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Electrical Engineering

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 1953

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 53
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Advertisement - Front inside cover]

    Page(s): c2
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  • Contents

    Page(s): 1
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  • [Advertisements]

    Page(s): 2A
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  • Highlights

    Page(s): 3A
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  • [Advertisements]

    Page(s): 4A - 12A
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  • The international electrotechnical commission

    Page(s): 101 - 104
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    The international electrotechnical commission is concerned with the development of international agreement on electrical standards. The president of the Commission reports herein on actions taken at the organization's recent meetings in Holland. View full abstract»

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  • The oil industry's progress in Louisiana

    Page(s): 104 - 107
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    After placing oil among other energy sources in the world, this article discusses its importance in Louisiana. It gives the location of the oil fields, refineries, and pipe lines, as well as modes of shipment of the major refinery products. View full abstract»

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  • Electric power and the atomic bomb

    Page(s): 108
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    Text of remarks at the ceremony attendant upon the breaking of ground for the Clifty Creek Plant of the Indiana-Kentucky Electric Corporation∗ at Madison, Ind., December 5, 1952. View full abstract»

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  • Radio aids to navigation

    Page(s): 109 - 114
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  • Ground relaying of generators in unit connection

    Page(s): 115
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    A-C GENERATORS in modern power plants usually are operated in unit connection directly on high-voltage bus bars, that is, alternator and transformer form one unit so that the circuit breaker at generator voltage is eliminated. A preferred method of ground protection for such units has been indirect high-resistance neutral grounding by connecting the primary winding of a distribution transformer between generator neutral and ground, and by loading the secondary of this transformer with a resistance of such magnitude that the resulting primary ground current for a solid ground fault at machine terminals becomes 10 to 20 amperes. This grounding method was first suggested1 in this country by L. F. Hunt as a means of minimizing fault damage within generators. The sensitivity of this scheme of protection depends on the lowest permissible pickup current of a relay activated by the current through the resistance. This pickup current indicates the parts of the machine windings which are protected. The straight line in Figure 1 shows that the assumed relay setting would lead to relay operation for faults anywhere between machine terminal (100) and location a, whereas ground faults between the neutral (0) and a would lie in the unprotected or dead zone. View full abstract»

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  • Computers — Past, present, and future

    Page(s): 116 - 121
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    This article deals with the historical development of computers. It also discusses current problems and indicates future structural and functional computer trends which will help to free man from burdensome calculations and increase his material wealth while permitting him more time for pursuits not directly concerned with earning a living. View full abstract»

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  • Residential heat pump experiments — I

    Page(s): 122
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    AS A RESULT of experience in the operation of experimental heat pump systems in Philadelphia, Pa., it has become evident that it is necessary to direct efforts toward improving substantially the annual load factor of electrical service supply to such systems, to overcome the competitive handicaps inherent in utilizing electricity for house heating. The author believes that this objective may be accomplished through the development of economically feasible media for storing heat in sufficient quantities to permit a reduction in the maximum kilowatt demand for electricity of a heat pump system. View full abstract»

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  • Residential heat pump experiments — II

    Page(s): 123
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    EARTH SEEMS to be superior to air or water as a source for heat pumps. Its ambient temperature is higher and less variable than outdoor air, and its use does not involve problems of accessibility or recirculation such as would accompany the use of surface or underground water. However, little factual information has been available on the heat transfer characteristics of the earth, particularly as a heat source. Also, some investigators were apprehensive that prolonged heat withdrawal or absorption would have adverse effects upon the long-term temperature levels in the earth. View full abstract»

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  • Residential heat pump experiments — III

    Page(s): 124
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    IN ORDER TO INVESTIGATE the practicability of using heat pumps for year-round residential heating and cooling in the Philadelphia, Pa., area, two experimental installations were operated for 2 years, using the earth as a heat source and heat sink. View full abstract»

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  • Television in industry

    Page(s): 125 - 130
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    TELEVISION unquestionably has a place in industry and even at this comparatively early stage of its development its increasing acceptance, as well as uses now visualized for it in the future, indicate that its potential for industry is probably greater than that to be realized commercially. View full abstract»

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  • 42 Years' experience combating sleet accumulation

    Page(s): 131
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    EXPERIENCE OF 42 sleet seasons has enabled the Pennsylvania Water and Power Company to develop methods of combating sleet accumulations which provide satisfactory performance of lines susceptible to sleet troubles. Design improvements also have been made, and a 1931 design has given perfect performance in an area where sleet storms are prevalent. View full abstract»

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  • Comparative studies of new push-pull methods for pole-top resuscitation

    Page(s): 132 - 137
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    All push-pull pole-top methods of resuscitation, evaluated on five apneic subjects, proved 1½ times as effective for pulmonary ventilation as the standard pole-top method. The double-rock push-pull seems best for several reasons. A discussion by E. W. Oesterreich questions the advisability of adopting this new system unless it can be proved conclusively either that the present method is inadequate or the new method more effective and that it does not sacrifice any advantages now obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Discussion of article on comparative studies of new push-pull methods for pole-top resuscitation

    Page(s): 137 - 140
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    QUESTIONS HAVE BEEN RAISED, mostly by safety engineers of electric power supply companies, as to whether the basic principle of the recently accepted Holger-Nielsen push-pull prone method of artificial respiration is applicable as an advantageous revision of the pole-top method of artificial respiration. As a result of the authors' interest in the general problem of artificial respiration, there now is available for study and analysis, data based on well-planned and courageously executed laboratory tests. However, when a change from the time-proved practice is contemplated, serious consideration must be given to two factors of primary importance, namely, whether the present practice is inadequate, either from an application or efficiency viewpoint, or whether the present practice can be replaced by another which is more effective without greatly sacrificing any advantages of the one being replaced. View full abstract»

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  • Ten years' experience with a completely electrified products pipe line

    Page(s): 140 - 142
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    This pioneering extensive petroleum-products pipe line utilized high-speed centrifugal pumps driven by electric motors. In addition all power was purchased from power companies and all communication was handled by the telephone company. The advantages as well as the disadvantages are presented, and suggestions made for further improvements. View full abstract»

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  • Pneumatic mechanisms for power circuit breakers

    Page(s): 143
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    PNEUMATIC OPERATION of power circuit breakers, which started before 1900, was used very little until the last decade. The increasing energy required for closing circuit breakers of higher and higher rating, and the demand for quicker closing and reclosing, enhanced the advantages of the pneumatic mechanism and led to its present predominance in the operation of large power circuit breakers. Experience gained with the mechanisms which pioneered the applications and gained widespread use have guided the development of a new line of devices to meet modern requirements of circuit breakers over the voltage range of 230 to 14.4 kv, interrupting capacity range from the highest down to 500 megavolt-amperes, and interrupting times of 8, 5, and 3 cycles. View full abstract»

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  • Power-line carrier for relaying and joint usage — II

    Page(s): 144
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    IN ANALYZING the relaying techniques involved in this subject, as distinct from the carrier tools available, we find that there are three recognized principles of carrier relaying, namely: 1. transferred signals, 2. phase comparison, and 3. directional comparison. Any of these principles must be applied with attention to the local conditions under which it must function. By inattention to detail design, trip and control circuits have been known to hold lines, equipment, or protection schemes out of service unnecessarily. Also, the operating personnel may have numerous special features to remember and watch. Such instances, plus random difficulties, can build up antipathy to any type of relaying, carrier included. View full abstract»

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  • Built-up Mica plate for high-temperature applications

    Page(s): 145 - 150
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    Certain developments in the field of built-up bonded mica products for use as electrical insulation are described with emphasis placed on high-temperature applications. View full abstract»

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  • Saturable reactor with inductive D-C load — I

    Page(s): 151
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    TWO MAGNETIC UNITS A and B, Figure 1, are used as saturable reactors, and the load consists of inductance LL and resistance RL. The gate current iG, flowing through the gate windings X1 to X2, is discontinuous and flows in rectangular pulses whose amplitude is the same as that of the load current. Thus the average value of the load current IL is larger than the average value of the gate current IG. View full abstract»

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  • Cable sheath surface discharges and electric shock

    Page(s): 152
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    ELECTRIC SHOCK HAZARD from the surface of an energized cable is of great importance due to the increasing use of semiconductive jackets. Data were obtained showing the amount of current flowing to ground over a range of “body contact” resistances for nonshielded, metallic-shielded, and “semiconductive” jacketed rubber-insulated cables operating at various voltage levels. The range of currents then was related to known shock sensation levels to assess the amount of hazard involved. A theoretical approach to the voltage rise, surface current, and shock current of cables having different outer surfaces materials helps considerably in understanding the phenomena involved. Calculation of surface voltage rise and current flow can be carried out properly by considering the distributive nature of the cable constants. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased publication in 1963. The current retitled publication is IEEE Spectrum.

Full Aims & Scope