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Electronics Letters

Issue 2 • Date January 17 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 51
  • In Brief

    Page(s): 80
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  • Interview

    Page(s): 80
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    Professor Shih-Lun Chen from the Chung Yuan Christian University in Taiwan talks about the research behind his Letter `VLSI Implementation of a Low-Power Cost-Efficient Lossless ECG Encoder Design for Wireless Healthcare Monitoring Application' on page 91. View full abstract»

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  • Inside View

    Page(s): 81
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    Researchers from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University tell us more about their work on dopant diffusion in germanium. View full abstract»

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  • Pushing the envelope

    Page(s): 82
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    Toshiba Research Europe report a power efficient wideband envelope modulator power amplifier for LTE systems including 4G. Although relatively low-cost the amplifier could facilitate full 20MHz bandwidth LTE systems at substantial output powers. View full abstract»

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  • Monolithic patch antenna for dedicated short-range communications

    Page(s): 85 - 86
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (346 KB)  

    Dedicated short-range communications (DSRCs) is a novel short- to medium-range wireless protocol designed for automotive use. The DSRC signals are circularly polarised and allocated in the 5.8 GHz band. Described is the development of a monolithic and compact patch antenna with left-hand circular polarisation intended for the on-board unit equipment of a DSRC system. The 40×60×2.455 mm fabricated prototype exhibits a circularly-polarised gain of about 5.52 dBc with a cross-polar discrimination of about 20 dB. View full abstract»

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  • Inverse triangular-shape CPW-fed antenna loaded with EBG reflector

    Page(s): 86 - 88
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (457 KB)  

    A new compact dual wideband CPW-fed inverse triangular-shape antenna is presented. The lower and upper bands are widened from 68.76 and 18.33% to 96.23 and 28.7%, respectively, using a triangular patch-trapezoidal ground combination. The antenna performance is further enhanced by backing it with a dual-band uni-planar EBG reflector. The final design has been prototyped and measured. It sufficiently covers the frequency bands 1.5-5.63 GHz and 9.52-13.06 GHz with enhanced gain up to 5.2 dB. The radiation efficiency is improved to approximately 72%. View full abstract»

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  • Wideband and compact quasi-Yagi antenna integrated with balun of microstrip to slotline transitions

    Page(s): 88 - 89
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (381 KB)  

    A wideband quasi-Yagi antenna utilising a microstrip-to-coplanar stripline balun is presented. The antenna is designed to be compact, directional and wideband so that it can be used to form a circular array for a microwave imaging system. The feeding structure of the antenna includes an ultra-wideband balun that is formed using a pair of microstrip to slotline transitions. The simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna indicate more than 70% fractional bandwidth with more than 10 dB return loss, more than 18 dB front-to-back ratio and around 4 dBi gain. View full abstract»

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  • Improved algorithm of muscle fatigue detection using linear regression analysis

    Page(s): 89 - 91
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (199 KB)  

    Conventional linear regression analysis methods used to measure muscle fatigue based on mean power frequency (MPF) can yield results that are dependent on the epoch of each MPF value. An improved algorithm containing two window segmenting methods, overlapped and non-overlapped schemes, is provided to investigate the effect of window length on linear regression analysis during sustained isometric constant force muscle contraction. The minimal length of each segment can be determined by making the slope sign changes to be zero. In conclusion, the minimal length is independent of the epoch of each MPF value. View full abstract»

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  • VLSI implementation of low-power cost-efficient lossless ECG encoder design for wireless healthcare monitoring application

    Page(s): 91 - 93
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (177 KB)  

    An efficient VLSI architecture of a lossless ECG encoding circuit is proposed for wireless healthcare monitoring applications. To reduce the transmission and storage data, a novel lossless compression algorithm is proposed for ECG signal compression. It consists of a novel adaptive rending predictor and a novel two-stage entropy encoder based on two Huffman coding tables. The proposed lossless ECG encoder design was implemented using only simple arithmetic units. To improve the performance, the proposed ECG encoder was designed by pipeline technology and implemented the two-stage entropy encoder by the architecture of a look-up table. The VLSI architecture of this work contains 3.55 K gate counts and its core area is 45987 μm2 synthesised by a 0.18 μm CMOS process. It can operate at 100 MHz processing rate with only 36.4 μW. The data compression rate reaches an average value 2.43 for the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. Compared with the previous low-complexity and high performance techniques, this work achieves lower hardware cost, lower power consumption, and a better compression rate than other lossless ECG encoder designs. View full abstract»

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  • All-digital PLL with ΔΣ DLL embedded TDC

    Page(s): 93 - 94
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (249 KB)  

    An all-digital PLL (ADPLL) which employs a ΔΣ delay-locked loop (DLL) to achieve a PVT-insensitive time resolution of the time-to-digital converter (TDC) as well as noise-shaped dithering is implemented in 65 nm CMOS. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve spur reduction with slight degradation of in-band phase noise. The 1.8 GHz ADPLL consumes 14.3 mW, while the TDC with the ΔΣ DLL consumes 2.1 mW. View full abstract»

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  • Current-reuse single Miller feedforward compensation for multi-stage amplifiers

    Page(s): 94 - 96
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (122 KB)  

    Presented is a novel current-reuse single Miller feedforward compensation (CRSMFC) scheme for multi-stage operational amplifiers (opamps). The proposed scheme introduces an implicit feedforward path into an opamp by reusing the current of the input stage, which creates a left-half-plane zero to cancel out the first non-dominant pole in the transfer function, thus improving phase margin and gain bandwidth product (GBW) without extra power consumption. A three-stage opamp prototype with proposed CRSMFC is realised in standard 0.18 μm CMOS process, and measured results show that it achieves a GBW of 4.4 MHz and a phase margin of 73° while driving a large capacitive load of 250 pF with only 34 μW of power consumption, implying a superior FoM over the state-of-the-art. View full abstract»

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  • Low-power, wide-range time-to-digital converter for all digital phase-locked loops

    Page(s): 96 - 97
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (411 KB)  

    A time-to-digital converter (TDC) for a low-power, wide-range all digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL) is presented. The proposed TDC uses an enabling signal with variable duration to achieve low power and wide range. For verification purpose, the ADPLL is fabricated in a 0.11 μm CMOS technology. The ADPLL dissipates 6.02mW at an output frequency of 1.68GHz and its output frequency is measured as 0.24-1.68 GHz from a 1.2 V supply. View full abstract»

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  • EMI susceptibility of DTMOS opamps

    Page(s): 98 - 99
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (187 KB)  

    The susceptibility to electromagnetic interference (EMI) of an amplifier based on dynamic threshold voltage MOS transistors (DTMOSs) has been analysed and improved thanks to an easy modification of the input differential stage. The final opamp has been designed in a 0.18 μm standard CMOS process. View full abstract»

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  • Parallel array histogram architecture for embedded implementations

    Page(s): 99 - 101
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (173 KB)  

    Proposed is a parallel array histogram architecture (PAHA) suitable for embedded implementations. The PAHA uses a register array instead of a memory block to store the histogram bins. In each step, M inputs can be processed in parallel to update the histogram bins without any additional latency. Also described is a second version of the PAHA with a flexible number of inputs, potentially avoiding the need for multiple PAHAs in a single application. Implementation results show that the architecture can achieve a super-linear speed-up of 43.75× for a 16-way PAHA when compared to a software implementation in a general-purpose processor. View full abstract»

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  • Implicit dynamic system for online simultaneous linear equations solving

    Page(s): 101 - 102
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (230 KB)  

    A novel implicit dynamic system is exploited and investigated for online simultaneous linear equations solving. Compared to the classic gradient-based dynamic system and the recently-proposed Zhang dynamic system, the proposed implicit dynamic system can achieve superior global exponential convergence performance. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation results substantiate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed model for the real-time solution of simultaneous linear equations. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of unequal error protection for LDPCA codes

    Page(s): 102 - 104
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)  

    Unequal error protection extensions of low density parity check accumulate (UEP-LDPCA) codes are discussed and several potential applications are proposed. Two UEP-LDPCA schemes are analysed and code parameters are optimised using a density evolution algorithm. Simulation results show that the extensions have the significant unequal error protection property. This activates new directions for existing applications. View full abstract»

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  • Composite vector selection for feature extraction in face recognition

    Page(s): 104 - 106
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (143 KB)  

    Proposed is a composite vector selection method based on discriminant analysis for face recognition. By measuring the amount of discriminant information in each composite vector, informative composite vectors can be selected. Then, composite features for face recognition are extracted with only the selected composite vectors. The experimental results show that the proposed method results in improved performance. View full abstract»

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  • Improved matching criterion for frame rate upconversion with trilateral filtering

    Page(s): 106 - 107
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (281 KB)  

    Frame rate upconversion (FRUC) is an important post-processing technique to enhance the visual quality of low frame rate video. A major, recent advance in this area is FRUC based on trilateral filtering which novelty mainly derives from the combination of an edge-based motion estimation block matching criterion with the trilateral filter. However, there is still room for improvement, notably towards reducing the size of the uncovered regions in the initial estimated frame, this means the estimated frame before trilateral filtering. In this context, proposed is an improved motion estimation block matching criterion where a combined luminance and edge error metric is weighted according to the motion vector components, notably to regularise the motion field. Experimental results confirm that significant improvements are achieved for the final interpolated frames, reaching PSNR gains up to 2.73 dB, on average, regarding recent alternative solutions, for video content with varied motion characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Medoid selection from sub-tree leaf nodes for k-medoid clustering-based hierarchical template tree construction

    Page(s): 108 - 109
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (158 KB)  

    A method to construct a hierarchical template tree for pedestrian contour detection by iteratively applying a k-medoid clustering algorithm from the lowest level to the highest level was recently proposed and received much attention. Analysed here is the limitation of the method using lower level medoids as points of the next higher level, and proposed is a method of selecting a medoid from the leaf nodes of sub-trees corresponding to the lower level medoids. View full abstract»

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  • Recovering low-rank and sparse components of matrices for object detection

    Page(s): 109 - 111
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB)  

    It is shown that object detection can be addressed in the authors' unified framework, where the observed video matrix is decomposed into the low-rank matrix and the sparse matrix. The recovering problem can be solved by the proposed variant of the Douglas-Rachford splitting method, which accomplishes recovery by exploiting the separable structure property of the model. The effectiveness of the proposed object detection scheme is illustrated on two data: simulated data and real sequences applications. The numerical experiments verify that the proposed algorithm has attractive robustness and high accuracy for illumination variation and dynamic texture. View full abstract»

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  • Energy-efficient resource allocation for OFDMA networks with sleep mode

    Page(s): 111 - 113
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (103 KB)  

    Investigated is the resource allocation problem in OFDMA networks by introducing the sleep mode. In contrast to the existing literature, which mainly focuses on improving network throughput by increasing energy consumption energy efficient resource allocation with sleep mode is considered under which some components of the transmitter can be shut down to save energy. A mix integer programming problem is proposed to minimise energy consumption while satisfying the average data rate requirement. The existence of a unique globally optimal resource allocation solution is demonstrated and an iterative algorithm is developed to obtain it. The simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm can effectively save total energy consumption especially when the network is under low load condition. View full abstract»

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  • Kernel-based clustering

    Page(s): 113 - 114
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (155 KB)  

    Proposed is a novel clustering technique based on kernel methods. The geometric properties of normalised kernel spaces are exploited to automatically detect the correct number of clusters, thus avoiding the requirement of an initial estimate of this parameter, as required instead in many popular algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Suppression of multiple power line harmonic interference for low frequency signals

    Page(s): 114 - 116
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB)  

    A novel and simple algorithm capable of extracting and cancelling harmonic disturbance from signals subject to severe power line interference is presented. The key element consists of the adaptation of a filter to a deterministic harmonic reference closely correlated to the interference. The resulting signal is optimal in the mean squared error sense. Simulation results show that this carefully crafted adaptive scheme can improve by up to 30 dB the signal to interference ratio. Minimal remaining interference and fast convergence are obtained by optimisation of the algorithm's parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Weighted ensemble based on 0-1 matrix decomposition

    Page(s): 116 - 118
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (135 KB)  

    A simple effective ensemble method is proposed in which individual classifiers are combined with the weight coefficients obtained by decomposition for the 0-1 matrix. The 0-1 matrix is introduced to denote individual classifiers of the ensemble and is constructed based on the prediction labels of individuals and the true labels. The weight coefficients of individuals are obtained by singular value decomposition for the 0-1 matrix based on linear mapping. In particular, the square of elements of the right singular vector corresponding to the maximum singular value are as the weight coefficients of individuals, and it is proved theoretically that it minimises the upper bound of ensemble error. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed method improves the performance of classification compared against standard ensemble strategies. View full abstract»

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  • Applications of non-stationary thermal wave imaging methods for characterisation of fibre-reinforced plastic materials

    Page(s): 118 - 119
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (378 KB)  

    The active thermal nondestructive testing and evaluation method is a rapidly growing testing procedure for a quick and remote inspection procedure for fibre-reinforced plastics. Conventional modulated lock-in thermography significantly contributed to this field by allowing usage of low peak power controlled stimulations followed by phase based detail extraction procedures. But demand of repetitive experimentation required for depth scanning of the test object limits its applicability for realistic critical applications and demands multi-frequency low power stimulations for better resolution and sensitivity for sub-surface defect detection. Frequency modulated thermal wave imaging and coded excitation thermal wave imaging methods permitting multi-frequency stimulations cater for these needs and facilitate depth scanning of the test object in a single experimentation cycle. Recently introduced three-dimensional pulse compression is an alternative to phase based analysis for these stimulations by providing enhanced defect detection even in noisy environmental and experimental conditions. Defect detection capability and sizing by these non-stationary thermal wave imaging methods are highlighted using the pulse compression approach. The present experimental study has been carried out on a carbon fibre reinforced plastic specimen with flat bottom holes. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Electronics Letters is internationally renowned for its rapid communication of new developments and emerging topics across the broad and interdisciplinary field of modern electronics and electrical engineering.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editors-in-Chief

Professor Chris Toumazou
Director of the Biomedical Institute
Imperial College, London, UK

Professor Ian White
Head of Photonics Research
University of Cambridge, UK