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American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Part II: Applications and Industry, Transactions of the

Issue 5 • Date Nov. 1959

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Load characteristics of a submerged-arc silicon-smelting furnace

    Page(s): 273 - 276
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    SUBMERGED-arc furnaces have been in commercial operation for more than 50 years. However, the literature tells little about what they require from the supplier of the electric energy or what effects they have on the supply system. A silicon-smelting furnace is typical of these operations. In fact, this process is generally considered to be one of the most exacting in its demands for precise operation to prevent undesirable performance of the furnace and unreasonable demands on the electricity supplier. This paper presents information on the electrical performance of such a furnace. View full abstract»

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  • Electrified fibrous air filters

    Page(s): 276 - 278
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    THERE are two principal methods of separating suspended particles from air: mechanical separation and electrostatic precipitation. Mechanical separation includes dry-type filters, cyclones, water scrubbers, and gravity settling chambers. Dry-type filters are commonly used in air conditioners. Mechanical separators depend on inherent differences in size and density existing between particles and the gas in which the particles are suspended. In contrast, electrostatic precipitators cause a difference between properties of particle and gaseous medium; that is, either the particle is charged in an ionizer1 or, without an ionizer, the particle undergoes polarization in the field existing between charged plates of the precipitator. View full abstract»

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  • Deep ground beds for cathodic protection

    Page(s): 278 - 285
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    THE SUCCESSFUL application of cathodic protection to undergound structures in the crowded confines of a large metropolitan city presents problems of cathodic protection co-ordination certainly more acute and perplexing than those ordinarily encountered in crosscountry work. It is frequently very difficult to find a suitable location for a ground bed in a particular area requiring protection. View full abstract»

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  • D-C electric drilling rigs: Application and operation

    Page(s): 286 - 291
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    THE d-c variable voltage drive for diesel or gas-electric drilling rigs has gained considerable popularity since the introduction of lightweight low-cost electric equipment. However, quite often not sufficient advantage has been taken of the intermittent capability of the generators and motors, both from an application and operational standpoint. This paper presents information derived from an analysis of actual operating test data which should assist users, rig builders, and operators in applying and operating electric drives more effectively on drilling rigs. View full abstract»

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  • Three-phase induction heating coils

    Page(s): 291 - 294
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    IN THE 60-cycle field of induction heating a 3-phase system is desirable. The advantages of 3-phase power is fairly obvious. In most cases a large amount of power is required and a balanced 3-phase load is very practical. Hence, 3-phase induction heating coils have been used to a large extent in 60-cycle heating of aluminum and brass. Since the size of stock to be heated is large in cross section, which is the primary reason for 60 cycle, the amount of energy required to heat the material because of its large mass is, in many cases, quite high. In the past, large billets, 4 inches to 30 inches diameter of aluminum, as well as brass, 4 inches to 10 inches in diameter, have been heated primarily for extrusion. Temperature uniformity is mandatory for high-quality results. In the case of special brass alloys, the temperature must be maintained at ±10 F (degrees Fahrenheit) throughout the billet. Induction heating is primarily a very rapid heating process taking seconds or minutes to heat, while other methods of heating require hours. Because of this rapid heating, temperature patterns follow closely magnetic flux patterns; also due to the rapid heating, sufficient time is often lacking for equalizing. View full abstract»

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  • Stability criteria for instrument servomechanisms with coulomb friction and stiction

    Page(s): 294 - 297
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    IT IS WELL KNOWN that relative motion between rubbing surfaces is opposed by friction forces. In general, a force directly proportional to velocity is produced by a component known as ¿viscous friction.¿ Normally, another component, the coulomb friction force C, produces a force that is essentially constant regardless of velocity. In addition, if the surfaces are initially stationary, the force required to start motion is greater than the coulomb friction force. Since the surfaces seem to adhere, the effect is called ¿stiction¿ and the magnitude of the required starting force is called the stiction force S. These effects are illustrated graphically in Fig. 1. Note that the ordinate may be force or torque, and the dimensions of C or S obviously must be adjusted as needed. View full abstract»

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  • Constant-frequency variable-speed frequency-make-up generators

    Page(s): 297 - 304
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    EXPERIENCE obtained on constant-frequency generation systems which are installed in jet aircraft has indicated areas where improvements are needed. Examples are: View full abstract»

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  • Variable-speed constant-frequency generator system for aircraft

    Page(s): 304 - 310
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    Variable-speed constant-frequency (vscf) generator systems are studied as an extension of well-known vscf motor technology. The vscf generator systems become practical for aircraft main generating systems when the commutator function is performed by semiconductor devices. It is concluded that the best scheme for this application is one using as the main generator a wound rotor induction machine operated above and below synchronous speed, and a slip channel comprised of a semiconductor frequency changer and a synchronous machine driven by the variable-speed shaft. View full abstract»

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  • A high-capacity maintenance-free generating system for motor coaches

    Page(s): 311 - 316
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    THE TREND of electric loads on mobile equipment has been upward at an ever-increasing rate since the first generators were installed on automobiles in 1909. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple-unit operation of diesel and electric locomotives on the Milwaukee Road

    Page(s): 316 - 320
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    THE USE of a diesel-electric locomotive booster unit in conjunction with one or more straight electric locomotive units was conceived to meet specific requirements of heavy freight train operation on the electrified Rocky Mountain Division of the Milwaukee Road; see track profile, Fig. 1. View full abstract»

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  • Variable-speed constant-frequency devices: A survey of the methods in use and proposed

    Page(s): 321 - 326
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    EVER since the advent of a-c systems in aircraft, designers have been increasingly led to consider methods of obtaining constant frequency from variable-speed sources, as the aircraft engine is usually at least two to one in speed range. The first device to obtain constant speed from a variable-speed source was under development for many years, and it is only recently that it has been considered reliable enough for general use. Fortunately, the timing has been good, since the very large increase in aircraft electrical loads has coincided almost exactly with the availability of this device. Of course, the large increase in electrical loads has led to the proposal of many devices either to provide constant speed to drive a generator, or to obtain constant frequency directly from a generator driven at a variable speed. View full abstract»

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  • Practical considerations of an ion propulsion system

    Page(s): 326 - 332
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    IT CAN logically be assumed that within 5 years it will be possible to project into orbit a 20,000-lb (pound) vehicle, five times as heavy as the largest satellite now in orbit. This payload capability is a necessary intermediate step in the long-range program leading to manned space flight. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum reflector-absorber geometry for a solar generator

    Page(s): 332 - 337
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    AS AN initial step toward the eventual realization of a completely static system for converting solar radiation to electric power, the analysis and testing of a laboratory thermoelectric generator has been undertaken. A description of the over-all project is given in reference 1. An essential part of the over-all system is the combination of reflector and absorber used to collect and concentrate the solar radiation. This paper deals with the geometrical optimization of the reflector and absorber. View full abstract»

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  • A practical standard transistorized optimum response controller

    Page(s): 337 - 345
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    The principle of nonlinear optimum response control has found a new and unique application in the development of a standard controller. The transistorized controller can work in a great variety of feedback systems because it has negligible time delay. Optimum response to a specified step input can be obtained very easily by experiment because linear switching is used. The response is still nearly optimum when the input is not of the specified form and magnitude, or when the system parameters change with environmental variations. Solution of practical problems in the development are discussed in the paper. A mathematical proof is given to show that optimum response to a specified step input, for the systems under consideration, can always be obtained with linear switching. View full abstract»

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  • Solar-powered thermoelectric generator design considerations

    Page(s): 345 - 352
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    With the coming space age, considerable attention is being focused upon the problem of supplying secondary power to the vehicles of the future. It is anticipated that future space vehicles may perform missions which will require months and perhaps years to complete. Requirements for the secondary power source serving these vehicles will be very stringent. Weight will be at a premium, therefore, the unit must have a high power-to-weight ratio. Reliability must be high but must be accomplished with little or no maintenance and without excessive redundancy. The life expectancy must be high. View full abstract»

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  • Some effects of hypersonic ionization on the design of electrical and electronic components

    Page(s): 352 - 356
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    VEHICLES traveling at hypersonic velocities in a gaseous atmosphere will be surrounded by a shock-induced high-temperature sheath. As a result of the high temperature, the gaseous sheath has an electron density greater than that of the ambient atmosphere. Since the craft will be immersed in a high-temperature envelope, both it and its components will be subjected to unusual temperatures. Fig. 1 indicates the way in which the air temperature and density varies from the shock front to vehicle surface for a given velocity and altitude. View full abstract»

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  • Functional cycling to assure reliability of aircraft control equipment

    Page(s): 356 - 360
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    THE COMPLEXITY of present-day high-performance aircraft and missiles is demanding better reliability of its various subsystems. A considerable amount of the equipment, such as guidance and flight control equipment, depends entirely upon the electric power system. Therefore, the electric power system is of primary importance in the over-all reliability of the aircraft. View full abstract»

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  • High-speed restarting and protection of large synchronous motors

    Page(s): 360 - 368
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    A WESTERN refinery was adding a new catalytic reformer unit to existing facilities. The chemical process involved, which had a platinum catalyst worth $250,000 in suspension, was dependent upon mechanical power to a compressor. This was a vital drive where loss of mechanical power for a short time meant loss of the catalyst as well as loss of production. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1963. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications.

Full Aims & Scope