By Topic

American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Part I: Communication and Electronics, Transactions of the

Issue 6 • Date Jan. 1955

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Impedance and induced voltage measurements on iron conductors

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 577 - 581
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1177 KB)  

    THE purpose of this paper is to provide data and from these to draw conclusions on three questions involving the flow of 60-cycle alternating currents in iron or steel structures. First, the paper will attempt to provide a simple empirical means of calculating the a-c impedance of iron or steel members. The application of these data for protective grounding and fault calculations will be presented in a companion paper. Second, the paper will indicate the effect of joints and couplings in iron and steel structures on the flow of 60-cycle currents. The third question that this paper will attempt to answer is what effect the current flow on iron conduit surfaces will have on control conductors in the conduits. The application of these data will also be covered in a companion paper. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Techniques for measuring cascaded self-saturating magnetic-amplifier performance

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 581 - 584
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1699 KB)  

    THE rapid development of magnetic amplifiers in recent years has led to the spending of much effort on their analysis and design criteria. Despite the progress made, a major part of the design must still be carried out experimentally. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The biased rectifier amplifier ¿ A pulse magnetic amplifier

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 584 - 590
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1468 KB)  

    THE biased rectifier amplifier (BRA) was developed to provide small, fast and high-gain magnetic amplifiers which operate from power frequencies such as 60 or 400 cycles. They operate from a pulse power supply and use a voltage source, such as a battery, in series with its rectifiers. They provide push-pull output with one core. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Interoffice trunking and signaling

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 590 - 597
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1796 KB)  

    EACH ENGINEER who for the first time concerns himself with the problems of telephone interoffice trunking discovers that practically the only source of information regarding equipment and operation comes from actual circuits and circuit description sheets which are not always available. This paper summarizes the information gained from a review of a number of trunk circuits with a view to providing the interested engineer with a basis for choosing the method of operation best suited to his particular need. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Single-ended saturable reactor circuit with quiescent current compensation

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 597 - 603
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3791 KB)  

    This paper has been prepared to introduce a single-ended saturable reactor circuit which exhibits a transfer characteristic for which the d-c output is essentially a linear function of the d-c input for the entire design range of d-c inputs. This ¿to-zero¿ operation is shown to be the result of a unique combination of nonlinear characteristics of conventional devices, transformer and rectifier, which eliminates the magnetizing component of the reactor current from the d-c output. The new circuit is presented and a qualitative description of the circuit operation is given. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Measurements of materials with high dielectric constant and conductivity at ultrahigh frequencies

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 603 - 607
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1089 KB)  

    THE principles for measuring dielectric properties of materials at ultrahigh frequencies are well established.1,2 They are based on measurement of voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) and location of the standing wave pattern, which results from reflection of electromagnetic waves in front of the sample; see Fig. 1. Transmission line or wave guide sections, depending upon frequency, are used to obtain the necessary 1-dimensional field propagation. The complex reflection factor p, obtained from the measurement as indicated, is related to the dielectric properties of the sample. This relationship permits expressions of the dielectric properties directly, in terms of the observed quantities W = 1 ¿ ¿/1 + ¿ (inverse of VSWR) and l0 = x0 + ¿/4. For the two most important special cases, sample loaded with either infinite or zero impedance, the relations given in Fig. 2 hold.2 ¿¿ is the complex dielectric constant of the sample, ¿ its permittivity, and tan ¿ characterizes the dielectric losses. It is assumed that the dimensions of the transmission line are unchanged in the sample section, as indicated in Figs. 1 and 2. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A magnetically regulated portable battery charger

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 607 - 610
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1975 KB)  

    IN CONNECTION with the development of military communications equipment for field application, a set of electrical and mechanical requirements was established for a regulated power supply for battery charging and floating service which was particularly unusual for equipment of this type. Mechanically, a portable unit was required with the size and weight to be kept to a minimum. At the same same, extreme ruggedness and reliability were necessary to meet the rough treatment anticipated in field operation. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Saturating transformer reference circuit

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 610 - 616
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2998 KB)  

    The theory of operation of a static magnetic reference device is described. Test results for a practical example show that an output of 15 ± 0.2 milliampere into a 50-ohm resistive load can be obtained for an input of 100 to 140 volts, 360 to 440 cycles per second, from ¿55 degrees centigrade (C) to + 100 C ambient temperature. The power input to the device is 5 watts. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The transmission matrix of N alike cascaded networks

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 616 - 618
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (662 KB)  

    The transmission matrix of N alike cascaded networks is derived without the help of advanced concepts or theorems of matrix algebra. Thereafter, a bridge is provided between this more modern approach and the older iterative-parameter theory. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Acceleration plane method for analysis of a circuit with nonlinear inductance and nonlinear capacitance

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 619 - 626
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1410 KB)  

    This paper analyses the transient behavior of a circuit with nonlinear resistance, inductance, and capacitance by the acceleration plane method developed recently by the author.1 The method as extended here is able to solve a nonlinear differential equation of the following type: ¿(x)x + f(x, x) + f1(x) = F(t). Five examples are given, with F(t) equal to a constant or a time function. Either ¿(x), f1(x, x), or f1(x) may be gven as a graph plotted from experimental data. The forcing function F(t) may be a sine wave or any time function. The method owes its simplicity to a close relation with physical boundary conditions. In one example, the phenomenon of ferroresonance is obtained. Also the possibility of applying the same method to a circuit with R(t), L(t), and C(t) is indicated. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analysis of nonlinear coupled circuits

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 626 - 631
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1173 KB)  

    The method of high-order phase planes1 or phase space is applied to the solution of nonlinear coupled circuits. Two simple examples are given to illustrate the application of this method. In the first example, a nonlinear resistance is introduced in the primary circuit. In the second example, a nonlinear inductance is used. It is possible to extend the application of the method to circuits with nonlinear capacitance and nonlinear mutual inductance. The method is applicable to any number of coupled circuits with nonlinear elements in any of the meshes or in the coupling between the meshes. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A comparison of metals and ferrites for high-speed pulse operation

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 631 - 635
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2115 KB)  

    Metals and ferrites with rectangular hysteresis loops are used in magnetic amplifiers, switching networks, and data-storage systems. In these applications, the large-signal pulse response is most important. To reduce the effect of eddy currents, metals have been rolled to ultrathin gauge and high-resistivity ferrites have been used. By these techniques, eddy currents have been reduced to the point where relaxation effects limit the response time in both cases. The relative merits of metals and ferrites indicate that at present ultrathin metal-ribbon cores are better for stepping registers and switching circuits, while ferrite cores are better for use in coincident-current memories. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An analogue computer technique using magnetic amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 635 - 640
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1849 KB)  

    THE foremost requirement to be met in the design of computers for operational use by the military services is that of providing adequate reliability of operation. Such equipment should have a mean life between failures of more than 6 months when operated under unfavorable environmental conditions. This degree of reliability is needed to insure that the equipment will inspire the user's confidence in its functional availability, and that the maintenance load under front-line conditions is kept within the capability of the services. If the designer adopts this precept, then he must limit the complexity of the equations solved in accordance with the inherent reliability of the computer components. Conventional computer elements such as servos, with their vacuum-tube amplifiers, moving parts, and potentiometers, have sufficiently low component reliability that only simple computers will meet the over-all reliability requirements. On the other hand, computers with this degree of simplicity will inadequately meet many job requirements. The best way out of this dilemma is to find new computing techniques which have a higher inherent reliability factor per unit computing operation performed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Some applications of semiconductor devices in the feedback loop of regulated metallic rectifiers

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 640 - 645
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1246 KB)  

    TREMENDOUS advances have been made in semiconductor technology during the past 5 years. One of the many fields to benefit from this progress has been power rectification. The extended-area, germanium-junction diode is now a reality. The possibility of using silicon instead of germanium to provide greater freedom from ambient temperature limitations is being investigated. These new rectifying elements have improved the size, weight, efficiency, and reliability of rectifier equipments. To keep pace with the rectifying elements, there is need for corresponding improvements in regulating circuitry. It is the author's belief that this challenge will be met by the wider application of semiconductor devices in regulating circuits. Low-level junction transistors and low-leakage junction diodes are now available. Junction transistors with higher power ratings and junction diodes suitable for use as voltage standards are being developed. It is the purpose of this paper to present a few basic circuits illustrating the use of these devices to perform various functions in the feedback loop of a regulated rectifier. The type of regulated rectifier chosen for example is one suitable for charging and floating telephone central office storage batteries. As a starting point, the essential functions in the feedback loop of such a rectifier will be considered. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The suitability of the silicon alloy junction diode as a reference standard in regulated metallic rectifier circuits

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 645 - 651
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1462 KB)  

    Regulated metallic rectifiers have been used throughout the Bell System to provide talking current, to power relays, switches, and vacuum-tube filaments; and to supply vacuum-tube plate potentials. With the advent of semiconductor devices such as transistors and junction diodes, the regulated metallic rectifier is assuming added importance. However, the lower voltages generally required by these semiconductor amplifier and switching devices have required a re-evaluation of the regulating principles used in metallic rectifiers. It has been found possible to replace previous vacuum-tube and magnetic-amplifier regulating circuits with equivalent and usually more compact and efficient semiconductor apparatus. This paper discusses the suitability of silicon-alloy junction diodes having very sharp reverse breakdown characteristics in the reference standard portion of closed-loop feedback regulating circuits of metallic rectifiers. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A survey of magnetic recording

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 651 - 655
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1361 KB)  

    THE understanding of magnetic recording and playback processes and the applications for magnetic recording have made considerable strides during the last 15 years. In the period of the early 1930's magnetic recorders had to operate with a recording-medium speed from 5 to 10 feet per second to secure a frequency response from 50 to 5,000 cycles per second. Today it is almost standard practice to achieve the same response characteristic with much higher signal-to-noise ratio and with considerably less distortion even though the medium moves only with a velocity of 2.5 to 3 inches per second. This represents a speed reduction of 20 to 1. The weight reduction is still greater, namely, 50 to 1 since the specific weight of plastic tape is at least 2.5 times less than that of steel tape which was used at that time. No other method of recording, whether mechanical or optical, has made such an advance in such a short period. A brief review of the history of magnetic recording indicates that 20 years ago the available magnetic-recording media with their relatively low coercive force limited the high-frequency response. In about 1936, Vicalloy tape, with more suitable magnetic properties, shifted the burden of improvements to magnetic heads. Then, coated magnetic tape and ring heads made their appearance, both intrinsically capable of a performance characteristic which has as yet not been fully exploited. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A new standard for direct current

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 655 - 658
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1641 KB)  

    A practical standard for direct current has been developed and is incorporated into a high-accuracy measuring instrument. Utilizing the stability of a permanent magnet, this device may be stored and used under extreme conditions of temperature, and it is relatively insensitive to variation in operating conditions. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Alteration of the dynamic response of magnetic amplifiers by feedback

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 658 - 665
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1664 KB)  

    THE purpose of this paper is to explain and illustrate the use of feedback techniques in the alteration of the dynamic response of full-wave magnetic amplifiers with d-c outputs. A generalized sinusoidal transfer function for a single-stage magnetic amplifier with feedback through frequency sensitive elements is derived, and several examples are given of the application of the feedback method in servo systems. Feedback, as discussed in this paper, is external and is applied to a basic amplifier in such a manner as to change its frequency response characteristics. The self-saturating amplifier, in particular, is considered to be a basic amplifier to which negative or positive feedback may be applied, although the analysis is also valid for other types of magnetic amplifiers. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Characteristics of the high-current argon arc with various electrode materials

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 665 - 670
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1466 KB)  

    A study was made of the fundamental properties of the high-current d-c arc in argon at atmospheric pressure, at currents of 25 to 100 amperes and for various electrode materials. Spectroscopic observations were made on the arc, and data for the voltage-current and voltage-arc length characteristics were taken for all materials tested. Anode melting rates were determined for copper, iron, and titanium. In addition, some information on minimum starting currents was obtained. These arc studies made it possible to develop a new empirical equation which depicts the electrical characteristics of the arcs investigated over a wide range of currents, including the positive slope region of the V-I curves. With this equation as a basis, reasonable energy and voltage balance relationships were developed and the relative values of the equation constants for the different materials were used for a comparison of their effects on the arc characteristics. In general, the arc is affected more by changes in gas composition than by changes in electrode materials. The melting rate data seemed to support a conclusion that in arcs of this type, over the current range studied, the anode drop is zero or extremely small. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Some recent advances in the economy of routing calls in nation-wide toll dialing

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 670 - 679
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2417 KB)  

    In the first part of the paper some of the important considerations in nation-wide toll switching are discussed. In the second part an arrangement in a new intertoll switching system is described which permits considerable simplifications in the equipment for the routing of toll calls. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A rectifier algebra

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 679 - 682
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (809 KB)  

    THIS paper presents an algebra that can aid in the simplification, the synthesis, and the understanding of circuits containing rectifiers and resistors. More specifically, it gives a method of rendering rectifier-resistor circuits into symbols with rules for manipulating these symbols. Here, in essence, an algebra is set up analogous to, but differing considerably from the well-known algebra of Shannon for relay circuits.1 View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Magnetic characteristics pertinent to the operation of cores in self-saturating magnetic amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 682 - 690
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2223 KB)  

    A METHOD of measuring the magnetic characteristics which control the manner in which cores operate in self-saturating magnetic amplifiers is necessary for both economical production and accurate design of such amplifiers. It has been found1,2 that there is a lack of direct correlation between amplifier characteristics, such as gain, and either d-c or a-c major hysteresis loop measurements. The difficulty lies in the manner in which the time lag3 occurring between the application of a magnetizing force on a core and the resultant change in magnetic induction, affects the operation of a self-saturating amplifier. The result is that, to determine the effective magnetic characteristics of a core pertinent to self-saturating magnetic-amplifier operation, it is necessary to measure characteristics under simulated amplifier operating conditions in such a way that the effect of magnetization lag will be similar. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A symbolic method for synthesis of 2-terminal switching circuits

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 690 - 693
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (866 KB)  

    THE problem of synthesizing minimal switching circuits that satisfy any preassigned input condition is one that has of late received considerable attention. Analysis to date has tended to be dependent principally on methods derived from Boolean algebra. While such mathematics are not new, their development, especially as is applicable to the combinational switching problem, has not been comparable to the more familiar algebra of real numbers. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Harmonic analysis for nonlinear characteristics

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 693 - 700
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1591 KB)  

    Harmonic analysis may be carried out for nonlinear devices by the use of a set of polynomial functions applied directly to the nonlinear characteristic instead of by the more conventional use of trigonometric functions. Higher accuracy may sometimes be achieved in point-by-point calculations. A special method of representation shows how the form of the nonlinear characteristic affects its response. A method is presented for using measurements of amplitudes to obtain analytical expressions for the nonlinear function. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analysis of magnetic amplifiers by the use of difference equations

    Publication Year: 1955 , Page(s): 700 - 711
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2475 KB)  

    THIS paper explains and illustrates a new way of analyzing magnetic amplifiers through the use of difference equations, and it shows that this method of analysis leads to a different view of the mechanics of operation of the magnetic amplifier. It will be shown that all magnetic amplifiers operate upon the same basic principles, and that these basic principles are demonstrated by the operation of the half-wave, half-cycle-response magnetic amplifier, as is shown in Fig. 1. Furthermore, this circuit can be considered the building-block of all magnetic amplifiers. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased publication in 1963. The current retitled publication is  IEEE Transactions on Communications.

Full Aims & Scope