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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5  Part 2 • Date Oct. 2012

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  • frontcover

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2033 - 2036
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  • Conference Comments by the Editors

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2037
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  • The Origins of Scintillator Non-Proportionality

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2038 - 2044
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (543 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent years have seen significant advances in both theoretically understanding and mathematically modeling the underlying causes of scintillator non-proportionality. The core cause is that the interaction of radiation with matter invariably leads to a non-uniform ionization density in the scintillator, coupled with the fact that the light yield depends on the ionization density. The mechanisms that lead to the luminescence dependence on ionization density are incompletely understood, but several important features have been identified, notably Auger-like processes (where two carriers of excitation interact with each other, causing one to de-excite non-radiatively), the inability of excitation carriers to recombine (caused either by trapping or physical separation), and the carrier mobility. This paper reviews the present understanding of the fundamental origins of scintillator non-proportionality, specifically the various theories that have been used to explain non-proportionality. View full abstract»

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  • Role of Nonlinear Excitation Quenching Processes and Carrier Diffusion on the Nonproportionality of Light Yield in Scintillators

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2045 - 2051
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A phenomenological approach is used to derive the light yield in inorganic scintillators as a function of the incident energy, and rates of linear, bimolecular and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x-ray or a γ-ray photon. The dependence of the absolute and relative light yields on the rates bimolecular and Auger nonlinear quenching processes is calculated at varying incident energies. It is clearly demonstrated that the nonproportionality is caused by the nonlinear excitation quenching processes occurring within the track under the influence of high excitation density. It can therefore be reduced/eliminated by either eliminating the nonlinear interaction among the excited electrons, holes and excitons or the high density situation can be relieved by diffusion of carriers from the track at a faster rate than the rate of activation of nonlinear processes. An insight of studying these situations and their material parameter dependence will be presented. Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. View full abstract»

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  • Nonproportionality and Scintillation Studies of {\hbox {Eu:}} {\hbox {SrI}}_{\rm 2} From 295 to 5 K

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2052 - 2056
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (550 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The low temperature scintillation properties of 5 atomic % Eu:SrI2 from ambient temperature down to 5 K were studied for the first time. With decreasing temperature, a shift in emission wavelength and a shortening of decay time were observed. Light yield and energy resolution exhibited notable changes with temperature, and were maximized as temperature was decreased. A degradation of light yield proportionality with decreasing temperature was observed. View full abstract»

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  • Recombination of Correlated Electron–Hole Pairs With Account of Hot Capture With Emission of Optical Phonons

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2057 - 2064
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1516 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electron thermalization and electron-hole recombination in scintillating crystals is simulated with and without account for Coulomb field created by a hole using both analytical estimations and Monte-Carlo approach. The Monte-Carlo simulation is performed both for crystals with one and two branches of longitudinal optical phonons to check the role of additional branches of these phonons. The results of numerical simulation show that the account for Coulomb field at all stages of the thermalization and capture significantly increases the probability of the geminate electron-hole binding in case of high values of optical phonon energies. View full abstract»

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  • First Principle Calculation of 4{\rm f}^{\rm n}\rightarrow 4{\rm f}^{({\rm n}-1)}5{\rm d} Absorption Spectra of {\rm Ce}^{3+} and {\rm \Pr}^{3+} Ions in Alkaline Earth Fluorides

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2065 - 2068
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (709 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we present the results of an ab initio calculations of df-absorption spectra for alkaline earth fluoride matrix doped with Pr3+ and Ce3+ ions. The density-functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed in embedded-cluster approach. All our results were obtained with taking into account the lattice relaxation in the presence of trivalent impurity ion. The calculation have been made both for cubic and tetragonal centers. For the tetragonal centers we estimate the crystal field splitting of eg level. View full abstract»

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  • Energy Levels of {\hbox {Ce}}^{3+} in {\hbox {Lu}}_{0.8}{\hbox {Sc}}_{0.2}{\hbox {BO}}_{3} Host: A Comparison Study Between X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Pure Optical Method

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2069 - 2073
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (783 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cerium doped lutetium scandium orthoborate Ce3+:Lu0.8Sc0.2BO3 is a novel and promising inorganic scintillator. For the sake of better understanding its scintillation mechanism, several approaches were undertaken to locate the Ce3+ energy levels relative to the host. To estimate the energy position of Ce3+4f levels with respect to the valence band, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used. Furthermore, the photoluminescence decays as a function of temperature, a widely used technique, was utilized to find the relative positions of Ce3+5d levels to the conduction band. Finally, the Ce3+ energy levels in Lu0.8Sc0.2BO3 host was constructed, meanwhile, the effectiveness of the XPS technique to estimate the energy position of Ce3+ 4f levels relative to the conduction band was evaluated. View full abstract»

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  • 5d-4f Emission of Nd ^{3+} , Sm ^{3+} , Ho ^{3+} , Er ^{3+} , Tm ^{3+} Ions in Alkaline Earth Fluorides

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2074 - 2078
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (715 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Emission and excitation spectra of CaF2, SrF2, BaF2 doped with Nd3+, Sm3+, Ho3+, Er3+, Tm3+ excited by vacuum ultraviolet photons or by x-rays were studied. Decay times of the Nd3+ emission near 180 nm at 7 K were 17.7, 15.3, 12.3 ns in CaF2 , SrF2 , BaF2 respectively. 4fn-1 5d1-4fn luminescence bands were found at 170-200 nm for Sm3+ ions and at 140-190 nm for Ho3+. No excitation of 5d-4f emission of Nd3+ and Tm3+ was observed in the region of band-to-band transitions below 127 nm (BaF2), 120 nm (SrF2) and 115 nm (CaF2). Emission spectra of Nd and Er doped alkaline-earth fluoride crystals under x-ray excitation were studied with concentration of impurity from 0.01 to 10 molar %. For the Nd3+ and Er3+ 5d-4f emissions in SrF2 the light yields were estimated as 30-40 ph/Mev. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of yttrium Content on the Ce1 and Ce2 Luminescence Characteristics in ({\rm Lu}_{1-{\rm x}}{\rm Y}_{\rm x})_{2}{\rm SiO}_{5}:{\rm Ce} Single Crystals

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2079 - 2084
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1023 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate the luminescence and scintillation characteristics of highly efficient cerium-doped scintillators, lutetium-(yttrium) orthosilicate (Lu2(1-x)Y2xSiO5:Ce, x=0-1). The radioluminescence, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectra of the Ce1, Ce2 centres as well as the decay curves and their temperature dependences are measured in the 80-500 K range. Light yield values are provided as well. The influence of yttrium concentration on the Ce1, Ce2 luminescence characteristics is demonstrated. With increasing yttrium content the onset of the Ce1 and Ce2 decay time decrease as well as the Ce1, Ce2 delayed recombination integrals increase shift to higher temperatures. The 5d1 thermally induced excited-state ionization of both Ce1 and Ce2 centres is confirmed and studied by purely optical methods. View full abstract»

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  • Thermally Stimulated Luminescence in Ce-Doped Yttrium Oxyorthosilicate

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2085 - 2088
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (493 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We analyze thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) above room temperature in Ce-doped Y2SiO5 oxyorthosilicate single crystal. We perform detailed TSL glow peak analysis based on the initial rise technique to evaluate trap depths and other characteristics associated with TSL peaks. The tunneling process previously proposed to be at work in recombination mechanism of Ce-doped lutetium oxyothosilicate was not confirmed in presently studied isostructural yttrium silicate. The charge carrier transfer between traps and Ce recombination centers is rather accomplished via conduction band. View full abstract»

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  • Energy Transfer Mechanism in Pr-Doped SrF _{2} Crystals

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2089 - 2094
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (685 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Results of investigation of energy transfer mechanism in SrF2 crystals doped with Pr3+ ions are presented. Temperature dependences of 5d-4f and exciton emission in this material under X-ray excitation, and thermostimulated luminescence (TSL) in temperature range 80-300 K are studied. It has been established that in SrF2-Pr3+ crystals the consecutive electron-hole capture mechanism of energy transfer takes place. Also we found that hole centers made a contribution to energy transfer from primary electrons and holes to Pr3+ ions. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Tl ^{+} and Sm ^{2+} Concentrations on Afterglow Suppression in CsI:Tl, Sm Crystals

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2095 - 2097
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (339 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    While the CsI:Tl scintillator is the material of choice for many medical and industrial applications, its use in rapid framing applications (such as CT) has been hampered by its long term persistence or afterglow. We have previously reported that the addition of Eu2+ and Sm2+ ions reduces this afterglow component, but with unpredictable consequences to the light output. Here we report on CsI:Tl crystals grown by the Bridgman technique in which both Tl and Sm2+ dopant levels were varied in order to optimize both the light output and afterglow suppression. Thallium levels were varied from 0.01-0.5 mol% and Sm2+ from 0.01-0.1 mol%, and crystals were evaluated in terms of light output by gamma excitation and photopeak position. Afterglow was measured after excitation with an X-ray source 100 ms in duration. The light output was found to increase with Tl concentration up to an optimal level of approximately 0.1%, with greater levels offering no improvement in light signal. The presence of Sm2+ has little effect on light output, as long as the concentrations are low; at higher concentrations, however, light output was degraded due in part to the poor solubility of the Sm2+ ion into the CsI crystal. Afterglow levels were optimal at Tl levels in the range from 0.04-0.1% regardless of Sm2+ concentration, with an approximate five-fold reduction in afterglow with 0.02% Sm2+. View full abstract»

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  • Photochromism in Calcium and Strontium Fluoride Crystals Doped With Rare-Earths Ions

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2098 - 2101
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    This paper reports the absorption spectra of photochromic centers in CaF2 and SrF2 crystals doped with Ce3+ and Gd3+ impurities and thermal decay of the centers in temperature range 80-500 K. The ionized photochromic color centers are generated in crystals under low-temperature X-rays irradiation. These centers are transformed into photochromic color centers upon heating of crystals. All color centers decay at temperature about 500 K. View full abstract»

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  • Crossluminescence of Nanosized KYF _{4}

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2102 - 2105
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    A series of KYF4 nano-powders, undoped and doped with Tb3+, with well-crystallized, unaggregated, monodisperse (± 15%) nanoparticles of cubic or hexagonal crystal structure and the size in the range from ~ 10 to ~ 40 nm has been synthesized by microwave-hydrothermal method. It was found that crossluminescence in KYF4 nanopowders is strongly quenched whereas the slow near-defect excitonic emission as well as the Tb3+ 4f-4f luminescence in Tb3+ doped KYF4 nanopowders is excited rather efficiently even for small sizes of particles. View full abstract»

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  • Elastic Moduli and Optical Properties of LYSO Crystals: Theory and Experiments

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2106 - 2111
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    In order to obtain a complete characterization and understanding of the structural, optical and mechanical properties of LYSO scintillanting crystals, we studied a mechanical, optical and photoelastic model for a cylindrical prism of square cross-section bent by applied loads. This is the starting point which is necessary in order to design a set of mechanical, electrical and optical experiments aimed to obtain the characterization of the macroscopical behavior of LYSO and similar crystals. View full abstract»

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  • Crystal Growth and Scintillation Properties of Ce Doped {\rm Gd}_{3}({\rm Ga},{\rm Al})_{5}{\rm O}_{12} Single Crystals

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2112 - 2115
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (622 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ce1%, 2% and 3% doped Gd3(Ga,Al)5O12 (GAGG) single crystals were grown by the Cz method. Luminescence and scintillation properties were measured. Light yield change along the growth direction and effects of Ce concentration on scintillation properties in Ce:GAGG were studied. Ce3+ 5d-4f emission within 520-530 nm was observed in the Ce:GAGG crystals. The Ce1%:GAGG sample with 3×3×1 mm size showed the highest light yield of 46000 photon/MeV. The energy resolution was 7.8%@662 keV. With increasing solidification fraction, the LY were decreased. It is proposed that the increase of Ga concentration along the growth direction is the main cause of the decrease of LY. The scintillation decay times were accelerated with increasing Ce concentration in the Ce:GAGG crystals. The scintillation decay times were 92.0 ns, 79.1 ns and 68.3 ns in the Ce1, 2 and 3% GAGG, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Crystal Growth of Ce Doped ({\rm Lu},{\rm Y})_{3}({\rm Ga},{\rm Al})_{5} {\rm O}_{12} Single Crystal by the Micro-Puling-Down Method and Their Scintillation Properties

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2116 - 2119
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    Ce:(Lu,Y)3(Ga,Al)5 O12 single crystals were grown by the μ -PD method with RF heating system. In these crystals, Ce3+ 4f-5d emission is observed within 500-530 nm wavelength. Emission peak shifts to shorter wavelength and the decay accelerates with increasing Ga concentration. In the case of Ce:Lu2 Y1 (Ga,Al)5 O12 series,the Ce0.2% Lu2 Y1Ga3Al2 O12 crystal showed the highest emission intensity. In order to determine light yield, the energy spectra were measured under 662 keV ã-ray excitation (137 Cs source) and detection by an APD S8664-55(Hamamatsu). The light yield was calibrated from Fe55 direct irradiation peak to APD. The light yield of Ce0.2%: Lu2 Y1 Ga3 Al2 O12 sample was of about 30,000 photon/MeV. Dominant scintillation decay time was of about 50 ns. View full abstract»

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  • Scintillation Properties of {\rm Ce}^{3+} - and {\rm \Pr}^{3+} -Doped LuAG, YAG and Mixed {\rm Lu}_{\rm x}{\rm Y}_{1-{\rm x}}{\rm AG} Garnet Crystals

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2120 - 2125
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1083 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We summarize the latest R&D state-of-art of Ce3+ and Pr3+-doped mixed (LuxY1-x)3Al5O12 (LuYAG) garnet scintillator crystals and compare their properties with those of Lu3Al5O12 (LuAG) and Y3Al5O12 (YAG) single crystal analogues. Light yield, energy resolution and proportionality were studied under radioisotope excitation within 8-1300 keV energy range. The highest light yield of about 27000 ph/MeV is obtained in the newest prepared Ce3+ -doped LuAG crystals while up to 17000 ph/MeV was measured in the Pr3+-doped ones. On the contrary, the energy resolution and proportionality are noticeably better in the Pr3+ -doped crystals. Mixed Ce3+- or Pr3+-doped LuxY1-xAG (x=0.9-1) crystals show comparable light yield and energy resolution compared to those doped pure LuAG, but the content of slow components in scintillation pulses lower. View full abstract»

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  • Growth and Scintillation Properties of Pr Doped ({\hbox {Gd}},{\hbox {Y}})_{3}({\hbox {Ga}},{\hbox {Al}})_{5} {\hbox {O}}_{12} Single Crystals

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2126 - 2129
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (739 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pr: (Gd,Y)3(Ga,Al)5 O12 single crystals were grown by the μ-PD method with RF heating system. Pr3+ 5d-4f emission within 300-350 nm, Pr3+ 4f-4f emission within 480-650 nm and Gd3+ 4f-4f emission at 310 nm are observed in Pr: (Gd,Y)3(Ga,Al)5 O12 crystals. In order to determine light yield, the energy spectra were measured under 662 keV γ-ray excitation ( 137Cs source), detected by a PMT H6521 (Hamamatsu). The light output of Pr1%:Gd1 Y2Ga3Al2 O12 sample was of about one fifth of that of the Cz grown Pr:LuAG standard sample, i.e., around 4,000 photon/MeV. Two component scintillation decay shows the decay times (intensity) of 5.7 ns(5%), 38.7 ns (31%) and 187 ns (63%) using the PMT and digital oscilloscope TDS5032B detection. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement of Scintillation Properties in Pr Doped {\rm Lu}_{3}{\hbox {Al}}_{5}{\rm O}_{12} Scintillator by Ga and Y Substitutions

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2130 - 2134
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (729 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pr:(Lu,Y)3(Ga,Al)5O12 single crystals were grown by the micro-pulling down ( μ-PD) method. Luminescence and scintillation properties were measured. The substitution phenomenon in the Lu3+ sites with Y3+ and Al3+ sites with Ga3+ in garnet structure has been studied. Pr3+ 5d-4f emission within 300-400 nm accompanied by weak Pr3+ 4f-4f emission in 480-650 nm were observed in Ga 0-60 at.% substituted samples. Only Pr3+ 4f-4f emission was observed in Ga 80 at.% substituted sample. The light yield of Pr1%:Lu2Y1Ga2Al2O12 sample was almost the same as that of Cz grown Pr:LuAG standard. Two-component scintillation decay of 17.9 ns (93%) and 68.0 ns (7%) were obtained using the PMT and digital oscilloscope TDS5032B. Slower decay components were reduced by Ga and Y substitution in LuAG structure. View full abstract»

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  • Quantitive Research of the Crystallinity of Pr Doped {\rm Lu}_{3}{\rm Al}_{5}{\rm O}_{12}

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2135 - 2140
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    In this study, we investigated the relation between crystallinity and scintillation properties of Pr:LuAG crystals grown by Czochralski (Cz) method. The crystallinity was determined as the dislocation density using the X-ray rocking curve technique. The scintillation pulse-height spectra were collected under 662 keV137Cs γ-ray excitation to evaluate the light yield and energy resolution. It was confirmed that both the light yield and energy resolution correlates with the crystalinity; however, the other factors also have an influence. View full abstract»

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  • Crystal Growth and Scintillation Properties of Ho-Doped Lu _{3} Al _{5} O _{12} Single Crystals

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2141 - 2145
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    The crystals of 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 3% Ho doped Lu3Al5O12 (Ho:LuAG) grown by the micro-pulling-down method were examined for their scintillation properties. At wavelengths longer than 300 nm, Ho:LuAG crystals demonstrated around 60% transparency with many absorption peaks attributed to Ho3+ 4f10-4 f10 transitions. When excited by 241Am α-ray to obtain radio luminescence spectra, broad host emission and four sharp Ho3+ 4f10-4 f10 emission peaks were detected in the visible region. Light yields and decay time profiles of the samples irradiated by 137Cs γ-ray were measured using photomultiplier tubes R7600 (Hamamatsu). Ho 0.5%:LuAG showed the highest light yield of 3100 ±310 photons/MeV among the present samples. The decay time profiles were well reproduced by two components exponential approximation consisting of 0.5-1 μs and 3-6 μs. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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