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American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Part II: Applications and Industry, Transactions of the

Issue 1 • Date March 1954

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Displaying Results 1 - 10 of 10
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Title page]

    Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Preface

    Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A new high-current switch for electrolytic and electrothermal applications

    Page(s): 1 - 6
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    THE marked increase in electrolytic cell-operating currents in the past decade has emphasized the need for a simple, dependable, and inexpensive high-current switch for use as a cell short-circuiting switch. In the electrothermal field, the magnitude of furnace currents has also been increasing as it has become evident that higher furnace currents lead to better operating economies. Earlier types of switches become cumbersome and expensive when built in ratings of higher than about 6,000 amperes. This paper traces the development of a new type of switch and illustrates how the new switch is applicable to both a-c and d-c low-voltage circuits. View full abstract»

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  • Linear compensation of saturating servomechanisms

    Page(s): 6 - 10
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    OPTIMUM switching of second-order contactor servomechanisms has been treated in the literature. A method of approximating this performance without the use of relays or computers consists of substituting a particular type of network and a limiter for the computer and relays. A procedure is given for obtaining the characteristics of this network. It is illustrated by examples and experimental results. This type of linear compensation yields results that are better than those obtained by conventional linear compensation having uncontrolled saturation. View full abstract»

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  • The transient performance of servomechanisms with derivative and integral control

    Page(s): 10 - 17
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    THE utility of servomechanisms in their many applications depends on the speed, stability, and accuracy of their responses. These three characteristics, or the lack of them, may be observed in the responses of a servomechanism to test inputs. The error, which is the difference between the input and the output of the device, is used to actuate the control in a direction which tends to remove the error. In order to achieve the best performance under both transient and equilibrium conditions, it often has been found expedient to employ, as an additional correction signal, either the derivative or the time integral of the error, or both. The servomechanism is then said to have derivative and/or integral control. The present paper reports an investigation of the transient performance of low-order, linear servomechanisms with derivative and integral control. View full abstract»

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  • Some discharge characteristics of lead acid batteries

    Page(s): 17 - 22
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    This paper discusses the fundamental processes involved in the production of current in a lead acid cell, particularly as they are related to the peformance of the cell when furnishing variable or intermittent loads or a combination of both. A method of determining the size of cell required for various duty cycles is described and a general equation is derived, which, with certain restrictions, will indicate the number of positive plates required in each cell of a battery of the type selected for the application. View full abstract»

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  • Some aspects of the charge and discharge processes in lead-acid storage batteries

    Page(s): 22 - 34
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    THE equilibrium relations of lead-acid storage batteries have been extensively studied. The double-sulfate theory proposed by Gladstone and Tribe1 has been substantiated by analytical methods,2 thermodynamic studies,3 and electromotive force measurements of galvanic cells simulating the charged state of the electrochemical system.4 It is well recognized that on discharge one equivalent each of lead dioxide and lead and two equivalents of sulfuric acid are consumed and that two equivalents of lead sulfate and two equivalents of water are formed per faraday. It is known that the reverse occurs on charge and that the lead-acid storage battery may be subjected to many cycles of charge and discharge. The battery is reversible in that chemical and electric energy may be interconverted in repeated cycles. In practice, reversibility in the thermodynamic sense is not completely realized and the voltage during discharge is somewhat lower than the reversible electromotive force. Likewise the charging voltage is correspondingly higher. The more rapid the charging and discharging the greater is the deviation from thermodynamic reversibility and the greater is the loss in energy efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • A reappraisal of the economics of railway electrification: How, when, and where can it compete with the diesel-electric locomotive?

    Page(s): 35 - 51
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    The diesel-electric locomotive has been universally substituted for the steam locomotive on most of the railroads in this country. Railway electrification has not had further application during this period. Many believe this to be an indication that the economies of the diesel over the steam locomotive apply equally to electric operation as well. This opinion is debated. Power costs, investment costs, fixed charges, maintenance costs, and other operating costs of both diesel-electric and electric operation are compared. Stress is laid on the greater rise in maintenance costs, with age, of the diesel-electric than those of the electric locomotive. It is believed that when the difference in all these costs is fully determined, electrification will again be applied to certain parts of the American railroads having good load factors where electric power is available because of its greater economy. Commercial frequency applied to the contact wire at higher voltage, and the rectifier locomotive, offer means of standardizing future railway electrification. Examples are cited of studies recently made for electrification of this type in South America, and for a hypothetical installation in this country, to illustrate cost comparisons brought out in the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Contactor servomechanisms employing sampled data

    Page(s): 51 - 64
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    This paper introduces a sinusoidal response method of analysis and synthesis of a contactor servomechanism employing sampled data. Because of the presence of sampler, clamper, and contactor, the system is discontinuous in time as well as being nonlinear. The sinusoidal method provides a useful guide in analysis and synthesis. It enables one to determine the conditions of occurrence of self-sustained oscillations and their amplitudes and frequencies; and to evaluate critical values of certain system parameters. Electronic analogue computer techniques are employed to check the accuracy of the sinusoidal response method. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1963. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications.

Full Aims & Scope