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American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Part I: Communication and Electronics, Transactions of the

Issue 5 • Date Nov. 1959

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 45
  • Long time delays from a single magnetic storage core

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 457 - 461
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    Accurate time delay devices are essential to both industrial and military control applications. Static time delay devices presently available provide time delays accurately and economically up to a few seconds. The emphasis on reliability in the industrial and military control fields has made it desirable that a static device be developed to generate the long time intervals required in these areas where reliability and accuracy are so fundamentally important. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of series-connected saturable reactor with capacitive loading and finite control resistance by use of difference equations

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 461 - 471
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    A series-connected saturable reactor with capacitive loading exhibits interesting features. The circuit may exhibit instability associated with a double or three-valued output corresponding to a given input depending on previous history of operation. In some ranges of circuit parameters and forcing function, the circuit may become regenerative thus oscillating at a low frequency modulating the carrier. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of magnetic amplifiers without diodes

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 471 - 485
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    Although there are many methods and procedures for analyzing complex circuits, probably the best-known general approach is to apply an organized, systematic procedure to the combination of the analytic expressions for the voltage-current characteristics of the individual circuit elements. To be able to apply this method of attack, it is essential that the characteristics of the individual circuit elements, if such elements can be defined, can be represented by analytic expressions, and that an organized method exists where the analytic representations of the individual circuit elements can be combined to yield the desired result. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of magnetic amplifiers with diodes

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 485 - 504
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    It has been demonstrated1 that the behavior of magnetic amplifiers without diodes can be analytically described by a set of linear difference equations relating the average values of voltages and currents at the ports. For most circuits this representation gives values which are accurate to within 1 or 2% of actual even for a large variety of waveforms of port and supply voltages. The reason for this rather remarkable accuracy of representation can be attributed to three factors: 1. The control circuit resistance R1 the output circuit resistance R2, and the load resistance RL are small compared to the magnetizing resistance Rm. 2. Almost all practical amplifiers of this type employ an interconnection of basic elements such that quiescent currents tend to cancel at the ports. 3. The state of the saturable inductor, saturated or unsaturated, depends on the integral of the inductor voltage rather than the inductor voltage itself. View full abstract»

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  • Standards for measurement of brightness intensification in fluoroscopic image intensifiers

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 504 - 506
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    It is convenient to characterize devices for production of intensified X-ray fluoroscopic images in terms of their brightness as compared with conventional fluoroscopic screens. Thus, an X-ray image intensifier is described having an intensification factor of 200 or 500 or 1,000 meaning that the image presented to the viewer is 200 or 500 or 1,000 times brighter than the image would be if he used a conventional X-ray screen. These figures, although widely used today, are meaningless unless all variables are defined and standardized in their measurement. Furthermore, the same term has been used to express the brightness relationship between a light image from a phosphor at the input end of an image device and the light image output. In the case of a fluorescent screen contiguous to a photoelectric surface in a vacuum, the input light image used as the base point can be quite different from, and is usually less bright than, the conventional fluoroscopic screen image under equal stimulus. However, to the best of the author's knowledge, no previous attempt has been made to propose a set of standard conditions on which to base a figure of merit for X-ray image intensifiers. View full abstract»

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  • The use of iterated laplace transformations in the solution of combined circuit-field problems

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 506 - 511
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    By consideration of a detailed example, the use of iterated Laplace transformations is shown to be an important technique for the solution of combined circuit-field problems, i.e., problems in which the simultaneous solution of ordinary and partial differential equations is necessary. One- and 2-mesh circuits in which eddy currents in a rectangular magnetic core play a significant role are analyzed utilizing the iterated transformations; equivalent circuits characterizing the effect of the eddy currents are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • System synthesis with the aid of digital computers

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 512 - 515
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    The conventional procedure for designing systems with many physical parameters is discussed and the translation of this procedure into digital computer operations is considered. Although it is possible to code all of the routine design calculations for a computer, it is impossible to program the insight of the design engineer. It is shown that the determination of the physical parameters for the optimum design of a system is generally equivalent to the minimization of a function subject to constraints. The application of the method of steepest descent to minimization problems is discussed. A method for extending its use to minimization with constraints is presented. View full abstract»

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  • The numerical-graphical method in the design of multiterminal switching circuits

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 515 - 519
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    Up to the present time there has been no satisfactory direct method for designing multiterminal switching circuits. A common approach is to consider each output individually and derive a 2-terminal network for it. An attempt is then made to change the form of the individual 2-terminal networks, if possible, so that combinations between paths may be facilitated. This may be done, for example, by algebraic manipulation of the switching functions describing the 2-terminal networks. Extreme care must be taken in any case so that the individual outputs remain disjunctive. View full abstract»

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  • Recommended symbols for magnetic amplifier papers ¿ A report

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 519 - 521
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    For the purpose of increasing the uniformity of symbols in magnetic amplifier papers, Mr. Harold W. Lord, chairman of the AIEE Magnetic Amplifier Committee, asked the Theory Subcommittee to prepare a list of recommended symbols. View full abstract»

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  • Observation of transients in the series-connected saturable reactor with high-impedance control source

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 521 - 526
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    In a series-connected saturable reactor working in the proportional mode with its control winding fed by a direct current from a high impedance source, the gate current as a function of time has a rectangular shape and its amplitude, in ampere turns, is equal to the magnitude of the control current.1 Full-wave rectification of the gate current yields a direct current closely proportional to the control current, regardless of changes in line voltage, frequency, and load resistance. Hence the name d-c transformer. This relation holds in general even under transient conditions. For instance, the gate current follows changes in the control current instantaneously and a ripple component in the control current is reproduced faithfully in the gate current even when its frequency is higher than that of the power source.2 View full abstract»

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  • Graphical analysis of full-wave magnetic amplifier control characteristics affected by control-circuit resistance

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 526 - 530
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    Several papers have been published on the correlation between the control characteristics of magnetic amplifiers and the magnetization characteristics of magnetic cores.1¿5 However, the approaches hitherto inaugurated on this subject of great importance have failed in elucidating the problem concerning the effect of control-circuit resistance (CCR) on the control characteristics of full-wave magnetic amplifiers, because of the lack of an appropriate understanding of the dynamic loop of the reactor core. In the case of the highly oriented magnetic core with rectangular hysteresis loop, the control-magnetization curve (CMC)6,7 coincides very well with the flux-control characteristics produced by direct-voltage reset.8,9 This experimental fact enables us to interpret CMC as the relation between the rate of flux change and the instantaneous magnetizing current. View full abstract»

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  • A one-watt solar power plant

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 530 - 535
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    Shortly after the announcement1 of the invention of the Bell Solar Battery, Bell Telephone Laboratories undertook an exploratory development program with a twofold purpose. First, device designers wanted to learn how to make large quantities of silicon photodiodes, how to devise reliable connections to the active parts of the diode, and if possible, how to increase the realizable efficiency of conversion of sunlight to electricity. Second, system designers wished to find out how to use the new photodiodes in the most efficient and practical way in power plants for telephone equipment. View full abstract»

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  • Statistical spectral output of power law nonlinearity

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 535 - 543
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    One of the objectives of analyzing a system is to determine if there are periodic oscillations and, if so, what their amplitude and frequency will be; another objective is to determine the magnitudes of output errors and output powers, when the statistical character of the input signal and noises are known. Methods are given for calculating the output power and the error power for nonlinearities describ-able by power series for Gaussian and for certain other special kinds of input signals. View full abstract»

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  • Spectral output of piecewise linear nonlinearity

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 543 - 549
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    The transference or effective gain of a piecewise linear component is derived. The output autocorrelation function of a clipper, a dead zone, and a general piecewise linear nondynamic component is obtained by a double integration of the second probability density. The output power is a sum of Gaussian error integrals. This can be divided into fundamental or correlated power, and distortion power due to lack of desired signal or presence of harmonics. View full abstract»

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  • Indialing to PBX extensions: Application in a step-by-step central office area

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 549 - 554
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    Up to the present time, the completion of an incoming call to a private branch exchange (PBX) extension telephone has been dependent upon a human attendant. She must determine what extension station is desired and do the proper switching of the call from the incoming trunk to the station. Indialing provides a means whereby the call is dialed directly from the general exchange system to the PBX station without the need for a human attendant, except for transfer and information services. View full abstract»

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  • Basic concepts of multidimensional space filters

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 554 - 561
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    The conventional electric network, consisting of linear or one-dimensional RLC (resistance-inductance-capacitance) elements, may be generalized by adding to it planar-, cubic-, etc., up to k-dimensional RLC elements. The resultant geometrical configuration of 0-, 1-, 2-¿ to k-dimensional spatial networks interconnected into one structure is called, in combinatorial topology, a ¿polyhedron.¿ Its electric-network realization may be called a ¿wave model.¿ The electromagnetic structure formed by interconnecting two or more wave models into one network, will be called a ¿multidimensional space filter.¿ The latter is expected to be employed eventually for the theoretical and perhaps practical solution of such physical problems for which the conventional linear (one-dimensional) electric filter is used today, on a much more elaborate multidimensional scale, of course. A single polyhedron is expected to be used in the numerical solution of simpler multidimensional problems of the calculus of finite differences, having nonuniform space intervals. View full abstract»

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  • Inductance of A-C magnets from simple models

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 562 - 568
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    The inductance of an a-c magnet is a function of its coil as well as its magnetic structure. Hence, if the total equivalent permeance of the magnetic field is known, the inductance can be obtained from the equation $L = N^{2} p_{eq} (10^{-8}) eqno {hbox{(1)}}$ where L = inductance, henrys N = series turns in the coil peq = equivalent permeance, lines/ampere Because computing the permeance of even very simple fields is at best a laborious process, the permeance is generally most easily obtained from experimental tests on models. This paper describes a method in which the field of an a-c magnet is divided into a particular set of hypothetical components which can be simulated electrically with simple models. The permeance of each component field is obtained from a model which suits the component field, and the several permeances so obtained are superimposed to yield the permeance of the original field. View full abstract»

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  • A new direct matrix inversion method

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 568 - 572
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    This paper describes a special-purpose matrix inversion technique developed in the System-Planning Branch of TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority). This is the first known use of the method. It is particularly applicable to the inversion of matrices that describe power system impedances or admittances. As outlined, the technique is not entirely general. It requires division by elements of the major diagonal. Thus, when the element is being used as a divisor, it must not be zero. Under such a condition the digital program changes the sequence of calculations. However, a zero in the final diagonal position to be used will cause the matrix to be considered singular. The technique can be made more general but this is not necessary for most power system work. View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to training telephone engineers

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 572 - 576
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    A picture of telephone engineers living in a college dormitory, eating in a college dining hall, and walking across a campus to classes on communications theory conducted by college professors is an intriguing one. This has been taking place during the past year in South Carolina. It is part of a new method of providing technical training to experienced telephone engineers developed by the School of Engineering of Clemson College and the engineering department of the Southern Bell Telepone and Telegraph Company. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and design of a transistor linear-delay circuit

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 577 - 580
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    In this paper an analysis is presented of the emitter-coupled linear-time-delay circuit as well as a systematic design procedure which starts with a practical set of specifications. Some important fundamental limitations on the operation and design of the circuit are also presented. Experimental data are included to give an idea of the range of validity of the theory. A range of the ratio of maximum-to-minimum pulse width as high as several hundred has been obtained as compared with 10 or 20 obtainable from a similar vacuum-tube circuit. A ratio in excess of 30 was obtained with a deviation from linearity of less than 3%. Stages of this circuit have been successfully operated in cascade. View full abstract»

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  • An equivalent circuit for transformers in which nonlinear effects are present

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 580 - 586
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    Textbooks dealing with the subjects of transformer theory and design generally use the T-equivalent circuit to represent the inductive parameters of a transformer. This paper will point out a limitation of the T-equivalent circuit and will show that the ¿-equivalent circuit has no such limitation. View full abstract»

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  • SPUD, a stored-program universal demonstrator for computer training

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 586 - 594
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    Considerable difficulty is usually encountered by the novice in understanding how stored-program information-processing systems operate, and how they can be programed. While conventional teaching tools are definitely inadequate in this case, the use of a commercial computer for demonstrations does not provide an ideal solution either, because the machine tends to overwhelm the novice with its speed and complexity. A satisfactory solution has been found in SPUD (Stored-Program Universal Demonstrator), a stored-program relay machine designed specifically as a teaching aid, complicated enough to stimulate the novice but still easy to grasp in its entirety. View full abstract»

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  • Experience with long-distance television fields used for retransmission

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 594 - 596
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    It has been known for some time that long-distance (100¿150 miles) very-high frequency propagation exists, and is capable of wide-band performance. This paper follows the empirical investigation of these fields to their ultimate use as signal sources for a community antenna system (CATV) and a television station (WSVA-TV). View full abstract»

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  • The use of automatic programing techniques for solving engineering problems

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 596 - 601
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    There are four large-scale digital computers at Westinghouse Electric Corporation employed in making engineering calculations: one International Business Machine Corporation (IBM) 705 and three IBM 704's (Table I). This paper summarizes the experience with automatic coding systems at these four installations. View full abstract»

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  • A study of thermal deterioration of kraft pulps using a mass spectrometer

    Publication Year: 1959 , Page(s): 602 - 606
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    As thermal deterioration of electrical insulating materials is directly connected with their lives it has been an important problem since electric machines and apparatuses were put to practical use. Nevertheless, a thorough study has not been made on the subject because quite a long time is required for testing the lives of the materials and also because numberless combinations and many working conditions of materials must be considered in order to get sufficient data concerning the problem. Moreover new insulating materials are rapidly appearing and it has become necessary for us to know their deterioration properties. Consequently, it is necessary to find a test method which will enable us to know these characteristics within a short period of time. Accordingly the authors intended to find the degradation of some kind of insulating materials with a mass spectrometer as it was impossible to detect a large quantity of deterioration products by the apparatus in general use.1 Kraft pulps were taken as samples first. In analyzing thermally generated gases from the samples, fundamental data were obtained in a short time by which thermal endurance of the materials could be concluded. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased publication in 1963. The current retitled publication is  IEEE Transactions on Communications.

Full Aims & Scope