laser range finder (LRF) scans of a city center, and range data from a low-cost actuated LRF in a disaster response scenario. View full abstract»

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  • Support Vector Shape: A Classifier-Based Shape Representation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 970 - 982
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1692 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We introduce a novel implicit representation for 2D and 3D shapes based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) theory. Each shape is represented by an analytic decision function obtained by training SVM, with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel so that the interior shape points are given higher values. This empowers support vector shape (SVS) with multifold advantages. First, the representation uses a sparse subset of feature points determined by the support vectors, which significantly improves the discriminative power against noise, fragmentation, and other artifacts that often come with the data. Second, the use of the RBF kernel provides scale, rotation, and translation invariant features, and allows any shape to be represented accurately regardless of its complexity. Finally, the decision function can be used to select reliable feature points. These features are described using gradients computed from highly consistent decision functions instead from conventional edges. Our experiments demonstrate promising results. View full abstract»

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  • 3D Stochastic Completion Fields for Mapping Connectivity in Diffusion MRI

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 983 - 995
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (811 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The 2D stochastic completion field algorithm, introduced by Williams and Jacobs [1], [2], uses a directional random walk to model the prior probability of completion curves in the plane. This construct has had a powerful impact in computer vision, where it has been used to compute the shapes of likely completion curves between edge fragments in visual imagery. Motivated by these developments, we extend the algorithm to 3D, using a spherical harmonics basis to achieve a rotation invariant computational solution to the Fokker-Planck equation describing the evolution of the probability density function underlying the model. This provides a principled way to compute 3D completion patterns and to derive connectivity measures for orientation data in 3D, as arises in 3D tracking, motion capture, and medical imaging. We demonstrate the utility of the approach for the particular case of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging, where we derive connectivity maps for synthetic data, on a physical phantom and on an in vivo high angular resolution diffusion image of a human brain. View full abstract»

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  • Visual Saliency Based on Scale-Space Analysis in the Frequency Domain

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 996 - 1010
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4307 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We address the issue of visual saliency from three perspectives. First, we consider saliency detection as a frequency domain analysis problem. Second, we achieve this by employing the concept of nonsaliency. Third, we simultaneously consider the detection of salient regions of different size. The paper proposes a new bottom-up paradigm for detecting visual saliency, characterized by a scale-space analysis of the amplitude spectrum of natural images. We show that the convolution of the image amplitude spectrum with a low-pass Gaussian kernel of an appropriate scale is equivalent to an image saliency detector. The saliency map is obtained by reconstructing the 2D signal using the original phase and the amplitude spectrum, filtered at a scale selected by minimizing saliency map entropy. A Hypercomplex Fourier Transform performs the analysis in the frequency domain. Using available databases, we demonstrate experimentally that the proposed model can predict human fixation data. We also introduce a new image database and use it to show that the saliency detector can highlight both small and large salient regions, as well as inhibit repeated distractors in cluttered images. In addition, we show that it is able to predict salient regions on which people focus their attention. View full abstract»

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  • Wang-Landau Monte Carlo-Based Tracking Methods for Abrupt Motions

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1011 - 1024
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2364 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a novel tracking algorithm based on the Wang-Landau Monte Carlo (WLMC) sampling method for dealing with abrupt motions efficiently. Abrupt motions cause conventional tracking methods to fail because they violate the motion smoothness constraint. To address this problem, we introduce the Wang-Landau sampling method and integrate it into a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)-based tracking framework. By employing the novel density-of-states term estimated by the Wang-Landau sampling method into the acceptance ratio of MCMC, our WLMC-based tracking method alleviates the motion smoothness constraint and robustly tracks the abrupt motions. Meanwhile, the marginal likelihood term of the acceptance ratio preserves the accuracy in tracking smooth motions. The method is then extended to obtain good performance in terms of scalability, even on a high-dimensional state space. Hence, it covers drastic changes in not only position but also scale of a target. To achieve this, we modify our method by combining it with the N-fold way algorithm and present the N-Fold Wang-Landau (NFWL)-based tracking method. The N-fold way algorithm helps estimate the density-of-states with a smaller number of samples. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach efficiently samples the states of the target, even in a whole state space, without loss of time, and tracks the target accurately and robustly when position and scale are changing severely. View full abstract»

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  • [Back inside cover]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): c3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE

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The IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI) is published monthly. Its editorial board strives to present most important research results in areas within TPAMI's scope.

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Editor-in-Chief
David A. Forsyth
University of Illinois