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Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • Table of Contents

    Page(s): C1 - 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Offset-Free Predictive Control for Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    Page(s): 2 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1493 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wind turbine aerodynamics is known as a nonlinear and stochastic system; hence, a high-performance requirement of tight optimal regime tracking is beyond the capability of the conventional linear PI controller. On the other hand, the linear model of the nonlinear wind turbine aerodynamics at a specific operating point produces a mismatch between plant and model which is the main reason for reference tracking offset seen in a conventional predictive controller. This paper presents a new predictive control approach for variable speed wind turbines in order to guarantee maximum power captured under the rated wind speed. The proposed algorithm, offset-free predictive control (OF-PC), has been exploited to provide zero error tracking of the nonstationary optimal speed trajectory. The control scheme attempts to add additional output disturbance signals to the linear presentation of wind turbine aerodynamics together with an appropriate observer design to lump the plant-model mismatches and/or unmodeled disturbances. The simulation and experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the control method. View full abstract»

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  • Quasi-Z-Source Inverter-Based Photovoltaic Generation System With Maximum Power Tracking Control Using ANFIS

    Page(s): 11 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1915 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper proposes an artificial-intelligence-based solution to interface and deliver maximum power from a photovoltaic (PV) power generating system in standalone operation. The interface between the PV dc source and the load is accomplished by a quasi-Z-source inverter (qZSI). The maximum power delivery to the load is ensured by an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based on maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The proposed ANFIS-based MPPT offers an extremely fast dynamic response with high accuracy. The closed-loop control of the qZSI regulates the shoot through duty ratio and the modulation index to effectively control the injected power and maintain the stringent voltage, current, and frequency conditions. The proposed technique is tested for isolated load conditions. Simulation and experimental approaches are used to validate the proposed scheme. View full abstract»

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  • A Simple and Effective Real-Time Controller for Wave Energy Converters

    Page(s): 21 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1466 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel strategy for the real-time control of oscillating wave energy converters (WECs) is proposed. The controller tunes the oscillation of the system such that it is always in phase with the wave excitation force and the amplitude of the oscillation is within given constraints. Based on a nonstationary, harmonic approximation of the wave excitation force, the controller is easily tuned in real-time for performance and constraints handling, through one single parameter of direct physical meaning. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is assessed for a heaving system in one degree of freedom, in a variety of irregular (simulated and real) wave conditions. A performance close to reactive control and to model predictive control is achieved. Additional benefits in terms of simplicity and robustness are obtained. View full abstract»

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  • A Methodology for Transforming an Existing Distribution Network Into a Sustainable Autonomous Micro-Grid

    Page(s): 31 - 41
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1853 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A distribution network with renewable and fossil-based resources can be operated as a micro-grid, in autonomous or nonautonomous modes. Autonomous operation of a distribution network requires cautious planning. In this context, a detailed methodology to develop a sustainable autonomous micro-grid is presented in this paper. The proposed methodology suggests novel sizing and siting strategies for distributed generators and structural modifications for autonomous micro-grids. The optimal sites and corresponding sizes of renewable resources for autonomous operation are obtained using particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm-based optimization techniques. Structural modifications based on ranking of buses have been attempted for improving the voltage profile of the system, resulting in reduction of real power distribution losses. The proposed methodology is adopted for a standard 33-bus distribution system to operate as an autonomous micro-grid. Results confirm the usefulness of the proposed approach in transforming an existing radial distribution network into an autonomous micro-grid. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of Energy Yield of Small Wind Turbines in Low Wind Speed Areas

    Page(s): 42 - 49
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1043 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The objective of this paper is to compare the energy yield and generated electricity cost of several commercially available small wind turbines under low wind speed condition. Many small wind turbines were not able to generate the amount of electricity promised by the manufacturers. The predicted annual energy yield simulated using manufacturers' power curve were sometimes higher than actual measured values by up to a factor of two. Furthermore, above a rotor size of 3 m, large diameter turbines performed better, having both low generated electricity cost ( € /kWh) and high annual energy yield per swept area (kWh/m 2). View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity-Analysis-Based Sliding Mode Control for Voltage Regulation in Microgrids

    Page(s): 50 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1989 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a sliding mode controller to address the problem of voltage regulation in microgrids involving doubly fed induction wind generators (DFIGs). The control objective is to achieve terminal voltage regulation while ensuring maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The control development is based on voltage sensitivity analysis to eliminate the possibility of interference with the other voltage regulation devices in the microgrid. The proposed method: 1) does not require synchronous coordinate transformation, 2) eliminates the need for decoupled proportional-integral (PI) loops, and 3) is local and can be implemented in the absence of widespread communication systems or remote measurements. Additionally, its control performance is not degraded by errors in system parameters. The performance of the method is illustrated on the IEEE 13-bus distribution network. Dynamic models are considered for the DFIG, converters, and internal controllers along with their operational limits. Stochastic fluctuations in wind speed are modeled with NREL Turbsim while accounting for the tower shadow and wind shear. Dynamic simulations (in PSCAD/EMTDC) are presented to assess the control performance with voltage fluctuation compensation and control system robustness. View full abstract»

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  • Fault Current Contribution of Medium Voltage Inverter and Doubly-Fed Induction-Machine-Based Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Page(s): 58 - 67
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the main concerns with inverter-based distributed generation (IBDG) is its negligible fault current contribution compared to synchronous generators. IBDG hardly affects fault current level, which shadows conventional protection schemes especially with a high penetration of IBDGs at high power levels and/or in island operation mode. This paper proposes a solution for IBDG in a medium voltage distribution network that allows active and adjustable IBDG fault current contribution without violating the nonoverload nature of the inverters. This is achieved by introducing a flywheel energy storage system based on a doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) in parallel with the IBDG. Normally, the flywheel system is dedicated to power leveling; however, during faults, the flywheel DFIM storage system (FW-DFIM) has the ability to supply an exponentially decaying current to the grid. The parallel combination of the IBDG and FW-DFIM as a distributed generation (DG) unit is capable of providing a response similar to that of synchronous generators during a fault, but with additional control capability. The simulated system shows the effectiveness of the DG unit for downstream faults where it is capable of providing sufficient fault current to trigger the distribution network's protection devices when operating in island mode. View full abstract»

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  • Storage Size Determination for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Page(s): 68 - 81
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4155 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we study the problem of determining the size of battery storage used in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. In our setting, electricity is generated from PV and is used to supply the demand from loads. Excess electricity generated from the PV can be either sold back to the grid or stored in a battery, and electricity must be purchased from the electric grid if the PV generation and battery discharging cannot meet the demand. Due to the time-of-use electricity pricing and net metered PV systems, electricity can also be purchased from the grid when the price is low, and be sold back to the grid when the price is high. The objective is to minimize the cost associated with net power purchase from the electric grid and the battery capacity loss while at the same time satisfying the load and reducing the peak electricity purchase from the grid. Essentially, the objective function depends on the chosen battery size. We want to find a unique critical value (denoted as Crefc ) of the battery size such that the total cost remains the same if the battery size is larger than or equal to Crefc, and the cost is strictly larger if the battery size is smaller than Crefc. We obtain a criterion for evaluating the economic value of batteries compared to purchasing electricity from the grid, propose lower and upper bounds on Crefc, and introduce an efficient algorithm for calculating its value; these results are validated via simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed Energy Resources Integration Challenges in Low-Voltage Networks: Voltage Control Limitations and Risk of Cascading

    Page(s): 82 - 88
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The integration of distributed energy resources (DER) in low-voltage networks is expected to increase significantly in the next few years. It is known that the large-scale integration of DER in conventional low-voltage (LV) networks poses many challenges such as voltage rise. To mitigate voltage rise caused by DER, utilities are defining simple voltage regulation strategies such as disconnecting DER when phase voltages rise above a defined threshold. In this paper, we model LV networks as three-phase unbalanced circuits and illustrate that such local regulation strategies may cause the cascading of the DER in a feeder. We then propose an optimal control approach to avoid cascading and optimize DER availability. Local control approaches are discussed in the context of global DER availability and their limitations are illustrated. View full abstract»

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  • A Comparative Study on Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Power Systems

    Page(s): 89 - 98
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques applied to photovoltaic (PV) power system available until January, 2012. A good number of publications report on different MPPT techniques for a PV system together with implementation. But, confusion lies while selecting a MPPT as every technique has its own merits and demerits. Hence, a proper review of these techniques is essential. Unfortunately, very few attempts have been made in this regard, excepting two latest reviews on MPPT [Salas, 2006], [Esram and Chapman, 2007]. Since, MPPT is an essential part of a PV system, extensive research has been revealed in recent years in this field and many new techniques have been reported to the list since then. In this paper, a detailed description and then classification of the MPPT techniques have made based on features, such as number of control variables involved, types of control strategies employed, types of circuitry used suitably for PV system and practical/commercial applications. This paper is intended to serve as a convenient reference for future MPPT users in PV systems. View full abstract»

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  • An Optimal Total Cross Tied Interconnection for Reducing Mismatch Losses in Photovoltaic Arrays

    Page(s): 99 - 107
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1091 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A mismatch in a photovoltaic array implies differences in the I-V characteristics of the modules forming the array. This can lead to significant energy losses known as mismatch losses. The mismatch and the resulting losses can be reduced by altering the interconnection of the array. This paper proposes an optimal total cross tied interconnection, based on a thorough mathematical formulation that can significantly reduce mismatch losses. The improvement over existing photovoltaic array interconnections has been demonstrated by extensive simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of the Incremental Conductance Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm

    Page(s): 108 - 117
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1148 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An efficient, cost-effective maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is required to improve the energy utilization efficiency of low power photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper presents an experimental evaluation of the incremental conductance MPPT algorithm when employed by a standalone PV pumping system, using an experimental installation comprised of a 1080-Wp photovoltaic array connected to a 1-kW permanent magnet dc motor-centrifugal pump set. Particular focus is given to the evaluation of the two commonly utilized implementation techniques: reference voltage perturbation and direct duty ratio perturbation. The influence of algorithm parameters on system behavior is investigated and the energy utilization efficiency is calculated for different weather conditions. The performance of the incremental conductance algorithm is compared to that of the commonly used perturb and observe MPPT algorithm and the various advantages and drawbacks of each technique are identified. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    Page(s): 118 - 126
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1941 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the application of nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) to a point absorber wave energy converter (WEC). Model predictive control (MPC) is generally a promising approach for WECs, since system constraints and actuator limits can be taken into account. Moreover, it provides a framework for defining optimal energy capture and it can benefit from predictions. Due to possible nonlinear effects, such as the mooring forces, an NMPC is proposed in this paper, whose performance is compared to that of a linear MPC. Both controllers are supposed to control a nonlinear point absorber model. Computer simulations show that the proposed NMPC is able to optimize the energy capture while satisfying system limits. View full abstract»

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  • Multiobjective Control of PEM Fuel Cell System With Improved Durability

    Page(s): 127 - 135
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1541 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A critical design goal of a fuel-cell-based renewable energy system in a smart grid scenario is to enable high efficiency while extending durability. This is particularly emphasized when the fuel-cell system becomes widely used. Towards this goal, the effort in this research paper is to develop multiobjective controllers to simultaneously realize both output tracking and durability improvement. More specifically, two types of controller are developed. With assumptions of knowledge of system parameters, the first controller enables exponentially stability of the closed-loop system. Then, with practical considerations of robustness, an adaptive extension of the first controller is developed, which is capable of handling possible mismatch between real parameters and parameters obtained from the manufacturer or system identification methods. The performance and stability is theoretically guaranteed by a Lyapunov-based proof. Together with theoretical analysis, several scenarios are considered and tested via Matlab/simulink-based simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Excitation and Stability at Speed Transients of Self-Excited Single-Phase Reluctance Generators

    Page(s): 136 - 144
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1123 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Single-phase self-excited reluctance generators provide a good alternative to single-phase induction generators used in standalone generator applications. This is because of their simplicity, ruggedness, and higher efficiency. The determination of the conditions for the generator to self-excite, typically the critical speed and/or capacitance(s), plays an important role in the design of the system. So far, such analysis has only considered the behavior of the generator under constant speed and loading conditions. However, with most standalone generators driven by sustainable sources, and thus most applications of single-phase self-excited synchronous generators, the speed is by far not constant, but permanently changes over time-the wind being the classical example. This paper discusses the effects of such fluctuating speed on the minimum capacitance required to self-excite single-phase self-excited reluctance generators. It presents a new method to determine these capacitances by analyzing the overall system damping and amplifying components of the eigenvalues with lower and upper natural frequencies. The analysis is expanded to different generator parameters and loading conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Photovoltaic Array Reconfiguration to Reduce Partial Shading Losses

    Page(s): 145 - 153
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Partial shading of a photovoltaic array is the condition under which different modules in the array experience different irradiance levels due to shading. This difference causes mismatch between the modules, leading to undesirable effects such as reduction in generated power and hot spots. The severity of these effects can be considerably reduced by photovoltaic array reconfiguration. This paper proposes a novel mathematical formulation for the optimal reconfiguration of photovoltaic arrays to minimize partial shading losses. The paper formulates the reconfiguration problem as a mixed integer quadratic programming problem and finds the optimal solution using a branch and bound algorithm. The proposed formulation can be used for an equal or nonequal number of modules per row. Moreover, it can be used for fully reconfigurable or partially reconfigurable arrays. The improvement resulting from the reconfiguration with respect to the existing photovoltaic interconnections is demonstrated by extensive simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generator With Vienna Rectifier for Wind Energy Conversion System

    Page(s): 154 - 163
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1636 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper analyzes a topology consisting of a permanent-magnet synchronous generator and a Vienna rectifier for a wind energy conversion system. A control strategy leading to maximum efficiency is proposed. Simulation results reveal that this configuration is advantageous with respect to energy efficiency compared to a traditional six-switch two-level converter. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system. View full abstract»

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  • Economic Value of PV Energy Storage Using Batteries of Battery-Switch Stations

    Page(s): 164 - 173
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1938 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Japanese government has set a power sector goal for photovoltaic (PV) power usage to reach 53 million kW by 2030. To achieve the large-scale introduction of PV, a large storage capacity, in the form of pumped storage systems or batteries, is needed to store surplus electricity from PV plants. At the same time, in the transport sector, the electric vehicle (EV) is being developed as an environmentally friendly vehicle. To promote the diffusion of EVs, we need infrastructure that can charge EVs in a short time; a battery-switch station is one solution to this problem. This study 1) proposes the use of the station batteries as a countermeasure for surplus electricity from PVs and 2) conducts two relevant analyses. In the first analysis, we calculate the marginal value of a battery and an inverter using the Optimal Generation Mix Model (OPTIGEN). In the second analysis, we set the annual lease fee for the inverter and the battery, and calculate the optimum installed capacity of these devices. The results showed that the marginal value of the inverter/battery decreases with increasing inverter/battery capacity. The optimum installed capacity of the inverter/battery is derived from the intersection of the line of marginal value with the line of the annual lease fee. The stations gain an additional profit by leasing batteries to utilities. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed Compression for Condition Monitoring of Wind Farms

    Page(s): 174 - 181
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A good understanding of individual and collective wind farm operation is necessary for improving the overall performance of the wind farm “grid,” as well as estimating in real time the amount of energy that can be generated for effectively managing demand and supply over the smart grid. This paper proposes a scheme for compressing wind speed measurements exploiting both temporal and spatial correlation between the readings via distributed source coding. The proposed scheme relies on a correlation model based on true measurements. Two compression schemes are proposed, both of low encoding complexity, as well as a particle-filtering-based belief propagation decoder that adaptively estimates the nonstationary noise of the correlation model. Simulation results using realistic models show significant performance improvements compared to the scheme that does not dynamically refine correlation. View full abstract»

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  • Multiobjective Battery Storage to Improve PV Integration in Residential Distribution Grids

    Page(s): 182 - 191
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1645 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates the potential of using battery energy storage systems in the public low-voltage distribution grid, to defer upgrades needed to increase the penetration of photovoltaics (PV). A multiobjective optimization method is proposed to visualize the trade-offs between three objective functions: voltage regulation, peak power reduction, and annual cost. The method is applied to a near-future scenario, based on a real residential feeder. The results provide insight into the dimensioning and the required specifications of the battery and the inverter. It is found that an inverter without batteries already achieves part of the objectives. Therefore, the added value of batteries to an inverter is discussed. Furthermore, a comparison between lithium-ion and lead-acid battery technologies is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Monitoring Wind Farms With Performance Curves

    Page(s): 192 - 199
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1555 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three different operational curves-the power curve, rotor curve, and blade pitch curve-are presented for monitoring a wind farm's performance. A five-year historical data set has been assembled for constructing the reference curves of wind power, rotor speed, and blade pitch angle, with wind speed as an input variable. A multivariate outlier detection approach based on k-means clustering and Mahalanobis distance is applied to this data to produce a data set for modeling turbines. Kurtosis and skewness of bivariate data are used as metrics to assess the performance of the wind turbines. Performance monitoring of wind turbines is accomplished with the Hotelling T2 control chart. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating and Planning Flexibility in Sustainable Power Systems

    Page(s): 200 - 209
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1290 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power systems have traditionally been designed to provide flexibility in a context where demand is met by bulk generation. The integration of variable and uncertain renewable generation sources, such as wind, increases the flexibility needed to maintain the load-generation balance. This paper aims to provide a systematic approach to evaluate the flexibility level and investigate the role of flexibility in generation planning and market operation. An “offline” index is proposed to estimate the technical ability of both the individual generators and the generation mix to provide the required flexibility. A dedicated unit construction and commitment (UCC) algorithm, able to consider plant investment and operation costs, is developed to determine the optimal investments in flexible generating units. Market simulation models are then implemented to determine the profits obtained from providing flexibility in different market designs. An adapted RTS-96 system is used to test the proposed models and the flexibility metric. Results demonstrate the validity of the UCC algorithm and the coherence of the proposed flexibility index. The analysis of the profits of flexibility shows that the market design plays an important role in the efficient deployment and subsequent profitability of flexibility resources. View full abstract»

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  • Forecasting Electricity Spot Prices Accounting for Wind Power Predictions

    Page(s): 210 - 218
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1439 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A two-step methodology for forecasting of electricity spot prices is introduced, with focus on the impact of predicted system load and wind power generation. The nonlinear and nonstationary influence of these explanatory variables is accommodated in a first step based on a nonparametric and time-varying regression model. In a second step, time-series models, i.e., ARMA and Holt-Winters, are applied to account for residual autocorrelation and seasonal dynamics. Empirical results are presented for out-of-sample forecasts of day-ahead prices in the Western Danish price area of Nord Pool's Elspot, during a two year period covering 2010-2011. These results clearly demonstrate the practical benefits of accounting for the complex influence of these explanatory variables. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy is a cross disciplinary and internationally archival journal aimed at disseminating results of research on sustainable energy that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences energy generation, transmission, distribution and delivery.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dr. Bikash C. Pal,  Ph.D.
Imperial College