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IEEE Spectrum

Issue 4 • Date April 1981

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • [Advertisement]

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):1 - 2
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  • Contents

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s): 1
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  • [Advertisement]

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):2 - 3
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  • Calendar

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):4 - 9
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  • Forum

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):10 - 11
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  • News from Washington

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s): 12
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  • Energy report

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):12 - 13
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  • EEs' tools & toys

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):14 - 15
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  • Scanning the Institute

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s): 16
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  • Coming in Spectrum

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):16 - 19
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  • What ever happened to ... ?

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):20 - 22
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  • Technically speaking

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):24 - 26
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    This column is intended as a commentary on the current commotions in the English language, with particular emphasis on the usages of our own technical community. Because few who care about the language are neutral, it will probably be seen as a laudable effort, badly misinformed, stunningly correct, dead wrong, essential, or trivia! Comments, commendations, and condemnations will be accepted. Read... View full abstract»

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  • Spectral lines: The rebirth of nuclear power?

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s): 27
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    The trauma of Three Mile Island set the nuclear industry back several years ¿ or thrust it ahead, depending upon to whom one speaks. View full abstract»

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  • Power/energy: TMI plus 2: Two years after the ordeal at Three Mile Island, a restructured, safer nuclear industry is envisaged

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):28 - 29
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    Presents the results of continued monitoring of the industry-wide changes that have taken place since the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident two years ago, on March 28, 1979. The author presents the findings in five sections: (i) Engineering changes: new and improved systems and hardware; (ii) The human side: training and tools to help the operator; (iii) Management attitudes and safety me... View full abstract»

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  • I. Engineering changes: New and improved systems and hardware

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):29 - 33
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    In the wake of the TMI. accident, the popular press has focused on the need for better operating procedures, better-trained operators, and improved management attitudes, but major changes are also being made in the equipment and systems of nuclear plants. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's TMI. Action Plan (NUREG-0660 and 0737) details these new requirements and lists numerous engineering fixes t... View full abstract»

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  • II. The human side: Training and tools to help the operator

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):33 - 37
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1463 KB)

    A clogged demineralizer line that caused a turbine to trip, a leaky pressurizer that disguised a loss of coolant accident, and a valve that stuck open ¿ these were the equipment problems that triggered the accident at Three Mile Island. Since that accident, however, study after study has observed that if the automatic safety systems had been untouched by human hands, these hardware failures might... View full abstract»

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  • III. Management faces the facts: Damaging accidents are possible

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):37 - 40
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    The accident at TMI and its aftermath has hit most utility managers like a bucket of ice water in the face. Many were roused from a complacency that had led them to believe that serious accidents just could not happen. The NRC had required so many safeguards, they felt, that their plants were foolproof. Two years later, there is a growing awareness that accidents can indeed happen, that utilities ... View full abstract»

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  • IV. NRC's new zeal, a face-lift, and increased regulation

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):40 - 42
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (778 KB)

    If the TMI accident hit utility managers like ice water, it was no less shocking to the regulators in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Post-TMI study groups sharply criticized the agency's personnel, structure, and pre-TMI laxities. Critics asked: Why did the NRC not strictly enforce compliance with its safety regulations? Why was there no strong leadership directing the agency's priorities... View full abstract»

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  • V. A look ahead: More plants to come; Computer's role on rise

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):43 - 44
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    In the U.S., there are 73 commercial nuclear reactors in operation. Eighty-three more are in various stages of construction, and construction permits are being sought for 12 others. The numbers are essentially the same as before the TMI accident, though a few plants have been canceled, and chances are good that nearly all of the proposed plants will eventually be licensed to operate. View full abstract»

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  • Microcomputers: Microprocessors and the M.D.: A new breed of smart medical equipment can diagnose, monitor, analyze, and rehabilitate

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):45 - 49
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Microprocessor-based electrocardiography instruments are helping combat the No.1 killer of people in the United States: heart disease. The new ECG instruments not only capture and display real-time and recorded measurements of heart rates, waveforms, and rhythms, but they also process and transfer the data to a remote site for analysis by a cardiologist or a computer. Analysis can point to problem... View full abstract»

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  • Solid state: Superfast annealing: Application of laser and electron-beam annealing portends three-dimensional ICs and economical photoelectric cells

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):50 - 56
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1933 KB)

    Laser or electron beam annealing can be carried out with either pulsed or steady beams. The beams may be large or small, may persist for only nanoseconds or dwell on a spot for many milliseconds. However, in all cases, the power of the beam must be high enough to raise the material's temperature to the melting point, or at least to within a few hundred degrees of it. The range of applications for ... View full abstract»

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  • Data communications: Local data nets: Untying the office knot: Establishing standards for accessing local data networks may facilitate intra-office communications

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):57 - 59
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)

    The author points out that business communications are headed for a spectacular expansion in this decade as companies draw up plans to convert their headquarters into electronic offices. But the problem is that office equipment is not standardised so that layers of one manufacturer's equipment cannot interface with the equipment of another manufacturers without using special adapters. To make matt... View full abstract»

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  • Standards: The metric system: Its status and future: The U.S. creeps reluctantly toward metrication; the electrical engineering profession encounters few problems

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):60 - 63
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    Considers the progress towards metric conversion in the US occurring even without an enunciated national plan. Reasons for the slow progress are given and the difficulties faced in particular areas are also pointed out and it is stated that the electrical engineering profession seems to have encountered few problems. Charts of conversion to metric, with derivations and special names are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Communications: The crystal detector: By 1920, G.W. Pickard had tested 31 250 possible combinations of materials in search of a practical detector

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):64 - 69
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1560 KB)

    We use the term electronics today; in 1906. the term was ¿radio.¿ Radio was a new field, and most of the technology had to be developed from scratch. For reliable long-distance communication, sensitive receivers were vitally needed. The heart of the receiver was its detector, the device that demodulated the radio frequency signal and produced an audio frequency current in the headphones that lis... View full abstract»

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  • Awards: IEEE major medalists for 1981

    Publication Year: 1981, Page(s):70 - 71
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