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IEEE Spectrum

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 1981

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 39
  • [Advertisement]

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):1 - 2
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  • Contents

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s): 1
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  • [Advertisement]

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):2 - 3
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  • Calendar

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):4 - 9
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  • Forum

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):10 - 21
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  • News from Washington

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s): 22
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  • Energy report

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):22 - 23
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  • Scanning the Institute

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s): 24
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  • Coming in Spectrum

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s): 24
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  • EEs' tools & toys

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s): 25
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  • Whatever happened to CCDs?

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):26 - 29
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  • Technically speaking

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):30 - 32
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    This column is intended as a commentary on the current commotions in the English language, with particular emphasis on the usages of our own technical community. Because few who care about the language are neutral, it will probably be seen as a laudable effort, badly misinformed, stunningly correct, dead wrong, essential, or trivia! Comments, commendations, and condemnations will be accepted. Read... View full abstract»

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  • Spectral lines: Reliability vignettes

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s): 33
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (263 KB)

    'Either it's reliable or it's not' is a commonly expressed view of the lay public as they think of their own automobiles and television sets. Even engineers, when wearing their "consumer hats," may lapse into temporary support of this simplistic belief. Unexpected failures can impair one's ability to think calmly and logically. View full abstract»

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  • Introduction

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):34 - 35
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB)

    There was a time when reliable design could be described simply as ¿picking good parts and using them right.¿ Nowadays the complexity of systems, particularly electronic systems, and the demand for ultrahigh reliability in many applications means that sophisticated methods based on numerical analysis and probability techniques have been brought to bear, particularly in the early stages of design... View full abstract»

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  • How parts fail: A fundamental explanation for any part failure exists, and it's up to the failure analyst to find the cause with modern sleuthing

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):36 - 43
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3598 KB)

    Gives an understanding of how semiconductor and other electronic parts fail is essential to improving the reliability of devices as well as that of the systems in which they are used. Such failure analyses help identify device failure modes, mechanisms, and stress factors that influence degradation. A device can fail in a catastrophic, degradation, or intermittent mode. Electrical failures are usu... View full abstract»

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  • How computers fail

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s): 44
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (293 KB)

    Modern computers employ complex hardware, firmware and software techniques to guard against intermittent or continuous failures. The authors discuss both the vulnerability of computers and the elusiveness of software. View full abstract»

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  • The vulnerability of computers: Malfunctions may be due to ¿¿illegal¿¿ operations, to hardware failures, or to combinations of hardware and software failures that simply elude pinpointing

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):44 - 45
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (518 KB)

    Digital computers pose unique reliability problems. Serious information-processing errors can occur through one failure lasting a billionth of a second in one of the hundreds of thousands of digital components that switch billions of times a day. Just in the transfer of data between Computers and their peripherals, a million characters may stream toward a printer within 15 minutes, and millions of... View full abstract»

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  • The elusiveness of software: In the absence of hard models, rules of thumb have tended to govern a field in which it's more important for a program to be useful than to be totally correct

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s): 46
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (258 KB)

    No theories of software reliability have been developed that are as powerful or as widely accepted as theories of hardware reliability. Some software specialists even question whether there is any practical meaning in such concepts as mean time to failure or mean time between failures; they argue that the distribution of software failures over time may have no mean value. Many workers therefore sp... View full abstract»

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  • The mission profile

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):47 - 49
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (973 KB)

    Satisfying the `customer' entails balancing a product's reliability with availability and maintainability. The designers' experience with similar projects, therefore, may sometimes be the best guide for selecting the tradeoffs. The profiles for 10 major electrotechnology categories are described. The authors highlight each system's availability, reliability, and maintainability as it affects the u... View full abstract»

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  • Reliable systems: Design and tests

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s): 50
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    A repetitive cycle of modeling, testing, and redesign through final production specifications is crucial to eliminating a system's weak links. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling techniques: A repetitive cycle of modeling, testing, and redesign through final production specifications is crucial to eliminating a system's weak links

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):50 - 54
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1246 KB)

    The design of a reliable system begins with the earliest feasibility studies and continues through final production blueprints. An initial electronic system design has only 10 to 30 percent of the reliability (mean time between failures ¿ MTBF) of the final product. To increase this, design engineers undertake a repetitive design cycle, modeling reliability, testing predictions in the laboratory,... View full abstract»

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  • How systems differ: Telephone system: Electronic switching, redundancy, and automatic recovery reduce outages

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):55 - 67
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3291 KB)

    Telephone customers expect and usually obtain good quality service at any time under any condition. This high degree of availability is met even though any given telephone call involves numerous pieces of equipment. The major elements in a local call are the equipment at a customer's location, the wire pair connecting the customer to the local switching system, and the switching system itself. For... View full abstract»

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  • Reliability test procedures: LSI circuits: Fault models make high-volume testing practical

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):67 - 72
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1601 KB)

    The testing of large-scale-integrated circuits is a major factor in the cost of producing such digital devices as memory chips and microprocessors. Manufacturers could test earlier small- and medium-scale-integrated devices cheaply and exhaustively ¿ testing every possible state that the circuits could take up ¿ but they cannot do the same with LSI and very large-scale-integrated devices, becaus... View full abstract»

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  • Lessons from the military: Applications, environments, and servicemen pose reliability challenges not found in commerce or industry

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):73 - 78
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    vice men^vicemen. View full abstract»

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  • Lessons from NASA: Design reviews, failure analysis, and redundancy are favored over predictions and life testing for spacecraft success

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):79 - 84
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    Design reviews, failure analysis, and redundancy are favored over predictions and life testing for spacecraft success. View full abstract»

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IEEE Spectrum Magazine, the flagship publication of the IEEE, explores the development, applications and implications of new technologies.

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Susan Hassler
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