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Electrical Engineering

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 1950

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 40
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • [Advertisement - Front inside cover]

    Page(s): c2
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  • Contents

    Page(s): 1A
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  • [Advertisement]

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  • Highlights

    Page(s): 3A
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  • [Advertisement]

    Page(s): 4A - 12A
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  • Dielectrics in electrical engineering

    Page(s): 771 - 773
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    CLASSICAL electrical engineering views matter from the standpoint of Maxwell's theory as a means of storing electric and magnetic energy and of dissipating such energy by conduction and other irreversible processes. It considers, for any given material, these properties of storage and dissipation as fixed quantities which may be tabulated under the headings: permittivity (dielectric constant), permeability, and conductivity. After obtaining such tables and setting aside a special corner for dielectrics, defined as nonconductors of electricity,1 the engineer dismisses the subject of materials and returns into his private world of field vectors and equivalent circuits. View full abstract»

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  • Relaying practices of the Bureau of reclamation

    Page(s): 774
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    HIGH-VOLT AGE transmission systems serving the western part of the United States are characterized by longer line sections between substations than is common in the East where population density is greater. Relaying of power systems of the Bureau of Reclamation, United States Department of the Interior, presents, therefore, somewhat different problems than usual. View full abstract»

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  • Electric ticket-reserving system

    Page(s): 775 - 780
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    STEADILY increasing difficulties have marked the expansion of the reservation systems of railroads and air lines over the past two decades. This may in large part be due to the greater number of people traveling today, to the increased speed of the vehicles, and perhaps also to the efforts that the carriers have made in supplying a large variety of accommodations. A large railroad can provide 12 different types of space such as berths, club chairs, roomettes, and so forth, all of which must be recorded in the reservation department to assure that every available seat is sold and at the same time to prevent duplicate selling that would irritate to the passenger and endanger good public relations. View full abstract»

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  • High-voltage rectifier equipment for tube testing

    Page(s): 781
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    MERCURY-ARC rectifier equipment of high capacity and voltage rating and special design for tube-testing service has been installed in the RCA-Victor Company Advanced Development Laboratory at Lancaster, Pa. The equipment provides 2,000 kw at 12,000 volts d-c with two rectifier units connected in parallel, and 2,000 wk at 24,000 volts d-c with the two units in series. In each case, the d-c windings of the rectifier transformers are displaced 30 electrical degrees so as to achieve, effectively, 12-phase rectification. The basic power circuit of the installation is shown in Figure 1. View full abstract»

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  • Failures of rubber insulation caused by soil microorganisms

    Page(s): 782 - 787
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    THE INVESTIGATION of the cause of the rare failures of nonleaded rubber-insulated cables buried directly in the ground was reported in an earlier paper.1 These failures were characterized by localized regions of very low insulation resistance. The absorbed water content was no greater than in adjacent regions of high insulation resistance, and the physical properties were usually normal. Drying the failed insulation raised the resistance several decades, but brief exposure to moisture restored the low values. It was suspected that these failures had been caused by soil microorganisms. View full abstract»

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  • Conversion unit for projecting 3- by 4-foot television pictures

    Page(s): 788 - 792
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    PRIOR TO THE advent of common television usage, pictures in the home became popular by the use of home-movie projectors. By a process of evolution the 3- by 4-foot home-movie picture size became an accepted one. These facts would indicate a preference for picture sizes of this order, at least for some types of picture presentations. View full abstract»

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  • Underground hydroelectric power stations

    Page(s): 793
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    THE NATURAL waterfalls in Sweden are often very extended in length. The utilized head in the power stations is frequently less than 150 feet and only in rare cases exceeds 300 feet. The mean flow of water in the bigger rivers amounts to about 10,000 cubic feet per second at the mouth. Kaplan turbines have been used for heads up to 110 feet; for greater heads, Francis turbines are used. View full abstract»

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  • Perception of electric currents

    Page(s): 794 - 800
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    ELECTRIC CURRENTS which are just perceptible are important, as it is essential that the user not get the sensation of electric shock when using electric appliances, hand tools, or other electric equipment.1 Shocks produced by currents near the threshold of perception are generally considered annoying rather than dangerous; however, when such shocks are unexpected, they are startling, and serious accident may result as a secondary effect. For example, an unexpected electric shock, far too feeble to cause injury due to direct effects of the electric current, might produce a sudden movement and cause subsequent contact with a dangerous mechanism, or it might cause loss of balance with an ensuing fall which might cause painful injury. View full abstract»

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  • Audible noise of power transformers

    Page(s): 800 - 805
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    TRENDS in power-system design require installations of large power transformers in thickly populated areas. These trends have been brought about by increasing capacities of existing stations and by transforming power closer to the ultimate customer than has been done in the past.1 As a result, power-transformer manufacturers have been asked to build low-noise-level designs for these installations. Simultaneous with these new requirements being placed on them, manufacturers have been developing new materials, processes, and material applications; and to advance the art, certain of these improvements are being incorporated in designs. Themanufacturer then finds himself faced with the problem of designing for low noise levels and, at the same time, improving his product in quality, cost, and dependability. The way in whichthese two parts of the problem are related will be shown in this article. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave gas discharges

    Page(s): 806 - 809
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    The microwave gas discharge has presented a new field for physical exploration. The r e sults of some of these experiments are given here; processes active in a microwave gas discharge are discussed, and a formula is developed for the complex conductivity of the discharge from the known properties of electrons and ions. View full abstract»

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  • Construction of cold-cathode counting or stepping tubes

    Page(s): 810 - 813
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    ELECTRONIC digital counters have satisfactorily solved the problem of counting at speeds which are too great for mechanical or electromagnetic counters. These high-speed counters usually employ chains of trigger devices such as hot-cathode multivibrators1 or cold-cathode glow discharge tubes.2 Coupling between elements in the chain is arranged so that the triggering of one element prepares or primes the next succeeding element. This article describes a new principle of construction which permits coupling from one cold cathode to the next within a single common tube envelope, thereby considerably simplifying the counting tube and circuit. Only one load resistor and three tube-connection terminals are required, regardless of the number of counting stages, although additional elements are usually required in order to obtain information by other than visual means.3 View full abstract»

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  • Modern servomechanism testers

    Page(s): 814 - 816
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    DURING recent years the so-called steady-state or frequency response method of evaluating the performance of linear servomechanisms has gained increasing favor over transient response methods.3 The essential reason for this is the relative ease of inferring the frequency response of a complicated system from the frequency responses of its components. View full abstract»

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  • Ferromagnetic domains

    Page(s): 817 - 822
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    A FERROMAGNETIC crystal is composed of small regions or domains which are magnetized to saturation. When the crystal is unmagnetized the domains are arranged so that the net magnetization is zero. The application of a magnetic field changes the domain structure. The domains that are favorably oriented with respect to the applied field grow at the expense of those less favorably oriented, so that the net magnetization is no longer zero. View full abstract»

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  • Pulse measuring of deionization time

    Page(s): 823 - 827
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    A NECESSARY condition for the initiation of an electric discharge between two electrodes immersed in a gas is that the voltage difference between the electrodes be greater than a critical value called the breakdown voltage. The nature and pressure of the gas and the shape, separation, and nature of the electrodes determine this critical value. When a gas tube breaks down or fires, a positiveion space charge is formed so that electrons can flow in great quantities without the limitations of mutual repulsion. A self-sustaining discharge in a cold-cathode tube requires, in addition, a positiveion current sufficiently heavy to provide for electron emission from the negative electrode or cathode. View full abstract»

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  • Use of the current transductor in the aluminum industry

    Page(s): 828 - 832
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    THE CURRENT transductor is one of the great family of apparatus known variously as magnetic amplifiers, saturable core reactors, or transductors. These devices are a-c inductors, whose effective inductance can be changed by superimposing a d-c magnetomotive force. The current transductor is a transductor specially designed and calibrated so that the alternating current flowing in the a-c circuit is a direct measure of the direct current which is flowing in the d-c circuit. The transductor is meant to be used for the measurement of the direct current. View full abstract»

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  • Officers and committees for 1950-51

    Page(s): 833 - 841
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  • Institute activities: Tentative technical program released for middle Eastern district meeting

    Page(s): 842
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  • AIEE board of directors holds regular meeting in Pasadena

    Page(s): 845
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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased publication in 1963. The current retitled publication is IEEE Spectrum.

Full Aims & Scope