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Sensors Journal, IEEE

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 64
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Sensors Journal publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 3
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 4 - 6
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  • Guest Editorial THz Sensing: Materials, Devices, and Systems

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 7
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • Metrology Issues and Solutions in THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy: Noise, Errors, Calibration

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 8 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1307 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews metrology aspects of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Noise is discussed together with its effects on system performance, including frequency-dependent dynamic range, signal-to noise ratio, and the measurement bandwidth. Sources of uncertainties are addressed, as are measurement errors arising from system design and from interactions with the object under test. Finally, techniques of system calibration are described. Commonly encountered issues are addressed and simple practical solutions suggested. Existing literature on the subject is reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • Modern Resonator Spectroscopy at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 18 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (876 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Classical resonator spectroscopy methods have been realized for the first time in the submillimeter wave range. A resonator spectrometer was developed earlier at the IAP RAS on the basis of an open Fabry-Perot resonator excited by the radiation of a backward wave oscillator whose frequency is stabilized by the phase lock loop system. This spectrometer is successfully used for high-precision measurements of the dielectric properties of solid, liquid, and gaseous dielectrics as well as for the metal and coating reflection measurements in the 36-370 GHz range. In this paper, we report an extension of the upper limit of the spectrometer operation frequency to 520 GHz. Features of operation of the main spectrometer systems in the extended frequency range are analyzed. The broadband measurements of absorption in modern MPCVD diamonds are presented. A continuous record of the absorption spectrum of the laboratory atmosphere in the 350-500 GHz range obtained for the first time by the high-sensitivity microwave method is demonstrated. Further prospects for extension of the spectrometer range to terahertz frequencies are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Terahertz Detection With Nanoscale Semiconductor Rectifiers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 24 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we describe our ongoing research on CMOS-compatible semiconductor nanosensors for broadband terahertz (THz) detection. We review the results of earlier work, which reveal the promise of THz rectification by nanoconstrictions, and present proof-of-concept results showing efficient THz detection at room temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Phase-Sensitive Terahertz Self-Heterodyne System Based on Photodiode and Low-Temperature-Grown GaAs Photoconductor at 1.55 \mu{\rm m}

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 31 - 36
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (813 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose and demonstrate a technique for phase change measurement of a continuous terahertz (THz) wave, based on 1.55- μm photonic techniques. The generation of the THz wave is based on photomixing using a uni-traveling-carrier photodiode. The detection of the THz wave is based on heterodyne mixing of the THz wave, using a low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductor with frequency-shifted photonic local oscillator signal. The measurement of a phase shift induced by a single sheet of paper with 85-μm thickness has been demonstrated at 300 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Mixing Interferometry With Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 37 - 43
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (759 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers (THz QCLs) are compact sources of coherent THz radiation with potential applications that include astronomy, trace-gas sensing, and security imaging. However, the reliance on slow and incoherent thermal detectors has limited their practical use in THz systems. We demonstrate THz sensing using self-mixing (SM) interferometry, in which radiation is reflected from an object back into the QCL cavity, causing changes in the laser properties; the THz QCL thus acts simultaneously as both a source and detector. Well-established SM theory predicts a much weaker coupling in THz QCLs than in diode lasers, yielding a near-linear relationship between the phase of SM signals and the external cavity length. We demonstrate velocimetry of an oscillating reflector by monitoring SM-induced changes in the QCL drive voltage. We show that this yields data equivalent to that obtained by sensing the emitted THz power, thus allowing phase-sensitive THz-SM sensing without any external detector. We also demonstrate high-resolution SM-imaging at a round-trip distance of 21 m in air-the longest-range interferometric sensing with a THz QCL to date. View full abstract»

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  • “On-the-Fly” Monitoring With a Single-Shot Terahertz Time-Domain Spectrometer

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 44 - 49
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1186 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate the application of a new and ultrafast terahertz (THz) time-domain spectrometer for the nondestructive evaluation of targets that are optically opaque and are composed of several subunits. Thanks to the single-shot capability and the kilohertz acquisition rate of the spectrometer, objects can be analyzed during free fall. The integrity of the objects and their structural subunits as packaging material can be verified by the large amount of information available from THz time-domain spectroscopy. The time of flight, overall absorption, and spectrally resolved absorption can be used to reconstruct the 2-D image along the vertical axis of movement and the depth of the objects. View full abstract»

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  • Continuous Wave Spectroscopic Terahertz Imaging With InGaAs Bow-Tie Diodes at Room Temperature

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 50 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1385 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Continuous wave spectroscopic terahertz imaging with InGaAs bow-tie diodes is demonstrated at room temperature. Spectra and images of plastic explosive simulators prepared from tartaric acid and sucrose are recorded within the frequency range of 0.585-2.52 THz. The bow-tie diode performance and implementation for real-time imaging applications are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • THz SPICE for Modeling Detectors and Nonquadratic Response at Large Input Signal

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 55 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (985 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The THz SPICE model is capable of simulating field effect transistors (FETs) in a plasmonic mode of operation at frequencies far above the device cutoff frequency. The model uses a distributed RC or RLC network and is validated by comparison of the simulation results with our analytical model of the plasmonic detector, and with measured results. It also allows us to determine the operation regimes, where conventional SPICE models are still applicable. The applicability of this model for THz sensing applications is demonstrated by simulating the plasmonic THz FET sensor with on-chip amplifier. View full abstract»

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  • Long Wavelength Low Temperature Grown GaAs and InP-Based Terahertz Photoconductors Devices

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 63 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (934 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A series of molecular beam epitaxy low temperature grown structures with various epitaxial and doping profiles are studied, and photoconductive antennas made on these structures are evaluated in a time-domain spectroscopy system. The structures are synthesized to absorb light at wavelengths of 800 nm, and 1 and 1.55 μm. Apertures and dipoles are designed as photoconductive antennas. The key findings for the long wavelength devices (1.55 μm) demonstrate materials with very short carrier lifetimes ( <; 1 ps), high resistivity ( >; 106 Ω/sq) , and system responses with THz pulses having power-to-noise ratio of 50 dB or more. These characteristics are among the best ever reported for such material systems, making them efficient THz emitters and detectors for various optoelectronic applications, especially for telecom laser-driven continuous wave THz systems. View full abstract»

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  • Highly Resolved Sub-Terahertz Vibrational Spectroscopy of Biological Macromolecules and Cells

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 72 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1245 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sub-terahertz (sub-THz) vibrational spectroscopy for biosensing is based on specific resonance features, vibrational modes or group of modes at close frequencies, in the absorption (transmission) spectra of large biological molecules and entire bacterial cells/spores. Further improvements in sensitivity, especially in the discriminative capability of sub-THz vibrational spectroscopy for detection, characterization, and identification of bacterial organisms, require spectral resolution adequate to the width of spectral features. Evidences exist for long-lasting relaxation processes for atomic dynamics (displacements) resulting in narrow spectral lines and justifying the development and application of highly resolved vibrational spectroscopy. Here we describe a new continuous-wave frequency-domain spectroscopic sensor with imaging capability operating at room temperature in the sub-THz spectral region between 315 and 480 GHz. We present experimental spectra from biological macromolecules and species obtained using this spectrometer and compare some spectra with simulation results using molecular dynamics. Observed multiple intense and specific resonances in transmission/absorption spectra from nano-gram samples with spectral line widths as small as 0.1 cm-1 provide conditions for reliable discriminative capability, potentially to the level of the strains of the same bacteria, and for monitoring interactions between biomaterials and reagents in near real-time. View full abstract»

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  • THz Hot-Electron Micro-Bolometer Based on Low-Mobility 2-DEG in GaN Heterostructure

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 80 - 88
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1021 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the results on design, fabrication, and characterization of a hot-electron bolometer based on low-mobility 2-D electron gas (2-DEG) in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. The characterization of our hot-electron bolometers demonstrates that the following can be achieved simultaneously: 1) strong coupling to incident THz radiation due to strong Drude absorption; 2) significant THz heating of 2-DEG due to the small value of the electron heat capacity; and 3) high responsivity due to the strong temperature dependence of 2-DEG resistance. Low contact resistance achieved in our devices ensures that THz radiation couples primarily to the 2-DEG. Due to a small electron momentum relaxation time, the real part of the 2-DEG sensor impedance is ~50-100 Ω, which provides good impedance matching between sensors and antennas. The room temperature responsivity of our devices reaches ~0.04 A/W at 2.55 THz along with a noise equivalent power of ~5 nW/Hz1/2. View full abstract»

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  • InP- and GaAs-Based Plasmonic High-Electron-Mobility Transistors for Room-Temperature Ultrahigh-Sensitive Terahertz Sensing and Imaging

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 89 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1609 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews recent advances in the design and performance of our original InP- and GaAs-based plasmonic high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) for ultrahighly-sensitive terahertz (THz) sensing and imaging. First, the fundamental theory of plasmonic THz detection is briefly described. Second, single-gate HEMTs with parasitic antennae are introduced as a basic core device structure, and their detection characteristics and sub-THz imaging potentialities are investigated. Third, dual-grating-gate (DGG)-HEMT structures are investigated for broadband highly sensitive detection of THz radiations, and the record sensitivity and the highly-sensitive THz imaging are demonstrated using the InP-based asymmetric DGG-HEMTs. Finally, the obtained results are summarized and future trends are addressed. View full abstract»

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  • Interferometric Technique for Measuring Terahertz Antenna Phase Patterns

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 100 - 110
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2603 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A quasi-optical interferometric technique capable of measuring antenna phase patterns without the need for a heterodyne receiver is presented. It is particularly suited to the characterization of terahertz antennas feeding power detectors or mixers employing quasi-optical local oscillator injection. Examples of recorded antenna phase patterns at frequencies of 1.4 and 2.5 THz using homodyne detectors are presented. To our knowledge, these are the highest frequency antenna phase patterns ever recovered. Knowledge of both the amplitude and phase patterns in the far field enable a Gauss-Hermite or Gauss-Laguerre beam-mode analysis to be carried out for the antenna, of importance in performance optimization calculations, such as antenna gain and beam efficiency parameters at the design and prototype stage of antenna development. A full description of the beam would also be required if the antenna is to be used to feed a quasi-optical system in the near-field to far-field transition region. This situation could often arise when the device is fitted directly at the back of telescopes in flying observatories. A further benefit of the proposed technique is simplicity for characterizing systems in situ, an advantage of considerable importance as in many situations, the components may not be removable for further characterization once assembled. The proposed methodology is generic and should be useful across the wider sensing community, e.g., in single detector acoustic imaging or in adaptive imaging array applications. Furthermore, it is applicable across other frequencies of the EM spectrum, provided adequate spatial and temporal phase stability of the source can be maintained throughout the measurement process. Phase information retrieval is also of importance to emergent research areas, such as band-gap structure characterization, meta-materials research, electromagnetic cloaking, slow light, super-lens design as well as near-field and virtual imaging applications. View full abstract»

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  • One-Port De-Embedding Technique for the Quasi-Optical Characterization of Integrated Components

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 111 - 123
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1417 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a one-port de-embedding technique suitable for the quasi-optical characterization of terahertz integrated components at frequencies beyond the operational range of most vector network analyzers. This technique is also suitable when the manufacturing of precision terminations to sufficiently fine tolerances for the application of a TRL de-embedding technique is not possible. The technique is based on vector reflection measurements of a series of easily realizable test pieces. A theoretical analysis is presented for the precision of the technique when implemented using a quasi-optical null-balanced bridge reflectometer. The analysis takes into account quantization effects in the linear and angular encoders associated with the balancing procedure, as well as source power and detector noise equivalent power. The precision in measuring waveguide characteristic impedance and attenuation using this de-embedding technique is further analyzed after taking into account changes in the power coupled due to axial, rotational, and lateral alignment errors between the device under test and the instruments' test port. The analysis is based on the propagation of errors after assuming imperfect coupling of two fundamental Gaussian beams. The required precision in repositioning the samples at the instruments' test-port is discussed. Quasi-optical measurements using the de-embedding process for a WR-8 adjustable precision short at 125 GHz are presented. The de-embedding methodology may be extended to allow the determination of S-parameters of arbitrary two-port junctions. The measurement technique proposed should prove most useful above 325 GHz where there is a lack of measurement standards. View full abstract»

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  • Subharmonic Mixing With Field-Effect Transistors: Theory and Experiment at 639 GHz High Above f_{T}

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 124 - 132
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1435 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present experimental and theoretical results on subharmonic mixing in field-effect transistors high above the transistor cutoff frequencies f_{T} . Analytical expressions for heterodyne and subharmonic mixing are derived considering different coupling conditions. They have to ensure that the charge density oscillations excited in the transistors' channels by the mixing signals overlap spatially. If this is the case, then a high efficiency of the mixing process can be sustained even at frequencies much above cutoff; in fact, the efficiency is predicted to increase with rising frequency when the plasma-wave regime \omega \tau \geq 1 , \tau being the electron momentum scattering time, is reached. With patch-antenna-coupled zero-drain-bias (passive) mixers, which we have implemented in standard a 150-nm silicon complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor process technology, subharmonic mixing is demonstrated for a signal frequency of 639 GHz and a local-oscillator frequency of 213 GHz (fundamental antenna resonance and its third harmonic). A local-oscillator drive of 8.2 mV yields an amplitude conversion of the electrical voltage of {-}{\rm 56}~{\rm dB} . The experimentally determined conversion fully agrees with the derived theory. View full abstract»

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  • Versatile Sub-THz Spectrometer for Trace Gas Analysis

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 133 - 138
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (646 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A THz sensor system based on a commercially available multiplier chain is applied to the analysis of trace gases. Frequency modulation of the source is used to achieve the high sensitivity required. Particular attention is paid to the line broadening effect caused by the modulation as this can hamper the quantification of the various chemical species being monitored. A numerical model using a Voigt absorption profile along with a single calibration step is used to provide quantitative information. The sensitivity obtained by this prototype instrument permits the analysis of various samples extracted during the industrial sintering of iron ore as part of the manufacturing of steel. View full abstract»

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  • W-Band Chirp Radar Mock-Up Using a Glow Discharge Detector

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 139 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (956 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Chirp or frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar is a very well-known method for range applications. Using the current technology, conventional FMCW radar for W-band waves requires the use of expensive microwave mixers and low noise amplifiers (LNA). A uniquely simple and inexpensive solution is presented using very inexpensive glow discharge detectors (GDDs). The use of GDDs enables direct beating between the electric field of the target signal and the reference signal eliminating the requirement for expensive millimeter wave mixers, sources, and LNAs. This unique solution to FMCW radar is proven to be capable of determining range to target, and creating 3-D radar images. In this paper, a proof of concept of chirp/FMCW radar detection using a GDD in the W-band regime is demonstrated experimentally. The GDD chirp radar system has the following advantages: 1) much simpler realization in short range applications; 2) rigid, room temperature operation; 3) sub-microsecond response time; 4) large dynamic range; and 5) immunity to high-power radiation. View full abstract»

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  • Mass Sensing With Optomechanical Oscillation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 146 - 147
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (791 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate the application of an optomechanical oscillator (OMO) as a high-resolution mass sensor. The coupling between high-Q optical and mechanical modes of a single optical microcavity results in narrow linewidth mechanical oscillation driven by the radiation pressure of the circulating optical power. The oscillation frequency can be monitored upon detection of the modulated transmitted optical power. Therefore the optical wave plays a dual role as both the driving power and a sensitive probe. The narrow oscillation linewidth, combined with the sensitivity of the mechanical resonance to mass changes, makes OMO an excellent candidate for all-optical mass sensing. Experimental results and theoretical analysis show that OMO can function as a compact, low-power mass sensor with sub-pg sensitivity. View full abstract»

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  • Ant-Search Strategy Based on Likelihood Trail Intensity Modification for Multiple-Fault Diagnosis in Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 148 - 158
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (565 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A swarm intelligence-based approach to multiple-fault diagnostics for industrial applications is proposed. Drawbacks of swarm-based algorithms in heuristic search strategy related to mutual dependence of solutions are overcome by a likelihood-based trail intensity modification of ant-colony optimization. Numerical results of a comprehensive characterization through statistical experiment design on high-dimension multiple-faults diagnosis applications are shown. Experimental results under the framework of an industrial research project committed to industrial remote monitoring of operating machines are discussed. Numerical and experimental results show excellent performance, outperforming genetic algorithms, especially in high-dimension problems, and easiness in algorithm configuration. View full abstract»

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  • Very Low 1/f Noise and Radiation-Hardened CMOS Preamplifier for High-Sensitivity Search Coil Magnetometers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 159 - 166
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A 4 nV/√(Hz) at 10 Hz preamplifier with a 12-mW power consumption in complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor 0.35 μm technology has been developed to go one step further in the integration of the preamplifier of a search coil magnetometer. The present application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) preamplifier, combined with a 10-cm length, 12-mm diameter, and 15 000 turns search coil sensor demonstrates a noise equivalent magnetic induction as low as 2 pT/√(Hz) at 10 Hz and 14 fT/√(Hz) at 4 kHz. The measured current noise is only 46 fA/√(Hz). AC magnetometers (from 100 mHz to a few kHz) based on search coil sensors are used for space plasma physics investigations because of their excellent robustness and very high sensitivity. The present ASIC preamplifier offers a way to considerably save weight, volume, and power. This paper will focus on the design of the ASIC, driven by the following criteria: low thermal and 1/f noise, radiation hardness for space purpose, and power consumption. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Sensors Journal is a peer-reviewed, monthly online/print  journal devoted to sensors and sensing phenomena

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Krikor Ozanyan
University of Manchester
Manchester, M13 9PL, U.K.