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Micro, IEEE

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 7 of 7
  • Camp development: the art of building a market through standards

    Page(s): 10 - 18
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (910 KB)  

    The author explores the relationship between standards development and the technology adoption process. Early adopter users implement proposed standards, while mainstream market users apply stable standards. It is suggested that to reach the volume market for a new technology as quickly as possible and to encourage widespread industry deployment, standards development participants must stabilize standards by enlisting the support of a synergistic group of related solution suppliers called a 'camp.' Camps are groups of market participants who make a technology or learning investment in the standard and stand to profit by its acceptance. There are four primary types of camp members who jointly develop new markets: technology partners, teacher customers, solution partners, and market influencers. It is noted that, as camp members deliver a coherent and complete solution, user costs and risks are reduced, thus accelerating new technology adoption. A microprocessor market example is used to detail camp marketing methodology.<> View full abstract»

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  • War of the words: intellectual property laws and standardization

    Page(s): 19 - 27
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    It is noted that, while there are strong economic forces that drive the computer industry to develop and adopt common standards, both formal and informal, there is an inherent conflict between the intellectual property laws and the concepts of standards and compatibility. Intellectual property laws are intended to create temporary monopolies and to provide economic incentives to the owners of these monopolies, while exclusive ownership of standards is inconsistent with the very idea of a common standard. It is argued that court decisions relating to these issues and the scope of copyright, in particular, are confusing and technically illiterate in many cases, since the adversarial nature of the legal system fails to present the broader industry view of the need for standards and compatibility. It is concluded that, without some concerted industry action, the results of these cases may present significant problems to the industry and may encourage litigation, rather than standardization efforts.<> View full abstract»

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  • Standard setting in the United States: public and private sector roles

    Page(s): 28 - 35
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    The author examines the evolution of the US standards process and its basis in American political culture. She evaluates the system in the light of the many structural changes taking place in the world economy, and suggests that a new balance must be struck between public and private sector roles.<> View full abstract»

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  • Markets, standards, and the information infrastructure

    Page(s): 36 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1576 KB)  

    The author presents a synthesis of thinking within the economics field about network development and standardization. The analysis focuses on understanding economic factors shaping important contemporary events and the development of standards in tomorrow's information infrastructure. The motivation for such a synthesis is that many observations about market mechanisms are not consistent with one another, nor do they all transparently synthesize into a single policy vision. The key to understanding this confusion is that standards take on a dual role, as a coordinator and as a constraint. These insights should be useful for the development of appropriate public policy and management strategy.<> View full abstract»

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  • Forming, funding, and operating standard-setting consortia

    Page(s): 52 - 61
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    It is pointed out that the role of de facto standard setting organizations is relevant and important to true de jure standard setting organizations such as ASC X3 and IEEE. On the one hand, as a practical matter, a de jure organization may opt not to develop a competing standard, if it is satisfied that the de facto organization is providing a useful standard. As a result, a de factor standard setting organization is effectively permitted to control an important area of technology. On the other hand, the endorsement or incorporation by de facto bodies of de jure standards augments the effectiveness of the latter standards. For these reasons, as well as the insights that these new consortia provide into the high stakes wars that have been fought in the high technology industry in recent years, it is interesting to look back today to reflect on what these entities set out to achieve, and to what degree they were successful. In the course of doing so, the author offers some observations on how (and when) consortia of various types are best formed and focuses on the structural and legal factors which should be addressed in structuring and operating a successful consortium.<> View full abstract»

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  • The development of ATM standards and technology: a retrospective

    Page(s): 62 - 73
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    The evolution of the ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) from its inception in early trials through to the current developments is reviewed. Strong emphasis is placed on the role of standards development in the development of the technology, as it is the opinion of the author that ATM could never have reached the status that it has today without the development effort put into the standards over the period between 1986 and 1992. The standards development process has also been a learning process. Technical differences seem to get resolved more quickly with more interaction at informal workshops. The creation of the ATM Forum has taken ATM one step closer to the end user. However, the standards community is aware of a need to improve its process, to develop standards that are less ambiguous and less subject to error, and to ensure interoperability of different networks and different vendor products. The author notes that over the next few years one will see major changes in these areas to improve the product of standards development.<> View full abstract»

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  • A survey of encryption standards

    Page(s): 74 - 81
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    The author reviews encryption algorithms and standards, how they compare, how they differ, and where they are headed. Attention is given to secret-key cryptosystems, public-key cryptosystems, digital signature schemes, key-agreement algorithms, cryptographic hash functions, and authentication codes. Applications considered are secure electronic mail, secure communications, directory authentication and network management, banking, and escrowed encryption.<> View full abstract»

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IBM T.J. Watson Research Center