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Lightwave Technology, Journal of

Issue 1 • Date Jan.1, 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Journal of Lightwave Technology publication information

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Farewell Editorial From the JLT Editor-in-Chief

    Page(s): 3 - 4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio of Dispersive Photonic Signal Processors Employing Thermal Carriers With Smooth Spectrum and Direct Detection

    Page(s): 5 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An exact theory describing the intensity PSD of photonic signal processors based on modulated thermal sources with smooth spectrum, first-order dispersion and intensity-noise-limited direct detection is presented. The theory is applied to the evaluation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of Microwave Photonic Filters (MPF) and of systems based on Incoherent Frequency-to-Time Mapping (IFTM) and Time-Spectrum Convolution (TSC) driven by thermal carriers whose optical spectra (continuous or sliced) is smooth at microwave scales. It is shown that the noise PSD of MPF based on low-index amplitude modulation coincides with the white-noise PSD of unmodulated, continuous wave (cw) polarized thermal light. In turn, both IFTM and TSC show modulation-dependent noise PSDs resulting in an SNR not better than cw, which decreases with pulse spreading. For IFTM the SNR is poor, with typical values of a few dB, whereas the SNR of TSC interpolates between the cw SNR and that of IFTM, thus showing a range of parameters where the SNR of IFTM is outperformed. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Service Provisioning in Elastic Optical Networks With Hybrid Single-/Multi-Path Routing

    Page(s): 15 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1624 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Empowered by the optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (O-OFDM) technology, flexible online service provisioning can be realized with dynamic routing, modulation, and spectrum assignment (RMSA). In this paper, we propose several online service provisioning algorithms that incorporate dynamic RMSA with a hybrid single-/multi-path routing (HSMR) scheme. We investigate two types of HSMR schemes, namely HSMR using online path computation (HSMR-OPC) and HSMR using fixed path sets (HSMR-FPS). Moreover, for HSMR-FPS, we analyze several path selection policies to optimize the design. We evaluate the proposed algorithms with numerical simulations using a Poisson traffic model and two mesh network topologies. The simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed HSMR schemes can effectively reduce the bandwidth blocking probability (BBP) of dynamic RMSA, as compared to two benchmark algorithms that use single-path routing and split spectrum. Our simulation results suggest that HSMR-OPC can achieve the lowest BBP among all HSMR schemes. This is attributed to the fact that HSMR-OPC optimizes routing paths for each request on the fly with considerations of both bandwidth utilizations and lengths of links. Our simulation results also indicate that the HSMR-FPS scheme that use the largest slots-over-square-of-hops first path-selection policy obtains the lowest BBP among all HSMR-FPS schemes. We then investigate the proposed algorithms' impacts on other network performance metrics, including network throughput and network bandwidth fragmentation ratio. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to consider dynamic RMSA based on both online path computation and offline path computation with various path selection policies for multipath provisioning in O-OFDM networks. View full abstract»

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  • Noise Characterization of a Waveguide-Coupled MSM Photodetector Exceeding Unity Quantum Efficiency

    Page(s): 23 - 27
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (635 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the field of silicon photonics, it has only recently become possible to build complex systems. As system power constraints and complexity increase, design margins will decrease - making understanding device noise performance and device-specific noise origins increasingly necessary. We demonstrate a waveguide-coupled germanium metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector exhibiting photoconductive gain with a responsivity of 1.76 A/W at 5 V bias and 10.6±0.96 fF capacitance. Our measurements indicate that a significant portion of the dark current is not associated with the generation of shot noise. The noise elbow at 5 V bias is measured to be approximately 150 MHz and the high-frequency detector noise reaches the Johnson noise floor. View full abstract»

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  • Specific Jacket SMA-Connected TO-Can Package FPLD Transmitter With Direct Modulation Bandwidth Beyond 6 GHz for 256-QAM Single or Multisubcarrier OOFDM up to 15 Gb/s

    Page(s): 28 - 35
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A specifically designed SMA connector with jacket signal pin configuration is used to connect the transistor outline can (TO-can) packaged Fabry-Pérot laser diode (FPLD) for enhancing its direct modulation bandwidth beyond 6 GHz. The direct modulation of such an TO-can/jacket-SMA packaged FPLD with a 256 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and single subcarrier optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OOFDM) format data stream at carrier frequency up to 6 GHz is approached with 10 MSa/s symbol rate. The optimized 256-QAM data with error vector magnitude (EVM) of 1.5% and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 32.5 dB are observed, corresponding to a bit error rate as low as 1.1 × 10-6 and a highest carrier-to-noise ratio of 43.5 dB. Under injection locking, the tradeoff between the lengthened photon lifetime and the enlarged threshold current reduction of such an M-QAM-N-OOFDM modulated FPLD is theoretically and experimentally investigated to explain the saturation of SNR at 31.5 dB and EVM at 1.7%. Both 16-QAM and 64-QAM 200-subcarrier OOFDM formats with total transmission bit rates up to 15.6 and 23.4 Gb/s, respectively, are performed at carrier frequency of 2 GHz. The corresponding EVM and SNR for the 16-QAM OOFDM are determined as 11.67% and 20 dB, respectively. Under 64-QAM and 200-subcarrier OOFDM modulation, the received data stream shows a slightly degraded EVM and SNR of 12.85% and 19 dB, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric-Band Photonic Crystal Nanobeam Lasers

    Page(s): 36 - 42
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1348 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate a mode gap confined dielectric band laser via a 1-D photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam (NB) nanocavity with lattice gradually shifted PhC mirror. Owing to different modal symmetries, different zeroth-order dielectric mode properties, including quality (Q) factors, mode volumes, lasing thresholds, and slope efficiencies, in nanocavities with two different cavity sizes are investigated. In experiments, single-mode lasing from dielectric bands with low effective lasing thresholds is obtained. Rising of the high-order modes is also observed when we increase the PhC mirror periods for high Q factor of the zeroth-order dielectric mode. In addition, we observe the bonding and antibonding modes in beamwidth mismatched coupled NB nanocavities and switch the dominant lasing mode via spatially nonuniform carrier injection. View full abstract»

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  • Full-Duplex, Extended-Reach 10G-TDM-OCDM-PON System Without En/Decoder at ONU

    Page(s): 43 - 49
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1190 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a novel long-reach 10.3 Gb/s time division multiplexing (TDM) and optical code division multiplexing (OCDM) hybrid passive optical network (PON) system without en/decoder at optical network unit (ONU), which can realize the aggregation and the extended reach of 10 Gb/s-class TDM-PON systems. Full-duplex transmission, including 4 packets × 4 optical codes (OCs) burst uplink, over single mode fiber (SMF) 65 km without dispersion compensation is experimentally demonstrated by adapting key components such as multi-level phase-shift-keying (PSK) multi-port optical en/decoder, narrow-band optical band pass filter and 10.3 Gb/s burst-mode 3R receiver. View full abstract»

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  • Linewidth-Tolerant and Low-Complexity Two-Stage Carrier Phase Estimation Based on Modified QPSK Partitioning for Dual-Polarization 16-QAM Systems

    Page(s): 50 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1585 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three novel linewidth-tolerant, low-complexity, two-stage feed-forward carrier phase estimation algorithms are introduced for dual-polarization 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (DP 16-QAM) with coherent detection. The first stage employs either the quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) partitioning algorithm, simplified QPSK partitioning algorithm, or blind phase search (BPS) algorithm. The second stage employs a novel modified QPSK partitioning algorithm. Based on experimental data, all three algorithms achieve comparable performance for DP 16-QAM back to back and transmission systems. The linewidth tolerance for the three algorithms is numerically studied. A linewidth symbol duration product of 1.3×10-4 is demonstrated for a 1 dB optical signal-to-noise-ratio penalty at a bit error ratio 10-3 of for all the proposed algorithms, which is comparable to the single-stage BPS algorithm with a large number of test phases. Reductions in the hardware complexity by factors of about 1.7-5.3 are achieved in comparison to the single-stage BPS algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Mid-Span Spectral Inversion for Coherent Optical OFDM Systems: Fundamental Limits to Performance

    Page(s): 58 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1668 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We develop a theoretical expression to predict the ultimate back-to-back performance of coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems that rely on four-wave mixing to achieve phase conjugation for mid-span spectral inversion. Our analysis shows that two different two-stage nonlinear processes produce strong noise-like products in the conjugated signal band. We verify our theoretical results with simulations and experiments; these both show excellent agreement with the analytical theory. We identify the optimal design parameters and predict that optical phase conjugation of 10 THz wide orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing signals could be possible, given appropriate dispersion management of the nonlinear element. We also experimentally demonstrate the benefit of MSSI in an 800 km transmission of CO-OFDM. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Enhancement in RSOA-Based WDM Passive Optical Networks Using Level Coding

    Page(s): 67 - 73
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (933 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reflective semiconductor optical amplifier has been widely employed in wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) for implementing colorless optical network unit. WDM-PONs using a single-feeder fiber is economically beneficial, but vulnerable to beat noise resulted from distributed and discrete reflections. In this paper, we present a novel technique exploiting simple digital signal processing to mitigate the impairments in single-feeder WDM-PON by means of introducing correlations between signal levels in a coding process. The correlation properties of the coded sequence permits overall spectrum shaping to suppress the low-frequency components. We apply dicode code, the simplest correlative level code that enables direct current balance, in the uplink of a WDM-PON with downstream continuous-wave seed light or in the downlink of a WDM-PON with remodulated upstream signal. In the first case, the system's reflection tolerance is substantially enhanced via the dicode-coded modulation in the uplink. Moreover, the system reach is extended by 15 and 25 km for data rate of 2.5 and 1.25 Gb/s, respectively. In the second case, a 60 km full-duplex WDM-PON with 10 Gb/s dicode-coded downlink and 2.5 Gb/s remodulated uplink is demonstrated with high robustness against the remodulation and reflection noise. View full abstract»

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  • Theory and Performance Analyses in Secure CO-OFDM Transmission System Based on Two-Dimensional Permutation

    Page(s): 74 - 80
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1244 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Security in optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) network has traditionally been considered to be addressed in higher layers of the network, while the physical layer is vulnerable to various attacks. As the dramatic increase of network capacity and secret sensitivity, the issue of physical layer security becomes more and more important. This paper proposes a novel physical-enhanced chaotic secure strategy for optical OFDM system based on two-dimensional (2-D) permutation. A controlled Logistic map is adopted for the chaotic mapping. The 2-D secure algorithm jointly utilizes frequency subcarriers and time-slots permutation to guarantee the secure of physical layer security of optical OFDM transmission system. This method performs dynamic permutations over frequency and time dimensions, resulting in a robust protection on transmitted information. Experiment is performed to confirm the good effectiveness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Design of Ultra-Compact Triangular Lattice Silica Photonic Crystal Polarization Converter

    Page(s): 81 - 86
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel design of ultra-compact polarization rotator (PR) based on triangular lattice silica photonic crystal fiber is proposed and analyzed. The suggested design has a central air hole which can be shifted in x and y directions to achieve complete polarization rotation. The influence of the different structure geometrical parameters and operating wavelength on the PR performance is investigated. The simulation results are obtained using full vectorial finite difference method as well as full vectorial finite difference beam propagation method. The numerical results reveal that the reported PR can provide nearly 100% polarization conversion ratio with a device length of 206 μm. It is also expected that over the 1.5-1.6 μ m wavelength range, polarization conversion would be more than 99%. View full abstract»

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  • Optimized Silicon AWG With Flattened Spectral Response Using an MMI Aperture

    Page(s): 87 - 93
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1574 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate compact 12-channel 400 GHz arrayed waveguide grating wavelength demultiplexers (AWG) in silicon with a flattened spectral response. Insertion loss, crosstalk and non-uniformity are -3.29 dB, 17.0 dB and 1.55 dB, respectively. The flattened spectral response is obtained by using an optimized mode shaper consisting of a multi-mode interference coupler as the input aperture of the AWG. The ratio of the 1 dB bandwidth to the 10 dB bandwidth is improved by 50%, from 0.33 to 0.49 compared to a conventional AWG. The device size is only 560×350 μm2 . View full abstract»

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  • Broadband Tunable All-Fiber Polarization Interference Filter Based on 45 ^{\circ} Tilted Fiber Gratings

    Page(s): 94 - 98
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1087 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have theoretically and experimentally designed and demonstrated an all-fiber polarization interference filter (AFPIF), which is formed by a polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber cavity structure utilizing two 45° tilted fiber gratings (45°TFGs) inscribed by UV laser on the PM fiber. Such a filter could generate modulated transmission of linear polarization status. It has been revealed that the modulation depth of the transmission depends on the coupling angle between the 45°-TFGs and the PM fiber cavity. When the two 45°-TFGs in PM fiber are oriented at 45° to the principal axis of the PM fiber cavity, the maximum modulation depth is achievable. Due to the thermal effect on birefringence of the PM fiber, the AFPIF can be tuned over a broad wavelength range just by simple thermal tuning of the cavity. The experiment results show that the temperature tuning sensitivity is proportional to the length ratio of the PM fiber cavity under heating. For 18 and 40 cm long cavities with 6 cm part under heating, the thermal tuning sensitivities are 0.616 and 0.31 nm/°C, respectively, which are almost two orders of magnitude higher than normal fiber Bragg gratings. View full abstract»

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  • EIBT: Exclusive Intervals for Bulk Transfers on EPONs

    Page(s): 99 - 110
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1315 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The upstream transmission of bulk data files in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) arises from a number of applications, such as data backup and multimedia file upload. Existing upstream transmission approaches lead to severe delays for conventional packet traffic when best effort file and packet traffic are mixed. We propose and evaluate an exclusive interval for bulk transfer (EIBT) transmission strategy that reserves an EIBT for file traffic in an EPON polling cycle. We optimize the duration of the EIBT to minimize a weighted sum of packet and file delays. Through mathematical delay analysis and verifying simulation, we demonstrate that the EIBT approach preserves small delays for packet traffic, while efficiently serving bulk data file transfers. View full abstract»

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  • Phase Sensitive-Optical Low Coherence Interferometer: A New Protocol to Evaluate the Performance of Optical Micro-Resonators

    Page(s): 111 - 117
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1678 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the efficient implementation of phase sensitive-optical low-coherence interferometry to evaluate key performances (like dispersion law, coupling coefficient, optical losses, etc.) of photonic devices in general, and in particular of components based on optical micro-resonators, for both transverse electric and magnetic polarizations. Our setup was used for the characterization of vertically-coupled polymer micro-racetrack resonators. A mathematic model was developed to enhance the reliability of theoretical fitting to experimental curves, by taking into account first-order dispersion in the device under test. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of In-Band OSNR Monitoring Technique Using Power Ratio

    Page(s): 118 - 124
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1029 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose and demonstrate an in-band optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) monitoring technique using the output power ratio (PR) of the nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) theoretically and experimentally. Operation point (OP) is investigated to be the input average power which corresponds to the first maximum of the power ratio curve. The monitoring performances using PR are proved to be better than those just using one output port of NOLM for on-off keying (OOK) and differential phase-shift-keying (DPSK) signals with different duty cycles: non-return-to-zero (NRZ), carrier-suppressed return-to zero (CSRZ), return-to-zero (RZ) with 50% and 33% duty cycle (RZ 50 and RZ 33) at 40 Gb/s. For 80 Gb/s RZ-differential quadrature phase-shift keying (DQPSK) signal, we obtained 12.16 dB maximum power variation and 13-39.8 dB monitoring range experimentally. The power ratio scheme can improve the contrast ratio by 7.05 dB and the monitoring range by 13.8 dB compared with that just using the transmission port. The tolerance to residual chromatic dispersion of the monitoring performance is investigated to be less than 1.7 ps/nm. The experimental validations are consistent with the theoretical analyses. The proposed scheme can be used in ultra-speed transmission systems. View full abstract»

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  • Push-Pull Defragmentation Without Traffic Disruption in Flexible Grid Optical Networks

    Page(s): 125 - 133
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1427 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In flexi-grid optical networks, fragmentation of spectrum resources may significantly affect the overall network efficiency. Effective techniques for defragmentation (i.e., re-optimization) are then required to limit the wasting of spectrum resources. However, current defragmentation techniques can only be implemented thanks to the presence of additional resources, such as spare expensive transponders. In this study, we propose, discuss and evaluate a novel defragmentation technique called push-pull. The technique is based on dynamic lightpath frequency retuning upon proper reconfiguration of allocated spectrum resources. It does not require additional transponders and does not determine traffic disruption. All the relevant technological limitations that may affect the push-pull applicability are discussed in the context of both optically-amplified direct and coherent detection systems. The technique is then successfully demonstrated in two different flexi-grid network testbeds, reproducing the two aforementioned scenarios. In particular, the reoptimization of a 10 Gb/s OOK lightpath is safely completed in few seconds (mainly due just to node configuration latencies) without experiencing any traffic disruption. Similarly, the push-pull is successfully performed on a 100 Gb/s PM-QPSK lightpath, providing no traffic disruption. View full abstract»

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  • An Indoor Visible Light Communication Positioning System Using a RF Carrier Allocation Technique

    Page(s): 134 - 144
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2531 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a new indoor positioning system utilizing visible light communication. Intensity modulation/direct detection and carrier allocation methods are utilized in the proposed system. Simultaneous three channel transmissions were applied to calculate the receiver's position. The characteristics of the proposed positioning system were investigated through simulation based on the experimental results, and the feasibility of the proposed system was verified by experimentation. The experimental result shows that the average error of estimated positions is reduced to 2.4 cm using adjustment process by normalizing method, which is compared with 141.1 cm without adjustment process. View full abstract»

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  • Generation of Versatile Waveforms From CW Light Using a Dual-Drive Mach-Zehnder Modulator and Employing Chromatic Dispersion

    Page(s): 145 - 151
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1222 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we analyze waveform generation using a single-stage dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator and a dispersive fiber. We derive a mathematical expression for the waveform generation process in the time domain and use this to propose a waveform generation algorithm. Furthermore, versatile waveforms, such as short pulse, trapezoidal, triangular and sawtooth waveforms and doublet pulse, are theoretically generated under different combinations of the four variables. The generated waveforms are analyzed in terms of the gradient and the instantaneous frequency. Finally, the waveform generation is experimentally demonstrated at the repetition rate of 10 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Reliable Network Design for Ethernet Ring Mesh Networks

    Page(s): 152 - 160
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1053 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A Novel Design Optimization For Reliable Networking Is Investigated In Ethernet Ring Mesh Networks With The Itu-T G.8032 Ethernet Ring Protection Recommendation. Designing An Ethernet Ring Mesh Consisting Of Multiple Rings To Achieve The Maximum Network Availability Is An Np-Complete Problem. We Show That A Graph With Vertex Connectivity Equal To Or Greater Than Two Is A Sufficient Condition For Designing An Ethernet Ring Mesh. A Novel Design Rule With An Efficient Heuristic Algorithm Is Proposed To Find A Design Close To An Optimal Ethernet Ring Mesh In Terms Of Maximum Network Availability. Compared With An Optimal Network Design Algorithm With An Exponential Enumeration Search Cost, The Heuristic Algorithm Achieves Network Availability Nearly As High As That Of An Optimal Design At A Polynomial Cost. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Validation of Numerical Simulations and Performance Analysis of a Coherent Optical-OFDM Transmission System Employing a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    Page(s): 161 - 170
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1534 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a numerical model of Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA) is experimentally validated in terms of the Alpha Factor (αH) and the Four-Wave Mixing (FWM). Besides, a Coherent Optical-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (CO-OFDM) simulation platform is used to confirm the good agreement between the measured and the simulated Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) of a received signal amplified by the studied SOA in an optical transmission link. In addition, the performance of the SOA on the amplification of a 10.94 Gb/s QPSK CO-OFDM signal is numerically analyzed with respect to the Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise, the Alpha Factor, the output saturation power of the SOA and the bit rate. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Lightwave Technology contains articles on current research, applications and methods used in lightwave technology and fiber optics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Peter J. Winzer
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs