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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 2012

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  • Table of contents

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  • IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • A Wideband Magneto-Electric Dipole Antenna

    Page(s): 4987 - 4991
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new wideband magneto-electric dipole antenna composed of a horizontal bowtie electric dipole and a vertically oriented folded shorted patch antenna is designed. The antenna is excited by a stair-shaped probe feed without the need of an additional balun. A prototype was fabricated and measured. Results show that an impedance bandwidth of 95.2%, with ${rm SWR}leq 2$ from 1.65 GHz to 4.65 GHz, was achieved. Stable radiation pattern with low cross polarization, low back radiation, nearly identical E- and H-plane patterns and an antenna gain of 7.9 $pm$ 0.9 dBi was found over the operating frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • A Design of Dual-Frequency Dual-Sense Circularly-Polarized Slot Antenna

    Page(s): 4992 - 4997
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    A single-feed dual-frequency dual-sense circularly-polarized (CP) printed slot antenna etched on a single substrate is proposed. This antenna is composed of an annular slot and a cross slot, which produce two different frequency bands. The lower band and the upper band are controlled by the annular slot and the cross slot respectively. By introducing asymmetry on both annular slot and cross slot, CP radiation at the two frequencies can be obtained. The method of impedance matching has been discussed in detail. The key parameters of the design are investigated to show how to obtain dual-frequency and dual circular polarization. Two antenna prototypes are fabricated and measured, experimental results show that good CP radiation performances are obtained at both frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • A Circularly-Polarized Isoflux Antenna Based on Anisotropic Metasurface

    Page(s): 4998 - 5009
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    Theory, design, realization and measurements of an X-band isoflux circularly polarized antenna for LEO satellite platforms are presented. The antenna is based on a metasurface composed by a dense texture of sub-wavelength metal patches on a grounded dielectric slab, excited by a surface wave generated by a coplanar feeder. The antenna is extremely flat (1.57 mm) and light (less than 1 Kg) and represents a competitive solution for space-to-ground data link applications. View full abstract»

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  • High-Efficiency Elliptical Slot Antennas With Quartz Superstrates for Silicon RFICs

    Page(s): 5010 - 5020
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    To increase the efficiency of on-chip patch and slot antennas, a single-layer superstrate is proposed. An analytical model to calculate the radiation efficiency is presented, and a detailed design approach is described. This antenna was implemented at W-band in the IBM CMOS8RF (0.13 $mu {rm m}$) process. The measured antenna results in a 3.9% impedance bandwidth, an efficiency of 30%, and a gain of 0.7 dBi at 89 GHz, which agrees well with simulations. The gain improvement with a quarter-wave superstrate is experimentally demonstrated to be 6.4 dB, representing a substantial improvement over traditional on-chip patch and slot antennas. View full abstract»

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  • Compact Wideband Multimode Dielectric Resonator Antennas Fed With Parallel Standing Strips

    Page(s): 5021 - 5031
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    As the number of resonances increases, it becomes difficult to improve and maintain the performance of dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs), over the expanded impedance bandwidth. To remove unwanted modes, adjust the frequency distance between individual modes, reduce antenna size and cross polarization, and preserve radiation patterns in a wideband configuration, a dielectric resonator antenna fed with parallel standing strips is proposed in this paper. The use of parallel standing strips provides several degrees of freedom in the design procedure to enhance the DRA characteristics. To validate the effectiveness of this approach, two DRAs with parallel standing strips were fabricated using different procedures. The antennas were tested and characterized. The measured results are in good agreement with simulation ones. A 46% size reduction was achieved for the multimode DRA. The impedance bandwidth of the proposed DRA of simple rectangular shape was over 60% with a measured gain ranging from 5.5 to 9.5 dBi. Broadside radiation patterns with fairly low cross polarizations can be maintained over the impedance bandwidth. The simulated radiation efficiency is more than 96% within the frequency band. View full abstract»

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  • Superior Modes in High Permittivity Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna Excited by a Central Rectangular Slot

    Page(s): 5032 - 5038
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    High permittivity materials allow good miniaturization of microwave components, but the dielectric resonator antenna using these materials has the drawback of a reduced bandwidth. To overcome this disadvantage we wanted to obtain a relatively wideband high permittivity DRA using the superior modes. Using HFSS simulations, we identified some of the superior modes that appear in cylindrical DRAs situated on a conductor ground plane and excited by a symmetric rectangular slot made in the ground plane. We identified seven superior modes and, for all of them, the measured and theoretically calculated resonant frequencies did not differ by more than 6%. Knowing the possible excited modes in the antenna and the relations for their resonant frequencies, one can predict the operating frequencies of a cylindrical DRA excited by a central rectangular slot. View full abstract»

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  • Circular/Linear Polarization Reconfigurable Antenna on Simplified RF-MEMS Packaging Platform in K-Band

    Page(s): 5039 - 5045
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A linear-polarization (LP)/circular-polarization (CP) switchable reconfigurable antenna using a radio frequency micro-electro-mechanical-system (RF-MEMS) switch is proposed and a novel package platform is introduced. Since the package substrate of the novel package platform is used as a radiation aperture substrate of the antenna structure, the fabrication process can be simplified, and degradation of radiation performance can be prevented. As the radiation aperture exists on the top side of the package substrate, an aperture-coupling feed structure is employed. To implement the LP-CP-switchable antenna based on the package platform, a stub, acting as the other feed, is added to a slot ring and is connected to the RF-MEMS switch with an on/off state. The proposed antenna is simulated using the Finite-Element Method, after which it is fabricated and measured. The measured 10 dB impedance bandwidths (BWs) are 22.90% (LP state) and 28.43% (CP state). The measured 3 dB axial ratio BW is 13.07% in the CP state. The measured gains at 21 GHz are 2.63 dBi (LP state) and 3.90 dBi (CP state). View full abstract»

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  • Electronically Steerable 1-D Fabry-Perot Leaky-Wave Antenna Employing a Tunable High Impedance Surface

    Page(s): 5046 - 5055
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    A novel fixed-frequency electronically-steerable one-dimensional (1-D) leaky-wave antenna is presented. The antenna is based on a parallel-plate waveguide loaded with a planar partially reflective surface and a tunable high impedance surface (HIS), which creates a 1-D Fabry-Perot leaky-waveguide. The tunable HIS consists of printed patches loaded with varactor diodes that allow the electronic tuning of the cavity resonance condition. Using a simple Transverse Equivalent Network, it is theoretically shown how the variation of the varactors' junction capacitance allows the scanning of the antenna pointing angle from broadside towards the endfire direction at a fixed frequency. Experimental results of an antenna prototype operating at 5.6 GHz are reported, demonstrating that the new reconfigurable leaky-wave antenna can provide electronic beam scanning in an angular range from 9$^{circ}$ to 30 $^{circ}$ View full abstract»

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  • Multilayered Composite Right/Left-Handed Leaky-Wave Antenna With Consistent Gain

    Page(s): 5056 - 5062
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    A multilayered composite right/left-handed (CRLH) based leaky-wave antenna is proposed for the continuous beam scanning from backward to forward direction with consistent gain. The antenna comprises a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) with an array of the CRLH unit cells. The CRLH unit cell is formed by a slot cut on the upper ground of the SIW, and a parasitic patch beneath the slot. The antenna achieves continuous beam scanning against frequency and the optimal boresight gain at the balanced condition frequency. The antenna prototype with 15 unit cells exhibits the measured beam scanning angle of -66° to 78° over the frequency range from 8.0 to 13.0 GHz with a consistent gain of more than 9.0 dBi. View full abstract»

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  • Broadband High Directivity Multibeam Emission Through Transformation Optics-Enabled Metamaterial Lenses

    Page(s): 5063 - 5074
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2339 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new broadband two- and three-dimensional, polarization independent coordinate transformation is introduced that is capable of mapping the radiation from an embedded omnidirectional source into any desired number of highly directive beams pointed in arbitrary directions. This transformation requires anisotropic materials, yet is spatially invariant and thereby can be readily implemented by currently existing metamaterial technologies. Moreover, the performance of the transformation is not sensitive to small material parameter variations, thus enabling a broad operational bandwidth. To validate the concept, a broadband 3-D coordinate transformation metamaterial lens fed by a simple monopole antenna was designed, fabricated and characterized, achieving a quad-beam radiation pattern over a 1.26:1 bandwidth with approximately 6-dB realized gain improvement in the $H$-plane. In addition, the near-field coupling between the monopole and the lens was carefully tuned to accomplish a remarkable 70% broadening of the impedance bandwidth compared to the monopole antenna operating alone. It is also shown from the field simulations that the realized metamaterial lens provides both near-field and far-field 3-D collimating effects. View full abstract»

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  • Printed Magnetoinductive-Wave (MIW) Delay Lines for Chipless RFID Applications

    Page(s): 5075 - 5082
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1211 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel fully passive and electromagnetic chipless radiofrequency identification (RFID) system is proposed. The system is based on printed tags implemented with magnetoinductive-wave (MIW) delay lines. Such lines are composed of a periodic array of coupled square split ring resonators (SSRRs) and propagate slow waves. The tag is codified by introducing reflectors (which provide the identification signature) between the elements of the array. When the tags are interrogated with a pulse in time domain, they produce replicas at the positions where the reflectors are placed. Thanks to the slow group velocity of the MIW delay line, the replicas of the original pulse are not overlapped in time domain and can be demodulated, thus providing the identification code of the tag. The design considerations to implement these chipless tags are studied in the present work. Moreover, a complete set of codified MIW lines for a two-bit system is designed, manufactured and measured. The reported experimental results validate the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric Tube Antennas for Industrial Radar Level Gauging

    Page(s): 5083 - 5091
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1778 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper concerns dielectric tube antenna design in the frequency range from 8.5 to 10.5 GHz for the use in the field of industrial radar level gauging for process automation industry. The application is based on monostatic radar configurations, which thus demands for highly directive endfire antennas made of chemically inert dielectrics, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or polypropylene (PP). Herein, the antennas consist of solid and tubular waveguides with cylindrical cross sections as well as transitions among these sections. In order to approach the promising theoretical directivity limits of thin-walled dielectric tubes at small aperture diameters, a fundamental HE11 mode-preserving waveguide transition forms the core element of the antenna. This yields compact dielectric antennas with directivity levels of around 20 dBi. By this means, a significant improvement in comparison to a circular metallic horn aperture of the same outer diameter as the radiating tube and a length reduction with regard to dielectric rod antennas is achieved. Finally, prototypes of the proposed antennas are manufactured and verified by measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Polya Elements With Application to Antennas, Thin Absorbers and Filters

    Page(s): 5092 - 5099
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1636 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article introduces the 2-D Polya fractal and its evolution into the modified Polya curve (MPC). The MPC is assigned a linewidth, which, together with the MPC order and shaping factor, provides optimization parameters for specific device applications. The MPCs are selected to generate useful shapes that fit within a chosen triangular envelope. These are applied as basis elements and are employed to organize families of polygonal shapes that may be used to design antennas, frequency-selective surfaces, metamaterials, ultrathin absorbers, and filters. MPCs may also be modified for implementation in 3-D geometries. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-Port Network Approach for the Analysis of Dual Band Fractal Microstrip Antennas

    Page(s): 5100 - 5106
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1262 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The multiport network approach is extended to analyze the behavior of microstrip fractal antennas. The capacitively fed microstrip square ring antenna has the side opposite to the feed arm replaced with a fractal Minkowski geometry. Dual frequency operation is achieved by suitably choosing the indentation of this fractal geometry. The width of the two sides adjacent to this is increased to further control the resonant characteristics and the ratio of the two resonance frequencies of this antenna. The impedance matrix for the multiport network model of this antenna is simplified exploiting self-similarity of the geometry with greater accuracy and reduced analysis time. Experimentally validated results confirm utility of the approach in analyzing the input characteristics of similar multi-frequency fractal microstrip antennas with other fractal geometries. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Combined Array Thinning and Weighting for Pattern Synthesis With a Nested Optimization Scheme

    Page(s): 5107 - 5117
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2332 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel procedure to thin an antenna array which synthesizes a desired pattern with the minimum number of active elements is introduced. The proposed method yields both the active elements and their corresponding excitations of a thinned array having the minimum number of active elements needed to meet several prescribed design specifications of the radiated far-field pattern. Specifications such as achieving a minimum gain, obtaining a pattern with a maximum allowable sidelobe level or synthesizing a shaped beam pattern confined into a mask are considered. Null field directions can also be added. In order to carry out the thinning, a genetic algorithm is used, while computing the excitations is carried out through linear or quadratic programming. The procedure incorporates the generalized scattering matrix analysis of an array made up of elements whose radiated field can be expressed as a spherical mode expansion, thus taking all electromagnetic effects inherently into account. Therefore, since the presence of an element can substantially alter the array features because of mutual coupling, two types of thinning are considered: removing elements or turning them off. Numerical results of arrays made up of isotropic sources, dielectric resonator antennas and microstrip patch antennas are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Dual-Band Decoupling Network for Two-Element Closely Spaced Array Using Synthesized Microstrip Lines

    Page(s): 5118 - 5128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2326 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate an innovative decoupling network for dual-band two-element closely spaced arrays in MIMO applications. The new architecture, combining the reactive element decoupling technique and the eigenmode feed network, provides dual-band decoupling with good radiation characteristics and power balance between the modes. The core block of the decoupling network is a dual-mode 180-degree hybrid coupler; it functions as a conventional coupler in one frequency band but can be equivalent to a pair of isolated direct-thru transmission lines in the other band. This unusual dual-mode coupler is realized by synthesized microstrip lines (cells), consisting of line inductors, parallel-plate capacitors, and series LC tanks. A set of design equations, providing a systematic synthesis procedure of the unit cells, is discussed. The scheme of the dual-band decoupling network is illustrated first, followed by the details of the building circuit blocks; the experimental results and discussion are given at the end of the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Effective Beam Forming Networks for Large Arbitrary Array of Antennas

    Page(s): 5129 - 5135
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1736 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A deterministic and effective strategy to reduce as much as possible the number of amplitude controls points in large arrays is herein proposed, and applied to cases of practical interest. The proposed strategy exploits two important concepts: the first one, coming from a special class of aperiodic tiling, and the second one based on NuFFT – Non uniform Fast Fourier Transform – techniques. The first one allows designing innovative front-end architectures made of a reduced number of control points, while NuFFT algorithms lead to computationally effective synthesis procedures. The overall results and design guidelines allow to achieve simplified beamforming networks derived from aperiodic tilings, and to know the performances that can be achieved using this approach, particularly in case of low sidelobe requirements. To confirm the usefulness of the proposed tools, numerical examples are discussed. Conclusion follows. View full abstract»

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  • Broadband Multiple Cone-Beam 3-D IIR Digital Filters Applied to Planar Dense Aperture Arrays

    Page(s): 5136 - 5146
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A digital beamformer that can synthesize array factors (AFs) with multiple, ultrawideband (UWB), frequency-independent beams at lower computational complexity is proposed. The beamformer is based on a novel 3-D infinite impulse response (IIR) transfer function $H_{rm MC}left({bf z}right)$ having multiple cone-shaped passbands in the 3-D spatio–temporal (ST) frequency-domain $mmb{omega}inBBR^{3}$. The magnitude frequency response and the AF of $H_{rm MC}left({bf z}right)$ are simulated for dual- and single-passband cases. An element pattern of a broadband Vivaldi antenna is simulated at 1.4 GHz and is used to obtain the total array pattern. Computational complexity of $H_{rm MC}left({bf z}right)$ for single-passband (1Cone) case and that of the conventional phased array (PA) beamformer are derived. The magnitude frequency response of the proposed beamformer for 1Cone case and that of the PA beamformer are compared using the mean square error (MSE). For the given selectivity specified by the half cone angle $epsilon={hbox {5}}^{circ}$, proposed beamformer provides around 60% lower MSE for the same complexity and around 90% lower complexity for the same MSE compared with the PA beamformer. View full abstract»

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  • Efficiency Measurement of Connected Arrays Using the Improved Wheeler Cap Method

    Page(s): 5147 - 5156
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2202 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a method for measuring antenna efficiency of connected arrays. The method is a modified version of the improved Wheeler cap (IWC) method where the antenna under test (AUT) is electrically connected to two walls of the Wheeler Cap which simulates array connection. Theoretical analyses based on plane wave and cylindrical wave problems and numerical simulations using HFSS and FEKO are presented to establish accuracy estimates for the method. Close attention will be made in comparing two data collection techniques: frequency sweeping versus wall shifting. Finally, we discuss an apparatus for efficiency measurement of a 1-D connected array and the measurement results. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of Correction Techniques and Analysis of Errors for Digital Beamforming Antenna Array With Single RF Receiver

    Page(s): 5157 - 5163
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1039 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new correction method is proposed for the single RF channel digital beamforming (DBF) antenna array. In this array, each array element is followed by a $0/pi$ phase shifter, and the element outputs can be recovered by the single channel through the time sequence phase weighting (TSPW) technique. The outputs can be used to form desired beams through DBF. The performance of the DBF is influenced by the imperfection of the phase shifters. To obtain the errors in each phase shifter, the online test method based on a single known plane wave is introduced. The online test results are used to correct the element outputs using the relationship between the actual and the incorrect outputs. Compared with another previously proposed correction method, the new method is simpler and more suitable for real time correction. The factors that may influence the capability of the correction are analyzed. To validate the proposed method, an eight-element prototype is measured, and the data are used to synthesize low sidelobe patterns. Results show that the sidelobe level and gain improvements after correction are 11.1 and 2.6 dB, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Towards Experimental Perfectly-Matched Layers With Ultra-Thin Metamaterial Surfaces

    Page(s): 5164 - 5172
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2015 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we modify uniaxial perfectly matched layer to an entirely passive medium and demonstrate its experimental realization using a deep sub-wavelength metamaterial surface. The relative permittivity and permeability of the surface are matched, mostly imaginary-valued, and far greater than unity. These conditions allow the impedance of the metamaterial surface to be completely matched to air, and produce an extremely large internal dissipation, resulting in a 99.97% power absorption at normal incidence and within a layer thickness of about 1/40 of the free space wavelength. View full abstract»

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  • Use of Generalized Sheet Transition Conditions to Model Guided Waves on Metasurfaces/Metafilms

    Page(s): 5173 - 5186
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We use generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTCs) to investigate the existence of guided waves (both surface waves and complex modes) on a metafilm: a surface distribution of electrically small scatterers characterized by electric and magnetic surface susceptibilities. In this paper, excitation of a metafilm by both electric and magnetic line currents is investigated. The characteristics of the guided waves for both these polarizations are expressed in terms of the surface susceptibilities, which are directly related to the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the scatterers composing the surface. We will show that the guided waves can have unique behaviors (not found in classical slab configurations) for judicious choices of the scatterers in the metafilm. For example, unlike a conventional dielectric slab, forward and backward surface waves as well as complex modes can be excited simultaneously on the metafilm, a direct consequence of engineering the properties of the constituent scatterers. Two different classes of modes (even and odd) are possible on the metasurface. The odd mode is analogous to the surface plasmon polariton seen on some metamaterials, and under certain conditions, the even mode is analogous to the classical dielectric slab surface wave. In order to validate the predictions presented here, we present numerical results for an electric-line source placed above a metafilm composed of spherical particles. We also show comparisons of propagation constants obtained from our model to other analytical results found in the literature. Finally, we show that the results from our formulation reduce to analytical results given in the literature for a thin dielectric layer. View full abstract»

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  • Iterative On-Surface Discretized Boundary Equation Method for 2-D Scattering Problems

    Page(s): 5187 - 5194
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1041 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The recently developed on-surface discretized boundary equation (OS-DBE) method has low memory requirement and is very suitable for parallel computing because the current at each point can be independently evaluated with a matrix of much smaller order than that in the method of moments (MoM) for electrically large objects. However, repeated solutions of the matrix equation in generating the whole current distribution are still the major computational burden when the scatterer size becomes large. In this paper, an iterative OS-DBE (IT-OS-DBE) method is presented for 2-D scattering problems. It further reduces the OS-DBE matrix order significantly and solves the matrix equation only once. The fast multipole algorithm (FMA) or multilevel FMA (MLFMA) can be incorporated into the present method to reduce the computational cost for concerned matrix vector multiplications. Three optional forms regarding memory usage of the IT-OS-DBE method are given. All the three options have advantage of less CPU time consumption than the MoM-based MLFMA. Two of the three options prevail not only in CPU time consumed but also in memory cost. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation includes theoretical and experimental advances in antennas.

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Editor-in-Chief                                                 Kwok W. Leung