By Topic

Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 2013

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 28
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 273
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (50 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (135 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Analytical and Numerical Study on the Characteristics at the \alpha {-}\gamma Transition Point in Radio-Frequency Helium Discharges at Atmospheric Pressure

    Page(s): 274 - 279
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (581 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is well accepted that increasing the frequency and reducing the electrode gap are effective ways to enhance the discharge stability in atmospheric radio-frequency (rf) discharges. In this paper, we explore a 1-D fluid model to investigate the discharge characteristics when the α-γ mode transition occurs. The differential equation satisfied at the α-γ mode transition point is given based on the governing equations. From the theoretical analysis and computational data, with an increase in the electrode gap, the power density coupled to the plasmas decreases, and the critical electron density modestly increases at the transition point; the electron temperature both in the sheath and bulk plasma decreases as the sheath shrinks. On the other side, as the frequency is raised, just at the mode transition point, the applied voltage reduces, and the plasma density increases almost exponentially with a higher electron temperature in the sheath. From the view point of application, the discharge driven by a high frequency at a narrow gap is desirable to produce a stable and high-density atmospheric plasma with a large power density coupled. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Field-Reversed Configuration Induced by a Paramagnetic Field

    Page(s): 280 - 289
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the possibility of paramagnetic field induction inside a partially ionized and weakly magnetized plasma. The paramagnetic field is driven by the azimuthal Er × B drift, where the radial electric field Er is established as a result of the separation of charged particles induced by axial electron beam injection. Inside the partially ionized and weakly magnetized plasma, the Er × B drift can induce a paramagnetic field Bp with an intensity exceeding that of the external magnetic field Bz. The interaction of these two fields establishes a field-reversed configuration (FRC). The toroidal component of the magnetic field Btor (produced by an axially directed electron beam) is weak when compared with the Bp field. As a result, the proposed device can be treated as having an FRC. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Reflection and Absorption of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in an Inhomogeneous Dissipative Magnetized Plasma Slab

    Page(s): 290 - 295
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (493 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the reflection R and absorption A of an inhomogeneous dissipative magnetized plasma slab irradiated by an s-polarized electromagnetic wave are investigated analytically, and resonant transparency conditions are determined. Here, the direction of the external magnetic field is parallel to the plasma surface. The effects of the incidence angle, the external magnetic field, the electron thermal velocity, and the frequency of the incident wave on reflection and absorption are studied. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Tutorial on the Design of Hole-Slot-Type Cavity Magnetron Using CST Particle Studio

    Page(s): 296 - 304
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2358 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a simple design method for the hole-slot-type cavity magnetron. Our design model includes all principal parts of magnetron, namely, the cathode, the resonant system, the interaction space, and the magnetic circuit. We first find structural, electrical, and magnetic parameters using empirical formulas. Then, using empirical values as initial guesses, we build and simulate the 3-D model of magnetron in CST Particle Studio. In CST, we show that the eigenmode solver is essential for proper mode excitation; then, we use particle tracking and particle-in-cell simulations for the desired magnetron operation. For a fast convergent result, we study the impact of design parameters on the magnetron performance. We apply this design procedure to an X-band hole-slot-type magnetron with eight resonators. We believe that our method provides designers a simple, fast, and reliable tool for hole-slot-type magnetron design. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Optimization of Piezoelectric Resonance Effect in a Piezoelectric Transformer Plasma Source

    Page(s): 305 - 311
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optimization of the piezoelectric resonance effect in a piezoelectric transformer plasma source (PTPS) is investigated. The PTPS utilizes a piezoelectric transformer (PT) effect to generate large electric potentials and aid in plasma formation in the plasma source. Finite-element simulations are used in conjunction with observations of device operation in order to optimize the PT effect used by the plasma source. Simulations were used to determine optimal crystal rotation for electromechanical coupling and evaluate the geometry of the plasma source in order to maximize the generated voltage. Input impedance measurements and an estimate of the mechanical quality were used to verify the effectiveness of device construction changes to reduce mechanical clamping. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Removal of \hbox {NO}_{x} , \hbox {SO}_{2} , and Hg From Simulated Flue Gas by Plasma - Absorption Hybrid System

    Page(s): 312 - 318
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (618 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The simultaneous removal of NOx, SO2, and Hg from simulated flue gas by a plasma-absorption hybrid system was investigated. In the nonthermal plasma reactor, NO could be effectively oxidized to NO2. However, Hg0 oxidation was significantly restrained since NO concentration and its reactivity with O3 are much higher than those of Hg0. In the absorber, SO2 and NO2 were absorbed by (NH4)2 SO3 solution, in which the S(IV) ions (SO32- and HSO3-) were found to be dominant for NO2 absorption. The S(IV) ions were significantly oxidized during the absorption, causing an increase in NO2 concentration with operating time. However, the addition of S2O32- inhibited the S(IV) oxidation and promoted the removal of NO2. With a followed electric mist eliminator, the NH3 slipped from the absorber can be captured, and Hg0 was efficiently oxidized, which can be further removed by water absorption. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Atmospheric Plasma Treatment of Carbon Fibers for Enhancement of Their Adhesion Properties

    Page(s): 319 - 324
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (501 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plasma processing of carbon fibers (CFs) is aimed to provide better contact and adhesion between individual plies without decrease in the CF mechanical resistance. This paper deals with surface modification of CFs by an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) for enhancing the adhesion between the CF and the polymeric matrix. The scanning electron microscopy of the treated samples revealed many small particles distributed over entire surface of the fiber. These particles are product of the fiber surface etching during the DBD treatment that removes the epoxy layer covering as-received samples. The alteration of the CF surface morphology was also confirmed by the Atomic force microscopy (AFM), which indicated that the CF roughness increased as a result of the plasma treatment. The analysis of the surface chemical composition provided by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that oxygen and nitrogen atoms are incorporated onto the surface. The polar oxygen groups formed on the surface lead to the increasing of the CF surface energy. The results of interlaminar shear strength test (short beam) of CFs/polypropylene composites demonstrated a greater shear resistance of the composites made with CFs treated by DBD than the one with untreated fibers. Both the increase in surface roughness and the surface oxidation contribute for the enhancement of CF adhesion properties. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Tooth Bleaching Using Low Concentrations of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Presence of a Nonthermal Plasma Jet

    Page(s): 325 - 329
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (627 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To investigate the tooth bleaching effect of a low concentration hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) assisted by a nonthermal plasma, extracted human teeth were treated by a nonthermal plasma in the presence of varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide gel. The results showed that combining plasma treatment with a low concentration hydrogen peroxide (6%) achieved a superior bleaching effect compared with a high concentration of hydrogen peroxide (35%) in the absence of a plasma. Furthermore, the bleaching efficacy did not significantly increase with increasing H2O2 concentration above 6% in the presence of the plasma. Compared with the control group (hydrogen peroxide without plasma), the plasma generated two to three times as many ·OH radicals, which are believed to be one of the key reactive species that contribute to the bleaching effect. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Ship Propulsion by Underwater Pulsed High-Voltage Streamer Discharge

    Page(s): 330 - 333
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (451 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A concept of ship propulsion by underwater pulsed high-voltage streamer discharge was proposed and has been examined by using anode pins as the propulsion unit of a ship model. The primary experiment proves that the underwater pulsed high-voltage streamer discharge can push the ship model to travel on the water. The maximum travelling speed of the ship model is 2.3 cm/s when propelled by three anode pins at 600-Hz pulse frequency. The propulsion force produced by a single anode pin is of millinewtons order of magnitude. It was found that the maximum travelling speed and the propulsion force could be significantly improved by increasing the number of the anode pins or the pulse frequency. The propulsion efficiency is of 10-7 order of magnitude and can be increased significantly by increasing the number of the anode pins. The most attractive feature of the ship propulsion by underwater pulsed high-voltage streamer discharge is that there is no need for a superconductor magnet. Additionally, the connection between the pulsed high-voltage streamer discharge thruster and the power supply is only by a cable, which can provide more freedom for the layout of the thruster on the ship. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Magnetic-Based Measurements of Tokamak Plasma Equilibrium Parameters

    Page(s): 334 - 340
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The main purpose of this paper is the determination of plasma equilibrium parameters, as well as current density and safety factor profiles, in IR-T1 tokamak. For this purpose, a diamagnetic loop with its compensation coil and an array of magnetic probes were designed, constructed, and installed on the outer surface of the IR-T1 chamber, and then, the poloidal beta and poloidal and radial magnetic fields were measured. Moreover, a few approximate values of the internal inductance for different possible profiles of the plasma current density were also calculated. Then, from these two techniques results, the plasma horizontal displacement was determined. In addition, from the results, the current density and q-profiles were obtained. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A 10 000-Image-per-Second Parallel Algorithm for Real-Time Detection of MARFEs on JET

    Page(s): 341 - 349
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a very high-speed image processing algorithm applied to multi-faceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE) detection on the Joint European Torus. The algorithm was built in serial and parallel versions and written in C/C+ using OpenCV, cvBlob, and LibSVM libraries. The code implemented was characterized by its accuracy and run-time performance. The final result of the parallel version achieves a correct detection rate of 97.6% for MARFE identification and an image processing rate of more than 10 000 frame per second. The parallel version divides the image processing chain into two groups and seven tasks. One group is responsible for Background Image Estimation and Image Binarization modules, and the other is responsible for region Feature Extraction and Pattern Classification. At the same time and to maximize the workload distribution, the parallel code uses data parallelism and pipeline strategies for these two groups, respectively. A master thread is responsible for opening, signaling, and transferring images between both groups. The algorithm has been tested in a dedicated Intel symmetric-multiprocessing computer architecture with a Linux operating system. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Rotational, Vibrational, and Excitation Temperatures in Bipolar Nanosecond-Pulsed Diffuse Dielectric-Barrier-Discharge Plasma at Atmospheric Pressure

    Page(s): 350 - 354
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A bipolar high-voltage pulse with a rising time of 20 ns was employed to generate diffuse dielectric-barrier-discharge plasmas in N2 and air using a wire-plate electrode configuration at atmospheric pressure. Both the discharge images and the optical emission spectra of the discharges were recorded successfully. Rotational, vibrational and excitation temperatures of the diffuse discharges in different discharge parameters and different gaseous admixtures were diagnosed using the means of optical emission spectroscopy. Rotational temperature from 300 to 510 K and vibrational and excitation temperatures from 1600 to 2400 K were measured over all conditions. It is also found that rotational temperature increases with rising pulse peak voltage, pulse repetition rate, and the concentration of admixture of Ar but decreases with rising the concentration of admixture of O2. However, vibrational and excitation temperatures vary completely opposite to rotational temperature. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Reproducibility of Microsecond Self-Breakdown Water Switch With Negative Field Enhancement

    Page(s): 355 - 359
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (979 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on the “QiangGuang-I” facility, three negatively enhanced microsecond water switches are experimentally studied, and their self-breakdown reproducibilities are particularly investigated and compared. Experimental results show that the annular-cathode-plate switch has a lower jitter (about 110 ns) and its lifespan can be up to 100 shots. Moreover, it is found that the close jitter decreases with the increase of negative field-enhancement factor f (the ratio of the maximum electric-field strength to the mean one of the anode-cathode gap). Finally, the experimental phenomena mentioned previously are particularly discussed according to the results of optical (3-5 ns gated charge-coupled device) and electrical diagnostics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A 3-MV Low-Jitter UV-Illumination Switch

    Page(s): 360 - 364
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a wide variety of high-power pulsed devices, the megavolt switch plays a key role in the system performance. A capacitance-resistance coupling structure was designed to produce UV light which triggered the switch to decrease the breakdown jitter. High-speed electrical measurements with a circuit integrating probe in the nanosecond range were employed to measure the voltage before the switch. From the experimental results, the breakdown characteristic of a 3-MV UV-illumination switch was obtained in the range of 1.6-2.5 MV: The jitter of the breakdown voltage is lower than 25 kV, and the jitter of the breakdown time is shorter than 5 ns. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Three-Dimensional FDTD Simulation of Nonlinear Ferroelectric Materials in Rectangular Waveguide

    Page(s): 365 - 370
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (775 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nonlinear transmission lines have numerous applications in the communications and defense industries due to their ability to form and propagate short-duration ultrawideband pulses. This paper simulates a short-duration Gaussian transient exciting low-order TEm,0 modes in a nonlinear ferroelectric-filled conducting waveguide. A 3-D finite-difference time-domain simulation is employed in the analysis, and the ferroelectric-filled waveguide model is based on a nonlinear polarization relationship extrapolated from measurements. A small portion of the frequency band operates in the nonlinear polarization region. These components will propagate at higher velocity than lower amplitude components, and this effect counteracts dispersion and results in compression of the pulses into solitons as they propagate. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Nanosecond-Range Multiple-Pulse Synchronization Controlled by Magnetic Switches Based on a Communal Magnetic Core

    Page(s): 371 - 379
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Initial experimental results of nanosecond-range multiple-pulse synchronization controlled by magnetic switches on a communal magnetic core were presented in detail in this paper. Magnetic switches on a communal core are designed, and different experiments for the multiple-pulse synchronization tests are also put forward. The central principle is that the communal magnetic core compels the multiple magnetic switches saturating at the same time. In the single driving circuit mode, a high-voltage capacitor was employed to discharge to two branches of loads and magnetic switches based on a communal magnetic core, and the average synchronization accuracy of the two magnetic switches was measured at 1.6 ns under 10 shots, with jitter at 0.6 ns. Synchronization accuracies of multiple magnetic switches were also compared under the cases of a communal core and separate cores. Two high-voltage cable lines with the same length were also used as pulse forming lines to discharge to two branches of load resistors and magnetic switches on a communal core, respectively. When a single driving circuit was used for charging, experimental results showed that the average synchronization accuracy of the two magnetic switches was about 2.7 ns under 10 shots, with jitter at about 3.3 ns. Potential applications of the communal-core synchronization technology are also put forward. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Generalized Leonardo da Vinci Rule for the Discharges, Sliding on Electrolyte Surfaces

    Page(s): 380 - 383
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (381 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Photo images of branching discharges and sliding on electrolyte surfaces are presented. Based on the analysis of these images, the diametrical index for the generalized Leonardo da Vinci rule is calculated. It turns out that the value of the diametric index is close to 0.7. We attempt to explain such a low index value. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Kinetic Numerical Simulation of the Cathode Attachment Zone of Constricted High-Current Vacuum Arcs

    Page(s): 384 - 390
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1743 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is devoted to numerical simulation of the cathode attachment zone of constricted high-current vacuum arcs driven by a transverse magnetic field. With help of particle-in-cell and direct simulation Monte Carlo methods, a 1-D model of the attachment zone was developed, and the stationary-cathode-spot mode was investigated. The states of the charged particles and atoms in the Knudsen layer, the ionization layer, and the plasma sheath are determined in detail. The results support the adaptation of simplified cathode attachment models to be able to reduce the computational effort needed for self-consistent numerical simulations of magnetically driven constricted high-current vacuum arcs. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collision Model on GPU—Application to a Low-Temperature Magnetized Plasma

    Page(s): 391 - 399
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1108 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm for the simulation of charged-particle kinetics in plasmas is a very resource consuming method, and high-performance parallel computing is required for practical problems. Graphics processing units (GPUs) are powerful low-cost parallel systems that can be used for intensive computations. We have developed a PIC Monte Carlo collision (MCC) model of a low temperature magnetized plasma using GPUs. We describe how each part of the PIC MCC model is implemented on the GPU and show how particles are dynamically managed. The computational cost of the PIC MCC model on the GPU is compared with a standard PIC MCC model running on a single central processing unit (CPU). We show that speedup can reach from 10 to 20 times compared with a sequential code running on a CPU, depending on the number of cells and particles considered. The results are illustrated with the example of plasma transport across a magnetic filter similar to that of a negative-ion source for the neutral beam injector of fusion devices. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • IEEE Pulsed Power and Plasma Science (PPPS 2013)

    Page(s): 408
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (1881 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Special Issue on Plasma Propulsion 2014

    Page(s): 409
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (350 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Special issue on SOFE 2014

    Page(s): 410
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (242 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Open Access

    Page(s): 411
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (1156 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
1428 Miracerros Loop South
Santa Fe, NM  87505  87505  USA
tps-editor@ieee.org
Phone:505-988-5751
Fax:505-988-5751 (call first)