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By Topic

Electronics Letters

Issue 3 • Date Jan. 31 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 45
  • In brief

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 164
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  • Interview

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 164
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (109 KB)  

    Prof. Jonathon Chambers talks about the research behind the Letter 'A Complex Adaptive Notch Filter Structure for Tracking Multiple Complex Sinusoidal Signals' on page 179. View full abstract»

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  • See your true colours

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 165
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (347 KB)  

    Colour vision through retinal prostheses could be possible thanks to a new conversion method presented by researchers at Newcastle University. View full abstract»

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  • Filters - transform!

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 166
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (471 KB)  

    Researchers at Uppsala University in Sweden have designed and fabricated a device that acts as both a voltage transformer and as a bandpass radiofrequency (RF) filter - a transfilter. As well as the obvious benefits such a device offers, their design is also integrable and very efficient at high frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • Solid state switch for gigahertz coded signal ultrasound microscopy

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 169 - 170
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)  

    Presented is a solution for ultrasonic microscopy that permits using coded gigahertz signals. It features a high frequency arbitrary signal source (upconverted quadrature I-Q modulation), a solid state switch, and a preamplifier. Commercial 3 GHz solid state switches that handle 15 Vpp signals and a 0.01-1.2 GHz low noise preamplifier (3.3 dB noise figure) were used, all developed for wireless networking. The device was validated with a custom built ultrasound immersion microscope by imaging a 5 μm-tall MEMS step structure using 100-300 MHz, 3 μs, 10.5 Vpp linear chirp excitation. View full abstract»

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  • Temperature-compensated BAW orientations over 500°C on LGT for frequency control and sensor applications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 170 - 171
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (190 KB)  

    Recently extracted langatate (LGT) elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric constants up to 900°C were utilised to predict the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) orientations. A range of LGT BAW orientations were identified with turnover temperatures between 100 and 550°C for use in high-temperature sensor and frequency control applications. In addition, the piezoelectric coupling of the identified orientations was investigated to determine the preferred cuts for high-temperature operation. View full abstract»

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  • Wideband dual-polarised electromagnetic-fed patch antenna with high isolation and low cross-polarisation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 171 - 173
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (478 KB)  

    A wideband dual-polarised patch antenna with high isolation and a low cross-polarisation level is presented. Two orthogonal linearly-polarised modes are excited by the electromagnetic-fed structure. One of the two modes is excited by a pair of hook-shaped probes with a 180o phase difference; while the other is excited by a magnetic-coupled loop, which is comprised of a metal loop and an open-ended transmission line. By introducing two shorting pins, the isolation between two feeding ports can be enhanced to more than 40 dB. Moreover, the radiation patterns in the ± 45° planes have a cross-polarisation level of less than -30 dB within the 3 dB beam widths. The measured -10 dB reflection coefficients bandwidth of the two modes are 40.7% (2.45-3.7 GHz) and 38.7% (2.6-3.85 GHz). The gains of the proposed antenna are about 8.7 and 9.1 dBi over the operating band. Thus, this antenna is highly suitable for the base station antenna that is required to cover the operating bandwidth of 3.5 GHz WiMAX systems. View full abstract»

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  • Address event representation neuromorphics to epiretinal colour vision

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 173 - 174
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (157 KB)  

    Presented is a methodology of conversion of a conventional colour measure, e.g. 24-bit colour, to a neuromorphic representation for use with epiretinal prostheses. The conversion implemented, for a 4 by 4 image, within a field programmable gate array outputs three groups of timing signals. These three groups correspond to red (R), green (G) and blue (B) colour channels. In future work the channels will input to a retinal implant stimulator, via a receiver chip housed over the earlobe of a prosthesis recipient, to form biphasic pulses to drive electrodes stimulating the axons of colour specific retinal ganglion cells. A test setup was used to encode the hue pulses back to intensity to display test images on a VGA monitor for validation. View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric sensor for in vivo tissue characterisation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 174 - 176
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (253 KB)  

    The design of a simple dielectric sensor for in vivo tissue dielectric property measurement is provided. The design is based on an impedance sensor. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical stimulation of mental nerve to produce inhibitory action in bruxism treatment

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 176 - 177
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (215 KB)  

    Bruxism is an excessive clenching and involuntary parafunctional grinding of the teeth during sleep. It can cause damage to dental structures and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. An evaluation was performed on the effects over the masseter and temporalis anterior muscles in subjects with and without bruxism when electrical stimulation is applied to the right mental nerve. The results showed that, on average, the percentage decrease in the bruxist group for the right masseter was 25.02% and for the left masseter 25.87%. These results indicate that the inhibitory system produces an important decrease in the electrical activity of the two muscles, so it is a good starting point for a possible treatment in patients with bruxism and to develop new electronic stimulators. View full abstract»

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  • Noise reduction for ellipse fitting on medical images

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 178 - 179
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (241 KB)  

    Proposed is a simple yet effective method to reduce noise for ellipse fitting to scattered data on medical images. The method is developed specifically to address the challenge due to variation in the sharpness, magnitude and continuity of edges, when studying the medical images of a large population. The proposed method exploits prior knowledge to eliminate the inhomogeneity within the region of interest, and uses a k-means clustering technique to eliminate background noise. The objective is to create a `noise-free` edge map for ellipse fitting. The method has been applied to retinal fundus images for optic-disc segmentation. Experiment results demonstrate the benefits of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Complex adaptive notch filter structure for tracking multiple complex sinusoidal signals

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 179 - 181
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    A new type of complex adaptive notch filter is developed, which is capable of tracking multiple complex sinusoidal signals. The proposed complex structure is developed from an all-pass design based on a structurally lossless prototype, which is canonic in the number of multipliers and delay elements. The learning algorithm is based upon output error calculation, and is better matched for tracking closely located signal frequencies than a recently introduced approach of Regalia. View full abstract»

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  • Grid adaptive interpolation filters

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 181 - 182
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (117 KB)  

    A general framework for image interpolation in a uniformly spaced image grid is presented. The proposed formulation is suitable for representing fractional (or sub-pixel) pixels as well as integer pixel interpolations. Also, by fitting an interpolation kernel to the grid formulation, finite impulse response filter coefficients can be readily determined for a given sampling interval and filter length. As an example, a four-tap lowpass filter is derived by fitting the Lagrange interpolation kernel to a row (or column) expansion by 2 on integer pixel locations. View full abstract»

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  • Noise-shaping SAR ADC using three capacitors

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 182 - 184
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (510 KB)  

    A simple and highly efficient successive-approximation registers (SAR) ADC realisation is proposed. It requires an opamp, a comparator and only three equal-valued capacitors. The proposed scheme is insensitive to the capacitor parasitics, and has a small capacitance spread. With an oversampled scheme, it also allows noise-shaping the remaining quantisation error. It is well-suited for low-frequency instrumentation and measurement applications, and for use in extended-counting ADCs. View full abstract»

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  • Compressive sensing via reweighted TV and nonlocal sparsity regularisation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 184 - 186
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (126 KB)  

    Total variation (TV) regularisation has been widely used for compressive sensing (CS) reconstruction. However, since TV regularisers favour piecewise constant solutions, they tend to produce over-smoothed image edges. To overcome this drawback, proposed is a novel iteratively reweighted TV regulariser for CS reconstruction. Spatially adaptive weights are computed towards a maximum a posteriori estimation of the image gradients. To exploit the nonlocal redundancy, effective nonlocal sparsity regularisation has also been introduced into the proposed objective function. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CS reconstruction method outperforms significantly existing TV-based CS reconstruction methods. View full abstract»

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  • Motion pattern analysis using partial trajectories for abnormal movement detection in crowded scenes

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 186 - 187
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (394 KB)  

    A motion pattern analysis method for abnormal movement detection is introduced. It analyses motion patterns and detects abnormal movement using partial trajectories, which can be obtained in crowded scenes and are more effective than local motion. In addition, the proposed method is able to deal with noisy data, which is a major cause of false alarms. The experimental results from real-world traffic scene datasets show that the proposed method improves on previous, local motion-based methods. View full abstract»

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  • Nonparametric sparse discriminant analysis for dimensionality reduction - RETRACTED

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 187 - 189
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (24 KB)  
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  • Pixel-domain Wyner-Ziv residual video coder with adaptive binary-to-Gray code converting process

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 189 - 190
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB)  

    A pixel-domain Wyner-Ziv residual video coding scheme is presented. In this scheme, based on the statistical distribution characteristics of the residual signal, an adaptive binary-to-Gray code converting process is designed so that virtual channel noises can be lowered over bit-planes. Through simulations, it is shown that the best case performs better than the DISCOVER scheme as well as the worst case. View full abstract»

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  • Initial settings of Berlekamp-Massey algorithm for efficient hardware implementation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 190 - 191
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (65 KB)  

    The Berlekamp-Massey (BM) algorithm is a well-known decoding approach for solving the key equation in Reed-Solomon decoding. Many efficient BM-based algorithms and architectures have been presented in recent years. Introduced are different initial settings of the BM algorithm that can reduce cost and power consumption for VLSI implementation. In addition, the new initialisation scheme eliminates one iteration of the algorithm, thus lowering computational complexity. View full abstract»

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  • Parzen classification in generalised dissimilarity spaces

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 192 - 193
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (278 KB)  

    The dissimilarity representation for pattern recognition has proved to be a feasible alternative to the traditional feature based approach. It is shown that the application of the Parzen classifier, in the so-called generalised dissimilarity space by feature lines, may improve the recognition performance obtained by other classification rules in the original dissimilarity space and in the generalised dissimilarity space. View full abstract»

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  • Tri-band filter using combined E-type resonators

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 193 - 194
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (325 KB)  

    A compact microstrip tri-band bandpass filter using novel combined E-type resonators (CETRs) is presented. The CETR consists of a quarter-wavelength (λ/4) stepped-impedance resonator (SIR) and a quarter-wavelength (λ/4) unit impedance resonator through a via-hole. These two components are relatively independent. The first and the third passband centre frequencies can be flexibly controlled by tuning the impedance ratio RZ of the SIR, whereas the second passband frequency is fixed. The centre frequency of the second passband can be independently controlled by tuning the lengths of L2. The filter is designed to operate at 1.95, 5.2, and 3.5 GHz. The simulated and measured results show good agreement. View full abstract»

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  • Broadband permittivity measurement of dielectric materials using discontinuity in substrate integrated waveguide

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 194 - 196
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (358 KB)  

    The substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) is exploited for the broadband determination of the complex dielectric permittivity of lossy material. The effective measurement frequency covers the passband of the fundamental mode in the SIW. This method is an operative technique for characterising the material in millimetre-waves. View full abstract»

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  • Diode power detector X-parametersTM model extraction using LSNA-based measurement system

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 196 - 198
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)  

    A study is presented on the problems that may arise when characterising low frequency device behaviour with a large signal network analyser (LSNA)-based measurement system. A diode power detector has been measured and, for the first time, an X-parameters based detector model was extracted from measurements. Difficulties measuring the detector output voltage dependence with baseband impedances, especially when those impedances showed resonant effects, were observed and a method to overcome the problems encountered is presented. The measurement-based detector X-parameters model demonstrated its usefulness to predict power detector behaviour under two-tone excitations and complex loads. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient RF voltage transformer with bandpass filter characteristics

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 198 - 199
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (406 KB)  

    A microwave bandpass filter with a large ratio between the output and the input impedance has been designed and fabricated. Consequently, it functions both as a voltage transformer and a bandpass filter, or transfilter for brevity. It represents a two-port micro-acoustic resonator employing Lamb waves in a thin piezoelectric AlN film grown onto a Si carrier substrate with a centre frequency of around 887 MHz. The transfilter has a transformer ratio of 10 and a voltage efficiency of over 80%. The component has a small size ( <; 0.5 mm2) and is shown to sustain power levels of 250 mW. It can be used in a variety of cases where both voltage amplification and frequency filtering are required. Examples include: charge pumps in RFID tags, energy scavenging, remotely triggered switches, wake-up radios in wireless networks, stand-by units in home electronics etc. View full abstract»

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  • Lowpass filter with reduced fractal defected ground structure

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 199 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  

    Presented is the design of a planar lowpass filter with stubs separated by transmission lines. To minimise dimensions, the filter is completed by a fractal defected-ground structure (DGS). The fractal DGS filter requires a 20% smaller substrate compared to a conventional filter with stubs. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Electronics Letters is internationally renowned for its rapid communication of new developments and emerging topics across the broad and interdisciplinary field of modern electronics and electrical engineering.

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Meet Our Editors

Editors-in-Chief

Professor Chris Toumazou
Director of the Biomedical Institute
Imperial College, London, UK

Professor Ian White
Head of Photonics Research
University of Cambridge, UK