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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2013

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  • Table of Contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1 - 2
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  • IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
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  • List of Reviewers for 2012

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3 - 10
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  • Design and Analysis of a Low-Profile and Broadband Microstrip Monopolar Patch Antenna

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 11 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1952 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new microstrip monopolar patch antenna is proposed and analyzed. The antenna has a wide bandwidth and a monopole like radiation pattern. Such antenna is constructed on a circular patch antenna that is shorted concentrically with a set of conductive vias. The antenna is analyzed using a cavity model. The cavity model analysis not only distinguishes each resonating mode and gives a physical insight into each mode of the antenna, but also provides a guideline to design a broadband monopolar patch antenna that utilizes two modes (TM01 and TM02 modes). Both modes provide a monopole like radiation pattern. The proposed antenna has a simple structure with a low profile of 0.024 wavelengths, and yields a wide impedance bandwidth of 18% and a maximum gain of 6 dBi. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Zeroth-Order Resonance Patch Antenna With Broad E -Plane Beamwidth

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 19 - 25
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1489 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a hybrid zeroth-order resonance (ZOR) patch antenna with a broad E-plane beamwidth is presented. In order to obtain the broad beamwidth of an antenna, a TM0100/2) mode and a ZOR mode are combined. By dividing the incident power to two modes, the E -plane beamwidth of a TM010 mode can simply be controlled. To generate the TM010 mode and the ZOR mode, simultaneously, the mushroom antenna is inserted in a rectangular patch antenna with an etched rectangular hole and a single feed is employed between two radiators. The incident power to each antenna can be controlled by using the gap of a feed. Thus, the optimum incident power ratio having the broadest E-plane half power beamwidth (HPBW) is obtained. As a result, the E-plane HPBW of the proposed antenna is measured as 115° and broadened by 53%, compared with that of the conventional rectangular patch antenna. Moreover, the bandwidth and the efficiency of the antenna are measured to be 3.3% and 92%, respectively. Finally, the measured results show good agreements with the simulated ones. View full abstract»

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  • VHF Collar Integrated Antenna for Ground Link of GPS Based Location System

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 26 - 32
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1205 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design of a low-profile collar-integrated antenna operating at 154.5 MHz for use as a ground link in a GPS-based location system for wildlife tracking. The antenna is a conformal zigzag wire antenna that can be easily integrated into the collar. The power reduction caused by lower gain is overcome by improving the return loss. Input impedance matching at 154.5 MHz, which is the most important factor for return loss improvement, is done by changing the size of the antenna and by using a T-matching method that uses a shorting pin. The antenna efficiency is measured by Wheeler cap method. The design details and comparison of simulation and measurement results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Omnidirectional Metamaterial Antennas Based on \varepsilon -Near-Zero Channel Matching

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 33 - 44
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1895 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an analytical model and practical design tools to realize cylindrically-symmetric compact antennas based on the anomalous transmission properties of ε -near-zero (ENZ) ultranarrow radial channels. The flexibility and exotic propagation properties in ENZ metamaterial channels are exploited here to tune and match cylindrically-symmetric antennas, without the need of complex external matching networks, in order to realize exciting antenna designs in terms of size, complexity and efficiency. We first model a homogenized Drude dispersive ENZ metamaterial channel to feed a radial parallel-plate waveguide; next we suggest a practical realization of this channel by using radial fins; eventually, we apply the obtained design formulas to realize single- and multi-band cylindrical antennas with a wide tunability range. The designed antennas may operate in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) band and may be realistically tuned over a large bandwidth. We envision applications in frequency-hopping, multi-band, compact, omnidirectional antennas. View full abstract»

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  • Planar Broadband Circularly Polarized Antenna With Square Slot for UHF RFID Reader

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 45 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1827 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Novel circular polarization (CP) design of planar broadband antenna with square slot for UHF RFID system is proposed and experimentally studied. By insetting the arc-shaped strip into the square slot, the proposed CP design can easily be achieved with the impedance bandwidth ( RL ≥ 10 dB) of about 142 MHz (15.3% @ 931 MHz) and the 3 dB axial-ratio (AR) bandwidth of about 166 MHz (17.7 % @ 940 MHz) for UHF RFID applications. The measured peak gain and radiation efficiency are about 6.8 dBic and 98% across the operating band, respectively, with nearly bidirectional pattern in the XZ- and YZ-plane. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Modified Archimedean Polygonal Spiral Antenna

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 54 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3235 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a novel 2-18 GHz modified Archimedean polygonal spiral antenna that approximates a circular spiral in its highest frequencies and gradually transforms itself into a square spiral antenna at its lowest frequencies of operation. The design has successfully addressed the problem of high axial ratios associated with ultra-wideband (UWB) rectangular spiral antenna systems. A low-profile, cavity backed polygonal model and two variations of the original design are presented in this study. Our results demonstrate that the polygonal spiral antenna demonstrates excellent axial ratio and gain-bandwidth performance with ≤ 3 dB axial ratio over 97.5% of its operational bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • Integration of Slot Antennas in Commercial Photovoltaic Panels for Stand-Alone Communication Systems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 62 - 69
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1769 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The integration of slot antennas in a class of commercial photovoltaic (PV) panels is addressed. The basic idea is to exploit the room available between adjacent solar cells, also taking advantage of the presence of the cover glass layer that gives a valuable miniaturization effect. As test cases, two antenna designs are presented for stand-alone communication systems operating in the GSM/UMTS (1710-2170 MHz) and WiMAX (3300-3800 MHz) frequency bands, respectively. At early design stage, antenna design has been performed by resorting to a simplified numerical model; afterwards, the effects on the antenna performance of nearby solar cells and DC bus wires have been numerically evaluated. The impedance tuning of the final antenna design has been carried out through a measurement campaign with slot antenna prototypes attached to real PV panels. View full abstract»

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  • Continuously Polarization Agile Antenna by Using Liquid Crystal-Based Tunable Variable Delay Lines

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 70 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1431 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a polarization agile planar antenna is presented by using tunable liquid crystal (LC) material. The antenna includes a 2 × 2 dual-fed microstrip patch array and two separate feeding networks for each feeding of the dual-fed antenna. The polarization state of the antenna can be controlled continuously between dual linear and dual circular polarizations depending on a differential phase shift between the antenna feedings. The feeding networks are implemented in inverted microstrip line topology with the liquid crystal material as a tunable dielectric. A desired differential phase shift is obtained between the feeding networks by tuning the LC material. Thus, no additional tunable components are required according to proposed antenna topology. Additionally, owing to the continuous tuning of the LC material, any polarization state between the circular and linear ones are achievable. The antenna prototype is designed at 13.75 GHz. The measured return losses are greater than 10 dB in a frequency range of 13.5 to 15 GHz for different polarization states. Far-field pattern measurements are performed, which confirm the continuous tuning of the antenna polarization. Specifically, the measured antenna patterns are presented for ±45° linear and right-handed circular polarizations. The prototype can be fabricated in a larger size with more radiating elements and can be efficiently scaled for higher operating frequencies at the Ka-or W-band since the LC material features even lower dielectric losses at higher frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • Dual-Band Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Antenna

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 77 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1713 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A dual-band omnidirectional circularly polarized antenna is proposed. The antenna comprises back-to-back microstrip patches fed by a coplanar waveguide. A very low frequency ratio of 1.182 has been achieved, which can be easily tuned by adjusting four lumped capacitors incorporated into the antenna. An analysis of the omnidirectional circular polarization mechanism as well the dual band operation is provided and confirmed by numerical and experimental data. Key parameters to tune the resonant frequencies and the axial ratio have been identified. The prototype antenna provides omnidirectional circular polarization in one plane with cross polar isolation better than 12 dB for both frequency bands. View full abstract»

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  • New Wideband Printed Antennas for Medical Applications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 84 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2223 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Biomedical industry is in continuous growth in the last few years. Low profile compact antennas are crucial in the development of wearable human biomedical systems. The polarization of the proposed antenna may be linear or dual polarized. Design considerations, computational results and measured results on the human body of several compact wideband microstrip antennas with high efficiency at 434 MHz ± 5% are presented in this paper. The compact dual polarized antenna dimensions are 5 × 5 × 0.05 cm. The antenna beam width is around 100°. The antennas gain is around 0 to 2 dBi. The proposed antenna may be used in Medicare RF systems. The antennas S11 results for different belt thickness, shirt thickness and air spacing between the antennas and human body are presented in this paper. If the air spacing between the new dual polarized antenna and the human body is increased from 0 mm to 5 mm the antenna resonant frequency is shifted by 5%. View full abstract»

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  • A Differential-Fed Magneto-Electric Dipole Antenna for UWB Applications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 92 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2170 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new magneto-electric dipole antenna with a unidirectional radiation pattern is proposed. A novel differential feeding structure is designed to provide an ultra-wideband impedance matching. A stable gain of 8.25±1.05 dBi is realized by introducing two slots in the magneto-electric dipole and using a rectangular box-shaped reflector, instead of a planar reflector. The antenna can achieve an impedance bandwidth of 114% for SWR ≤ 2 from 2.95 to 10.73 GHz. Radiation patterns with low cross polarization, low back radiation, fixing broadside direction mainbeam and symmetrical E- and H -plane patterns are obtained over the operating frequency range. Moreover, the correlation factor between the transmitting antenna input signal and the receiving antenna output signal is calculated for evaluating the time-domain characteristic. The proposed antenna, which is small in size, can be constructed easily by using PCB fabrication technique. View full abstract»

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  • A Low-Profile Ultra-Wideband Modified Planar Inverted-F Antenna

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 100 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1844 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A miniaturized modified planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) is presented and experimentally studied. This antenna consists of a planar rectangular monopole top-loaded with a rectangular patch attached to two rectangular plates, one shorted to the ground and the other suspended, both placed at the optimum distance on each side of the planar monopole. The fabricated antenna prototype had a measured impedance bandwidth of 125%, covering 3 to 13 GHz for reflection coefficient better than -10 dB. The radiator size was 20×10×7.5 mm3, making it electrically small over most of the band and suitable for incorporation in mobile devices. The radiation patterns and gains of this antenna have been cross-validated numerically and experimentally and confirm that this antenna has adequate characteristics for short range ultra-wideband wireless applications. View full abstract»

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  • A Broadband Unidirectional Antenna Based on Closely Spaced Loading Method

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 109 - 116
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1677 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to achieve broadband and unidirectional radiation, a planar printed antenna based on closely spaced loading method is proposed and fabricated. This antenna consists of a printed rectangular loop with two gaps and a metallic strip. The rectangular loop has a good direction but has a drawback of narrow band. According to the closely spaced loading theory, the impedance at the upper frequency will decrease when a metallic strip is placed at the maximum radiation direction of the rectangular loop. This improves the impedance matching. A new resonant frequency point is induced. Meanwhile, the resonant frequency point can be changed by modifying the length of the metallic strip. The impedance matching between the two resonant peaks (One peak is determined by the rectangular loop, the other is determined by the metallic strip) is improved by changing the length and the position of the metallic strip. Thus the impedance bandwidth is greatly expanded. Experimental results show good performance of the proposed antenna. It has a 40.7% measured bandwidth, ranging from 2.29 to 3.46 GHz. The measured front-to-back (F/B) ratio of the proposed antenna is larger than 10 dB in the whole frequency band. View full abstract»

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  • A Circularly Symmetric Antenna Design With High Polarization Purity and Low Spillover

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 117 - 124
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1305 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe the development of two circularly symmetric antennas with high polarization purity and low spill-over. Both were designed to be used in an all-sky polarization and intensity survey at 5 GHz (the C-Band All-Sky Survey, C-BASS). The survey requirements call for very low cross-polar signal levels and far-out sidelobes. Two different existing antennas, with 6.1-m and 7.6-m diameter primaries, were adapted by replacing the feed and secondary optics, resulting in identical beam performances of 0.73° FWHM, cross-polarization better than - 50 dB, and far-out sidelobes below -70 dB. The polarization purity was realized by using a symmetric low-loss dielectric foam support structure for the secondary mirror, avoiding the need for secondary support struts. Ground spill-over was largely reduced by using absorbing baffles around the primary and secondary mirrors, and by the use of a low-sidelobe profiled corrugated feedhorn. The 6.1-m antenna and receiver have been completed and tested. Results show that the co-polar beam matches the design simulations very closely in the main beam and down to levels of - 80 dB in the backlobes. With the absorbing baffles in place the far-out ( >; 100°) sidelobe response is reduced below -90 dB. Cross-polar response could only be measured down to a noise floor of - 20 dB but is also consistent with the design simulations. Temperature loading and groundspill due to the secondary support were measured at less than 1 K. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Optimization of a Compact Wideband Hat-Fed Reflector Antenna for Satellite Communications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 125 - 133
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2517 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a new design of the hat-fed reflector antenna for satellite communications, where a low reflection coefficient, high gain, low sidelobes and low cross-polar level are required over a wide frequency band. The hat feed has been optimized by using the Genetic Algorithm through a commercial FDTD solver, QuickWave-V2D, together with an own developed optimization code. The Gaussian vertex plate has been applied at the center of the reflector in order to improve the reflection coefficient and reduce the far-out sidelobes. A parabolic reflector with a ring-shaped focus has been designed for obtaining nearly 100% phase efficiency. The antenna's reflection coefficient is below -17 dB and the radiation patterns satisfy the M-x standard co- and cross-polar sidelobe envelopes for satellite ground stations over a bandwidth of 30%. A low-cost monolayer radome has been designed for the antenna with satisfactory performance. The simulations have been verified by measurements; both of them are presented in the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Applying Band-Pass Filter Techniques to the Design of Small-Aperture Evanescent-Mode Waveguide Antennas

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 134 - 142
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3078 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A design methodology is presented which applies band-pass filter principles to form wideband small-aperture evanescent-mode waveguide antenna designs. This approach permits matching of the complex antenna aperture admittance of an evanescent-mode open-ended waveguide to a real impedance generator, and thereby to an SMA coaxial feeding probe. A reflection coefficient of less than -10 dB was obtained over a measured bandwidth of 15%, from 2.30-2.68 GHz, in 2.72 GHz cutoff waveguide. Capacitive posts and evanescent-mode waveguide sections are used to form the resonators/coupling elements of the antenna's filtering sections. Measured realised gain variation from 3.5-4.7 dBi is observed across the bandwidth. The antenna's maximum aperture dimension is <; 0.5λ0 at the upper frequency in the bandwidth and so it is suitable for use in a wide angle scanning phased array. View full abstract»

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  • Phaseless Measurements Over Nonrectangular Planar Near-Field Systems Without Probe Corotation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 143 - 152
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2702 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The need for acquiring the near-field phase with a high precision has imposed a stringent condition for measuring the antennas pattern at high frequencies in indoor facilities. The phaseless near-field techniques are introduced to overcome the necessity of operating with costly high frequency vector instruments. Many algorithms are proposed by the researchers and among them the Iterative Fourier technique is proved a viable solution for planar near-field systems. This paper discusses a difficulty in implementing this technique in nonrectangular facilities, such as plane-polar and bipolar, and introduces an iterative algorithm to alleviate it. The measurement of the co and cross-polarized field necessitates the corotation of the probe with the antenna under test to maintain the polarization, for all the nonrectangular planar systems. The corotation increases the hardware complexity of these measurement systems. Therefore the proposed algorithm which alleviates the probe corotation can significantly simplify the hardware involved. The convergence and stability of the proposed algorithm is studied and it is shown how one can control them. The developed algorithm is implemented using simulated near-field for two different types of antennas. The applicability of this algorithm is also assessed by employing a bipolar phaseless near-field measurement. View full abstract»

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  • 60-GHz LTCC Wideband Vertical Off-Center Dipole Antenna and Arrays

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 153 - 161
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2741 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wideband 60-GHz vertical off-center dipole antenna and its arrays on low-temperature cofired ceramic substrate are presented in this paper. The dipole antenna is designed using the off-center-fed technology to cover all the four channels defined in 60-GHz standards from 57 to 66 GHz. A 4 × 4 planar array is optimized to achieve a maximum gain of 15.6 dBi at 60 GHz and above 10.2 dBi in the passband, while a beam-steering array is optimized to give a 5-dB measured beamwidth wider than 80° at 60 GHz. Measured results indicate our designs meet the above requirements well and satisfy 60-GHz applications. View full abstract»

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  • Small Director Array for Low-Profile Smart Antennas Achieving Higher Gain

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 162 - 168
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1523 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A small director array (SDA) is an antenna gain enhancing section of the low-profile smart antenna which can be used as a fixed array or reconfigurable array using switched parasitic elements. Gain improvements up to +10 dBi are achieved in the SDA through a Yagi-Uda configuration using parasitic elements with a large diameter. The array height is reduced by 50% comparing with the standard Yagi-Uda antenna. The reconfigurable SDA used an electronically steerable switched parasitic arrangement so that the beam can be steered from 0° to 360° in the horizontal plane. The height of the reconfigurable SDA is 0.2 λ. The measurements proved that the reconfigurable SDA can increase the antenna gain by 3 dB. The front to back ratio showed significant improvement. The proposed SDA also had the advantages of low cost and low power consumption, thus promising for applications in small satellites, unmanned aerial vehicles and mobile terminals. View full abstract»

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  • An Effective Deterministic Procedure for the Synthesis of Shaped Beams by Means of Uniform-Amplitude Linear Sparse Arrays

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 169 - 175
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A rigorous deterministic approach is proposed for the mask-constrained power pattern synthesis of shaped beams through one-dimensional sparse arrays having uniform-amplitude excitations (and variable phases). The approach includes the well known density taper procedure as a special case. The corresponding technique, which exploits an analytical formulation of the problem and convex programming routines, results in fast computation and is able to achieve optimal solutions without recurring to any global optimization. Numerical results assessing the capabilities of the proposed design method are provided, opening the way to the development of an effective approach for the synthesis of circularly symmetric shaped beams via uniformly-excited circular ring arrays. View full abstract»

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  • Exploiting Rotational Symmetry for the Design of Ultra-Wideband Planar Phased Array Layouts

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 176 - 184
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two new phased array design techniques are introduced that utilize rotational symmetry to avoid grating lobes during scanning and over ultra-wide bandwidths. The first is an optimization method, which employs the covariance matrix adaptation evolutionary strategy to determine the best locations of elements inside a sector of a circle. The second technique uses standard periodic lattices inside the same circular sector. Although the segments themselves are internally periodic, the rotational symmetry of the full array eliminates the occurrence of grating lobes and is capable of generating antenna element layouts with useful ultra-wideband properties. These design techniques yield arrays with not only ultra-wideband characteristics, but properties that lend themselves to relatively straightforward modular construction, especially the semi-periodic variety. View full abstract»

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  • Symmetry Properties of Electromagnetic Planar Arrays in Transfer Matrix Description

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 185 - 194
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We analyze in this paper symmetry properties of planar arrays in the long-wave approximation and for general case of oblique incidence of electromagnetic waves. We introduce the concept of the group of wave vectors for scattering problems in transfer matrix description. Using formalism of magnetic groups we define all the possible symmetries for planar arrays and show how to calculate the structure of 4 × 4 transfer matrix for nonmagnetic and magnetic arrays. We discuss also the reciprocity conditions for the transfer matrices which are different from those in scattering matrix description. Application of the theory is illustrated by some examples. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation includes theoretical and experimental advances in antennas.

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Editor-in-Chief                                                 Kwok W. Leung