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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date November 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 54
  • IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics - Table of contents

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  • IEEE Consumer Electronics Society

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  • 2012 IEEE Consumer Electronics Society Administrative Committee

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  • 2012 IEEE Consumer Electronics Society Officers and Committee Chairs

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  • Message from the Editor:

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  • IEEE Consumer Electronics Society Notice:

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  • Novel electric micromotor for consumer electronics applications

    Page(s): 1103 - 1109
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (780 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a novel electric micromotor that will be useful for a broad new array of consumer products. The micromotor has achieved an efficiency of 65% and a minimum torque of 11.6 μN.m. in a package with a volume of approximately 50 mm3. The device essentially consists of a very small quantity of water, a group of bubble injectors (similar to those used in inkjet printer technology), and an impeller. The bubble injectors propel high-velocity water micro-droplets toward the impeller, forcing it to rotate. The water is collected and is circulated back to the injectors. Comparisons with other existing micromotor technologies are given. View full abstract»

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  • A spherical multi-camera system with real-time omnidirectional video acquisition capability

    Page(s): 1110 - 1118
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1174 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A multi-camera system inspired from the visual system of flying insects is introduced which is referred to as the Panoptic camera. In the Panoptic system each camera is mounted over a hemispherical geometry and has its own vision of surrounding and distinct focal direction. The Panoptic device finds application in the area of omnidirectional vision and 3D imaging. A systematic approach is presented for the coverage analysis and design guidelines of the Panoptic device. The presented approach enables the construction of arbitrary multi-camera systems based on the Panoptic principle. An implemented hardware architecture based on FPGA is introduced which is capable of real-time omnidirectional vision reconstruction. The implemented hardware is capable of live video streaming at a rate of 6.25M pixels per second and a maximum image resolution of 32M pixels per FPGA board. View full abstract»

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  • Long range eye gaze tracking system for a large screen

    Page(s): 1119 - 1128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Eye gaze tracking system has been widely researched for the replacement of the conventional computer interfaces such as the mouse and keyboard. In this paper, we propose the long range binocular eye gaze tracking system that works from 1.5 m to 2.5 m with allowing a head displacement in depth. The 3D position of the user's eye is obtained from the two wide angle cameras. A high resolution image of the eye is captured using the pan, tilt, and focus controlled narrow angle camera. The angles for maneuvering the pan and tilt motor are calculated by the proposed calibration method based on virtual camera model. The performance of the proposed calibration method is verified in terms of speed and convenience through the experiment. The narrow angle camera keeps tracking the eye while the user moves his head freely. The point-of-gaze (POG) of each eye onto the screen is calculated by using a 2D mapping based gaze estimation technique and the pupil center corneal reflection (PCCR) vector. PCCR vector modification method is applied to overcome the degradation in accuracy with displacements of the head in depth. The final POG is obtained by the average of the two POGs. Experimental results show that the proposed system robustly works for a large screen TV from 1.5 m to 2.5 m distance with displacements of the head in depth (+20 cm) and the average angular error is 0.69°. View full abstract»

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  • Single-camera dedicated television control system using gesture drawing

    Page(s): 1129 - 1137
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As gesture recognition technology has improved, it has been applied to various consumer appliances to provide natural interfaces. Television is a representative system for this kind of interface because of its complex requirements for various functions. Icon-based interfaces are the general method used. However, according to the performed survey, various functions were not required for watching TV. This work found most viewers mainly tend to use some specific functions such as channel or volume. These functions should be controlled easily and quickly since they are frequently used. However, the iconbased interface has difficulty fulfilling this requirement since it is affected by Fitts' law. Hence, this paper proposes a gesturebased method for easy and quick control. User hand gestures are recognized by capturing the motion path when the user draws different symbols in the air. These gestures are used to interact with the TV. It is implemented using a single-camera dedicated hardware system. This system is based on a real time parallel processing structure. The analysis shows that subjects enjoy this TV control system. View full abstract»

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  • Kasami sequence studies for DTV transmitter identification

    Page(s): 1138 - 1146
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (726 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The transmitter identification of the DTV systems becomes crucial nowadays. Transmitter identification (TxID, or transmitter fingerprinting) technique is used to detect, diagnose and classify the operating status of any radio transmitter of interest. A pseudo random sequence was proposed to be embedded into the DTV signal before transmission. Thus, the transmitter identification can be realized by invoking the cross-correlation functions between the received signal and the possible candidates of the pseudo random sequences. Gold sequences and Kasami sequences are two excellent candidates for the transmitter ID sequences as they provide a large family of nearly-orthogonal codes. In order to investigate the sensitivity of the transmitter identification to different topologies and different Kasami sequence lengths, we present the analysis here for four different geometric layouts, namely circular distribution, doubly concentric and circular distribution, square array and hexagonal tessellation under the ENG (electronic news gathering) crews¿ working environment. The coverage area and the lowest received signal-to-interference ratio are considered as two essential parameters for the multiple-transmitter identification. It turns out to be that the larger the Kasami sequence length, the larger the received signal- to-interference ratio. Our new analysis can be used to determine the required Kasami sequence length for a specific broadcasting coverage. View full abstract»

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  • A sequential cooperative spectrum sensing scheme based on cognitive user reputation

    Page(s): 1147 - 1152
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (691 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The spectrum sensing plays an essential role in Cognitive Radio (CR), which enables opportunistic access to underutilized licensed spectrums. Cooperative spectrum sensing can help improve sensing performance. However, when the number of cognitive users is large, the latency and network traffic for reporting sensing results to the Fusion Center (FC) become extremely large, which may result in an extended sensing time and collision in the control channel between Cognitive Users (CUs) and the FC. In this paper, we propose an extended Sequential Cooperative Spectrum Sensing (SCSS) scheme in which the reputation of individual CU is used to ensure that the FC efficiently collects local sensing data from CUs. The proposed scheme reduces the number of sensing reports required while improving sensing performance in comparison with the conventional SCSS scheme even when few malicious users exist in the network. View full abstract»

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  • FPGA-based simultaneous multichannel fm broadcast receiver for audio indexing applications in consumer electronics scenarios

    Page(s): 1153 - 1161
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1529 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper describes a Software Defined Radio architecture that simultaneously demodulates all radio stations in the Frequency Modulated (FM) band, and is intended as a preprocessor for content and metadata indexing applications. The system, which contains an overlap-add type channelizing filterbank and a massively parallel frequency demodulation block, is implemented in a single Field- Programmable Gate Array, thus offering the possibility of replacing more traditional media indexing installations containing tens of individual receivers. It is believed to be the first single chip full-band channelization system intended for consumer broadcast media indexing applications. Chip resource utilization details and experimental results from the developed system are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • A pipelined 8-bit soft decision viterbi decoder for IEEE802.11ac WLAN systems

    Page(s): 1162 - 1168
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2691 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, IEEE802.11ac, which can support ultra high speed data communications up to 1Gbps with low power consumption, has been drawing much attention in the consumer electronic field. In the IEEE802.11ac system, one of the critical implementation issues is to find the optimum architecture of demodulator satisfying the speed requirement. A Viterbi decoder is an essential part for error correction in the demodulator and has a design problem with respect to hardware costs as well as decoding speed. Among various functional blocks in the Viterbi decoder, both hardware complexity and decoding speed highly depend on the architecture of ACS. Because of a feed-back structure, it is very difficult for the ACS to perform its task at a high data rate at low power. Substantial previous works have been presented in order to enhance the decoding speed or to reduce the hardware costs. However, the approaches are insufficient to meet the high-speed and low-cost requirements of a high-level soft decision (up to 8 bits) Viterbi decoder for IEEE802.11ac systems. In this paper, therefore, we propose a cost-efficient high-level soft decision Viterbi decoder with a multi-stage pipelined ACS for IEEE802.11ac systems. From the implementation and verification results under 0.13μm CMOS technology, we find that the proposed architecture can meet the required data rate of IEEE802.11ac and reduce the hardware complexity by about 70% and 90% compared with conventional single-stage pipelined ACS and look-ahead ACS structures, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • An application of MB-OFDM UWB technology for wireless speaker systems

    Page(s): 1169 - 1175
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2503 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose an application of multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) technology for wireless speaker systems which offer superior high-fidelity audio quality. The proposed scheme applies a (255,171) Reed-Solomon (RS) code and a 1/2 punctured convolutional code to the payload data in order to improve the receiver sensitivity without decreasing the transmission data rate. Because the RS block size is very small compared to the overall modem area, both the required additional hardware cost and the increase in the overall modem size are negligible. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme improves the signal-to-noise ratio by 1.5 dB with a packet error rate of 10-3 in an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel when compared to a conventional scheme. The proposed scheme is also implemented using Verilog hardware description language and an emulation test is conducted on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) test board. View full abstract»

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  • Two hybrid positioning system design techniques with lighting LEDs and ad-hoc wireless network

    Page(s): 1176 - 1184
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1693 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two design techniques for more accurate and more convenient hybrid positioning system with visible light communication (VLC) and ad-hoc wireless network infrastructure are proposed, in order to overcome the problems of high estimation error, high cost, and limited service range of the conventional positioning techniques. First method is based on a non-carrier VLC based hybrid positioning technique for applications involving of low data rate optical sensing and narrow-range visible light reception from transmitter, and long-range positioning. The second method uses a 4 MHz carrier VLC-based hybrid positioning technique for a high data rate optical sensing and wide-range visible light receiving from transmitter, and midrange positioning applications. In indoor environments with obstacles where there are longrange 77.314m and mid-range 23.68m distances between an observer and a target respectively, the hybrid positioning systems developed with two design techniques are tested, and measured results are analyzed and presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • RAFD: Resource-aware fault diagnosis system for home environment with smart devices

    Page(s): 1185 - 1193
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2683 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With recent advancement in technologies used at home, smart home environment allows various resources such as device, network, or content to be connected to one another. Their configurations are changed by dynamic bindings at any time. In this smart home environment, a minor problem in a resource can trigger serious failures in home network services by causing multiple faults to the related resources simultaneously. To solve this problem, it is essential to analyze the dependency between resources and also to diagnose home network faults autonomously. This paper proposes the effective fault diagnosis system based on resource relation map which is dynamically constructed by information convergence model of heterogeneous home resources. The proposed system provides the tracing method for finding the root cause of a fault using the resource relation map. The resource relation map represents the snapshot of home situations at the given time. The proposed fault diagnosis method allows building cost effective remote maintenance system with high availability and manageability by tracing the fault cause along the dependency between resources using graph-style resource relation map as if humans trace the cause of problem. In addition, it can contribute to realize an autonomic fault management system for smart home. In this paper, the prototype of the proposed system is implemented and evaluated for performance in accuracy and latency of fault diagnosis in a real environment. The experimental results show that the proposed system, especially with the suggested back tracing diagnosis system, yields remarkable performance for home network fault diagnosis. View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent cloud home energy management system using household appliance priority based scheduling based on prediction of renewable energy capability

    Page(s): 1194 - 1201
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3971 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent advances in micro-grid and distributed renewable energy have facilitated more efficient home energy management systems. However, due to characteristics of renewable energy such as intermittent energy generation, home energy management systems are inefficient and the recent systems therefore cannot be successfully applied to existing home. Therefore, this paper proposes intelligent cloud home energy management system (iCHEMS), considering these issues. iCHEMS assigns dynamic priority to a household appliance according to the type of appliance and its current status. In accordance with the assigned priority, the use of household appliances is scheduled considering renewable energy capability. We implemented iCHEMS in the test bed and conducted an experiment to verify the efficiency of the proposed system. The results show that the proposed system reduces the average total power consumption by up to 7.3 percent. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and evaluation of multisource streaming strategies in P2P VoD systems

    Page(s): 1202 - 1210
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (385 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, multimedia content distribution has largely been moved to the Internet, inducing broadcasters, operators and service providers to upgrade with large expenses their infrastructures. In this context, streaming solutions that rely on user devices such as set-top boxes (STBs) to offload dedicated streaming servers are particularly appropriate. In these systems, contents are usually replicated and scattered over the network established by STBs placed at users¿ home, and the video-on-demand (VoD) service is provisioned through streaming sessions established among neighboring STBs following a Peer-to-Peer fashion. Up to now the majority of research works have focused on the design and optimization of content replicas mechanisms to minimize server costs. The optimization of replicas mechanisms has been typically performed either considering very crude system performance indicators or analyzing asymptotic behavior. In this work, instead, we propose an analytical model that complements previous works providing fairly accurate predictions of system performance (i.e., blocking probability). Our model turns out to be a highly scalable, flexible, and extensible tool that may be helpful both for designers and developers to efficiently predict the effect of system design choices in large scale STB-VoD systems. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation and evaluation of fast mobile vnc systems

    Page(s): 1211 - 1218
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    VNC (virtual network computing) is a popular tool for sharing an application, allowing users to access graphic displays remotely. In mobile VNC systems, it has been challenging to increase screen update rate by fast screen image encoding. In this paper, we implement a prototype system for mobile VNC, and several works are done for improving screen update rate. At first, a number of video encoders are integrated into a prototype system, and we investigate what is the most suitable codec for mobile VNC. The existing RFB protocol is extended straightforwardly to integrate video codecs. Next, the overall system architecture is modified from serial operation to parallel. Finally, we propose a modified region coding to further reduce the encoding time of screen images. The proposed methods are implemented into our prototype mobile VNC system, and practical performances are widely evaluated. We report that JPEG is the most suitable for mobile VNC in terms of both complexity and compression ratio. In addition, the proposed modified region coding can decrease encoding time, and consequently increase screen update rate. View full abstract»

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  • Implementing secure file deletion in NANDbased block devices with internal buffers

    Page(s): 1219 - 1224
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The goal of this work is to support secure file deletion in NAND-based block devices with an internal buffer. Existing secure file deletion tools for hard disks overwrite the file contents many times, causing them to become distorted and irrecoverable. However, NAND-based block devices perform an out-of-place update on the overwrite request, meaning that the original data are preserved without modification and restorable. Furthermore, if there is an internal buffer, then this absorbs the overwrite request. Thus, the existing secure file deletion tools do not work properly in NAND-based block devices. In order to support secure file deletion, this work presents a modification of the internal buffer manager and the underlying flash translation layer. The buffer manager records the overwrite count of each logical page, and sends a request to permanently erase the secure data when the overwrite count exceeds a threshold. Upon receiving this request, the flash translation layer erases all of the old data on the target logical page. The performance overhead resulting from this secure file deletion is evaluated by a trace-driven simulation of representative flash translation layer schemes. The results show that the page mapping method delivers the best performance of the representative flash translation layer schemes, in spite of suffering significant performance degradation. View full abstract»

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  • Design for layer jump in optical disc drives using internal state manipulation

    Page(s): 1225 - 1231
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1096 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Layer jump operation is a vertical seek operation of an actuator between adjacent data layers in an optical disc. As a number of the data layers are raised for high capacity data, the layer jump gradually gains importance for fast playing and recording. Therefore, a systematic design methodology for the layer jump is required to guarantee layer pull-in stability and robustness of model uncertainty. In this paper, a layer jump strategy is proposed for minimizing transient motion and overcoming the effect of model uncertainty by estimating the current velocity of the actuator. The proposed algorithm has been implemented in a system-on-chip for a multi-layered Bluray disc drive. The experimental results show the notable performance of the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Garbage collection policy to improve durability for flash memory

    Page(s): 1232 - 1236
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (217 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Flash memory adopts out-of-place update scheme to solve the erase-before-write constraint of flash memory and the free space of flash memory could be used up. Therefore, garbage collection policy is needed to reclaim garbage and obtain free space. The cleaning cost and the degree of wear-leveling are two primary concerns of garbage collection policy. To achieve these two design principles, we propose an efficient least-first garbage collection policy called LFGC to improve durability for flash memory. LFGC links all the dirty blocks by a list in order of the number of erase operations of each block and divides the list into two regions, which are resident region and candidate region. LFGC introduces an efficient victim block selection method to improve the durability for flash memory and prevent increasing the cleaning cost. An efficient cold-detection scheme is also introduced to identify hot valid page and cold valid page when the copy operation happens during the garbage collection policy. Experimental results show that our proposed LFGC outperforms existing garbage collection policies in terms of the number of copy operations, the number of erase operations, and the degree of wear-leveling. View full abstract»

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  • DABC-NV: A buffer cache architecture for mobile systems with heterogeneous flash memories

    Page(s): 1237 - 1245
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (445 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Flash memory is widely used in mobile consumer electronics devices due to its good properties such as small size, shock resistance, and low-power consumption. However, the cost of flash memory is still high to accommodate ever-growing mobile applications and multimedia contents. Using MLC (multilevel cell) technologies is an efficient solution to extend the storage capacity, but it degrades the performance of flash memory significantly compared to the original storage based on SLC (single-level cell) technologies. To bridge the characteristics of the two technologies, this paper presents a new buffer cache management scheme that uses both MLC and SLC together and considers their heterogeneous characteristics. By allocating cache space based on the characteristics of each storage media as well as I/O operation types and reference history of buffered blocks, the proposed scheme improves the I/O performance of mobile systems by 24% on average and up to 180% compared to the CLOCK algorithm. Moreover, it guarantees high reliability of file data by adopting recently emerging non-volatile RAMs in a certain portion of the buffer cache. View full abstract»

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  • A hash-based RFID security protocol for strong privacy protection

    Page(s): 1246 - 1252
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (273 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags are small, wireless electronic devices that help identify objects and people. Privacy protection and integrity assurance become rather crucial in the RFID systems, because these RFID tags may have a wide transmission range, making them subject to unauthorized scanning by malicious readers and various other attacks. Hence, Ha et al. proposed an RFID protocol and proved that their protocol can provide the forward privacy service. However, in this paper, it is shown that an attacker can track a target tag by observing unsuccessful previous session of the tag. That is, Ha et al.'s RFID protocol fails to provide the forward privacy protection as claimed. Therefore, to overcome the privacy weaknesses of Ha et al.'s RFID protocol, an RFID protocol based on the cryptographic hash functions is proposed. Moreover, the proposed RFID protocol is evaluated according to both the privacy attribute and the implementation performance. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The primary purpose for publishing the Transactions of the Consumer Electronics Society is to present to the membership and the engineering community in general, papers on new technology oriented to Consumer Electronics.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt
School Director for Teaching and Learning, School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire  RG6 6AY  RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588
Fax:+44 (0) 118 3788583