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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • Table of Contents

    Page(s): C1 - 2857
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial Special Section on IMEKO 2011 International Workshop on ADC Modeling, Testing and Data Converter Analysis and Design and the IEEE 2011 ADC Forum

    Page(s): 2858 - 2859
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  • High-Efficiency Cascade \Sigma \Delta Modulators for the Next Generation Software-Defined-Radio Mobile Systems

    Page(s): 2860 - 2869
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1713 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper overviews a number of ΣΔ modulation techniques to implement efficient analog-to-digital converters intended for low-voltage wideband multimode wireless telecom systems. The ΣΔ architectures under study combine different strategies-unity signal transfer function (USTF), resonation, loop-filter order reconfiguration, and concurrency-in order to increase performance while keeping high robustness against circuit errors. Practical considerations involving timing issues-derived from the combined use of different noise-shaping techniques-are analyzed in order to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed ΣΔ topologies. As an application, the design, circuit implementation, and experimental characterization of a flexible 1.2-V 90-nm CMOS sixth-order three-stage cascade SC ΣΔ modulator is presented. The modulator uses local resonation in the last two stages and USTF and programmable (either three or five levels) quantization in all stages. The chip reconfigures its loop-filter order (second, fourth, sixth order) and the clock frequency (from 40 to 240 MHz) and scales the power consumption according to required specifications. These reconfiguration strategies are combined with the capability of concurrency in order to digitize up to three different wireless standards simultaneously. Experimental measurements show the flexibility of the proposed circuit, featuring a programmable noise shaping within a 100-kHz-10-MHz signal band, with adaptive power dissipation, thus demonstrating to be a suitable solution to digitize signals in future software-defined-radio mobile terminals. View full abstract»

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  • A Beam Phase and Energy Measurement Instrument Based on Direct RF Signal IQ Undersampling Technique

    Page(s): 2870 - 2878
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    A diagnostic instrument being designed to measure the beam phase and energy of the drift tube linac in the proton accelerator of the China Spallation Neutron Source is described, and the characterization of the system is presented. The signals received from fast current transformers are radio-frequency (RF) signals with a frequency of 352.2 MHz and a dynamic range from -30 to 3.5 dBm. The RF signals are converted to orthogonal streams directly with the in- and quadrature-phase undersampling technique based on high-speed high-resolution analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion. To guarantee a high-quality A/D conversion, two different sampling clock circuits are designed with corresponding simulations and tests conducted for comparison. To build a stand-alone instrument with compact architecture, all digital signal processing algorithms are implemented within one single field-programmable gate array; meanwhile, a Nios II embedded system is also integrated in it for data transfer through the Ethernet. This system achieves a phase resolution better than 0.09° over the input signal amplitude range from -41 to 7 dBm, well beyond the 0.5° required. View full abstract»

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  • Audio Telecom ADC Featuring Click-Free Gain Control Technique, Dithering Insertion, and Idle Tone Shifting

    Page(s): 2879 - 2887
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (813 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Applying pulsewidth modulation (PWM) to control the gain in audio codecs for mobile applications leads to several advantages, such as the smooth control of tuning parameters, smaller silicon area, and lower power consumption, as compared with other tuning techniques using programmable gain amplifiers and zero crossing detectors. The PWM has to be embedded into the main signal path, preferably in a closed-loop control scheme, in order to exploit its benefits. However, the insertion of dithering and offset controls in a gain setting loop poses the problem of controlling their effects in all gain conditions. This paper reports a novel technique aimed at solving the associated issues and limitations, and provides the experimental proof of the concept through the implementation of a test-chip design on silicon. In particular, this paper reports the design and experimental results of a delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter featuring a click-free gain control technique, dithering insertion, and idle-tone shifting, which has been implemented in a 40-nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology for commercial telecom audio codec applications. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement in Spectral Properties of Quantization Noise of Harmonic Signal Using Multiresolution Quantization

    Page(s): 2888 - 2895
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (757 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multiresolution quantization (MQ) is used in modern equipment designed for wideband spectrum measurements with high dynamic range. Such time-domain measurement systems significantly reduce measurement time. Only basic theoretical analyses of the possible influences of MQ on the fidelity of the measured spectrum have been performed until today. Therefore, the real contribution of the method to the quality of measurement should be clarified. In this paper, a new model of quantization noise is proposed for MQ. It was derived from a model of power spectral density previously used for uniform quantization. A system with two different quantization steps used for the quantization of harmonic input signal is considered. The model suitability for such conditions is proved by simulation and confronted with experimental results. Multiresolution measurements were acquired using a dual-channel data acquisition card and personal-computer postprocessing. View full abstract»

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  • A Power-Optimal Design Methodology for High-Resolution Low-Bandwidth SC \Delta \Sigma Modulators

    Page(s): 2896 - 2904
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (435 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a methodology for the power-optimal design of high-resolution low-bandwidth switched-capacitor ΔΣ modulators (ΔΣMs) is presented. The most power-efficient ΔΣ architecture is identified among single-loop feedback and feedforward topologies with different loop orders N, oversampling ratios OSR, and quantizer resolutions B. Based on this study, an experimental prototype has been implemented in a 0.18- μm CMOS process. It achieves a signal-to-noise ratio of 95 dB over a signal bandwidth fBW of 10 kHz. The prototype operates with a 1.28-MHz sampling rate and consumes 210 μW from a 1.8-V supply. View full abstract»

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  • Exploiting Pseudorandom Sequences to Enhance Noise Immunity for Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing

    Page(s): 2905 - 2915
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    The application of a pulse-compression procedure based on pseudorandom m-sequences to air-coupled ultrasonic nondestructive testing is presented. The signal-to-noise ratio enhancement assured by this technique is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified, particularly focusing on the positive effect of the procedure to reduce quantization noise. The possibility of faithfully reconstructing signals whose amplitudes are lower than the quantization step of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) board is analyzed theoretically and experimentally verified. View full abstract»

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  • Quaternion-Optimization-Based In-Flight Alignment Approach for Airborne POS

    Page(s): 2916 - 2923
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1125 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Position and Orientation System (POS) is a key technology that provides motion compensation information for imaging sensor in airborne remote sensing. In-flight alignment (IFA) is an important alignment method that can improve reaction speed and accuracy of measurement for airborne POS. The traditional IFA methods based on the Kalman filter and the adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF) are severely affected by flight maneuver; severe maneuver may result in alignment accuracy degeneration or failure. On the basis of optimization-based alignment method for static base alignment, a novel IFA method based on quaternion optimization is devised in this paper, aiming to boost up the robustness and the accuracy of IFA, which extends the range of the application of optimization-based alignment method from static base alignment to IFA. The proposed algorithm has the advantage that it can avoid the affection from severe maneuver. The real-time implementation is given. Flight experiment demonstrates that, compared with the IFA method based on AEKF, the proposed algorithm is better in converging speed and robusticity with the same alignment accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • A High-Resolution Ultrasonic Distance Measurement System Using Vernier Caliper Phase Meter

    Page(s): 2924 - 2931
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1047 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An ultrasonic distance measurement system for use in air is presented. The measurement is based upon the two-frequency continuous-wave (TFCW) phase-shift method. In the system, two Vernier caliper phase meters are used to measure the phase-shift data. The phase meter circuit developed to emulate the Vernier caliper to measure the phase shift is able to eliminate the measuring error and produce higher resolution results without increasing the clock frequency. A single-chip microprocessor is used to control the TFCW phase-shift measurement and send the data to a personal computer for distance calibration and examination. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the system is ±0.1362 mm and the distance resolution is 0.04% of the wavelength corresponding to the 40-kHz ultrasonic wave at a range of 50-200 mm. Therefore, the main advantages of this system are high resolution, high accuracy, low cost, and ease of implementation. View full abstract»

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  • An Efficient Pre-Processing Scheme to Enhance Resolution in Band-Pass Signals Acquisition

    Page(s): 2932 - 2940
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    The paper presents a pre-processing scheme to enhance the resolution of data acquisition systems (DASs) in the presence of band-pass input signals. The proposed solution permits to acquire a seamless data stream with improved resolution and is designed to be efficient in terms of hardware requirements and processing time. In the paper, details on the designed architecture are given, along with an analytical comparison of the resolution improvement achievable with respect to existing techniques. The performance of the solution is assessed through a number of simulative and experimental tests on band-pass signals. View full abstract»

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  • Testing ADC Spectral Performance Without Dedicated Data Acquisition

    Page(s): 2941 - 2952
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1606 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Static linearity and spectral performance are the most important parameters that need to be measured in an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) test. Testing these two types of parameters contributes the most significant part of ADC test cost. The relationship between integral nonlinearity (INL) and spectral performance has been used to reduce test cost in many research works. This paper comprehensively investigates the relationship and presents a low-cost test method that measures ADCs' spectral performance based on measured INL values. By making use of INL measurement results, the method eliminates dedicated hardware and test time for spectral performance measurement. It only needs a small amount of computation to obtain ADC's spectral performance. The method is useful in application where spectral performance only needs to be measured at low frequency. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method achieves the same measurement accuracy as a standard fast Fourier transform method. View full abstract»

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  • Approximate ML Estimation of the Period and Spectral Content of Multiharmonic Signals Without User Interaction

    Page(s): 2953 - 2959
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The goal of this paper is to construct an approximate maximum-likelihood estimator to accurately estimate the period and spectral contents of a noisy periodic signal that has many frequency components. This is accomplished without user interaction. The signal data record has a total number of periods that is not necessarily an integer but is greater than four. Furthermore, the number of samples per period may not necessarily be an integer number. It is shown that the accuracy of the estimated results is superior to estimates that are devoid of variance weighting, such as those engendered by the least squares estimator. View full abstract»

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  • Reducing the Analog and Digital Bandwidth Requirements of RF Receivers for Measuring Periodic Sparse Waveforms

    Page(s): 2960 - 2971
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    In this paper, a prototype setup for measuring wideband periodic waveforms whose bandwidth surpasses the analog bandwidth of a radio-frequency receiver is presented. Three major challenges arise in the analog-to-digital stage when measuring such wideband waveforms: the availability of a high sampling rate based on a good amplitude resolution; the availability of the required analog bandwidth to capture the full waveform; and achieving the previous requirements in a cheap way. Those challenges are more pronounced when using wideband modulated signals to test nonlinear devices and when measuring/sensing wideband spectra for cognitive radio applications. For periodic signals, undersampling techniques based on the evolved harmonic sampling can be used to reduce the sampling rate requirements while satisfying a good amplitude resolution. For sparse signals, a technique based on channelization and signal separation is proposed. This technique splits the spectrum of the waveform into parallel channels, downconverts them to the analog frequency band of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), spreads the channel information, sums them, and then digitizes with a single ADC. Using reconstruction algorithms based on l1-norm minimization, the information of the parallel channels can be separated. The original wideband spectrum can be then reconstructed after de-embedding of the channelization process. View full abstract»

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  • A Metrological Comparison Between Different Methods for Harmonic Pollution Metering

    Page(s): 2972 - 2981
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    Several proposals can be found, in the literature, to split the responsibility for the injection of harmonic pollution between the different loads and between loads and source. The methods have been tested mainly by means of simulations performed on an industrial test system identified by the IEEE Task Force on Harmonics Modeling and Simulation. The main problem of the simulation results is that they tend to disregard measurement uncertainty that, if not properly considered, might lead to an incorrect assessment of responsibility. This paper is therefore aimed at comparing the different available methods from a metrological point of view, in order to provide a wider and more complete basis for evaluating their performances. View full abstract»

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  • RoSe: A Subgigahertz Wireless Sensor Platform With Housing-Integrated Overmolded Antenna

    Page(s): 2982 - 2992
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A wireless sensor platform for use in ultralow-power wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is presented. The proposed round sensor (RoSe) node is physically robust, is resistant to humidity, and has a housing that can be in direct contact with food. These characteristics are achieved via injection molding technology which is investigated at both the component and the system levels. The results of injection molding tests on the node's electronic components are reported, while a housing-integrated overmolded antenna is conceived and realized. The radiator, operating in the subgigahertz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band (ISM 868 or 915 MHz), has been characterized, and a good correspondence with theoretical predictions is observed. The proposed system enables industrialized mass production and results in a generic platform for wireless monitoring applications. In this paper, we present the RoSe node with a temperature sensor for use in food cold chain management, i.e., for use at temperatures down to -30 °C and in frequent contact with water due to condensation or cleaning. Its ultralow-power characteristics are demonstrated by the analysis of the charge consumption when the node performs specific tasks both in a test case and operating in a WSN. Long-term battery lifetime results while running a demo WSN are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Finding the Probability Distribution Functions of S -Parameters and Their Monte Carlo Simulation

    Page(s): 2993 - 3002
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    This paper presents the probability distribution function (PDF) of the ratio of two random waves. This result is used to obtain the PDF of S-parameters random errors in magnitude (in decibels) and phase, which are the quantities that most engineers work with. These results are further used on the development of a Monte Carlo simulation method in order to predict the variability of frequency-domain measurements. Experiments are performed to identify and characterize frequency-domain random errors, such as instrument noise, connector repeatability, and calibration variations, in measurement systems. By comparing with real measurement data, it is shown that random-error effects can be accurately estimated by the PDF's obtained and the Monte Carlo technique. View full abstract»

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  • A Measurement Standard for Vehicle Localization and Its ISO-Compliant Measurement Uncertainty Evaluation

    Page(s): 3003 - 3013
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (397 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fully autonomous road traffic has already been desired for years but could not be realized until now. Aside from the capability of the vehicles to communicate with each other (C2C) or with the infrastructure (C2I), the main obstacle for the realization of a fully autonomous traffic is a sufficiently accurate and reliable localization. The localization of vehicles, i.e., the real-time measurement of the position of moving objects, is still a challenging task, as each vehicle has to be localized at every time and at any place of the road network with a high accuracy and availability. Since fully autonomous traffic is a safety-relevant application, a proof of safety for all safety-relevant components is indispensable. Therefore, the measurement quality of the applied measurement devices has to be verified. For a determination of the accuracy and availability performance of localization systems, an accredited testing and calibration laboratory for vehicle localization is necessary, which does not exist yet. Such a laboratory has to provide a measurement standard for vehicle position measurements and an uncertainty evaluation for the reference value according to standards. This paper suggests a measurement standard for automotive vehicle localization and its measurement uncertainty evaluation according to the International Organization for Standardization Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement Setup for Imaging Applications Using Frequency Scanning Illumination

    Page(s): 3014 - 3023
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    A measurement setup for imaging applications is presented. The idea is to reuse an existing antenna measurement setup to develop the imaging system by using a frequency scanning antenna array that focuses the incident field on the object under test (OUT) at different angular positions by means of a frequency sweep. From the measured total field data, an inverse technique based on source reconstruction is proposed to recover the OUT profile. In order to check the feasibility of the proposed setup and for the sake of simplicity, the OUTs to be dealt with present translation symmetry along one dimension (2-D problems). Measurement results and full-wave method-of-moment simulations are presented to test the proposed setup as well as to point out the frequency scanning capabilities. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of a QMS Including the Effects of Pressure in the Electron-Impact Ion Source

    Page(s): 3024 - 3030
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (662 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is concerned with the computer modeling of a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) to include the effect of pressure in the ion source. The paper simulates the spectra over the pressure range from 10-6 to 10-4 mbar. An important contribution is the development of a novel procedure to include pressure dependence of the ion source to allow better prediction of instrument performance. Electron-impact total ionization cross sections in the ionic current expression are calculated using the binary-encounter-Bethe theory for argon gas. The predicted results show good agreement with the experimental results obtained from a commercial QMS used for residual gas analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of Dynamic Material Properties of Silicone Rubber Using One-Point Measurements and Finite Element Simulations

    Page(s): 3031 - 3038
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    The dynamic Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and the damping factor of silicone rubber are determined from a laser triangulation measurement of the top surface motion of a flat cylindrical sample excited by a shaker. These material parameters are estimated on the basis of an Inverse Method that minimizes the difference between measured data and a prediction from a finite-element model (FEM), in which the sought-after material data are the adjustable parameters. The results are presented for measurements within the 10-400-Hz frequency range under atmospheric pressure and temperature conditions. At first, the measured data are compared with FEM predictions using constant material parameters to show the material behavior in principle. Afterward, the frequency dependence of the moduli and Poisson's ratios are determined by matching measurements with simulations within small frequency ranges. Finally, the material parameters determined are given as functions versus frequency. A sensitivity analysis shows the accuracy of the presented method. This paper is motivated by the need for a precise description of vocal fold models, commonly manufactured from silicone rubber. View full abstract»

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  • Material Characterization Using Complementary Split-Ring Resonators

    Page(s): 3039 - 3046
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (878 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A microwave method based on complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs) is proposed for dielectric characterization of planar materials. The technique presents advantages such as high measurement sensitivity and eliminates the extensive sample preparation procedure needed in resonance-based methods. A sensor in the shape of CSRRs working at a 0.8-1.3 GHz band is demonstrated. The sensor is etched in the ground plane of a microstrip line to effectively create a stopband filter. The frequencies at which minimum transmission and minimum reflection are observed depend on the permittivity of the sample under test. The minimum transmission frequency shifts from 1.3 to 0.8 GHz as the sample permittivity changes from 1 to 10. The structure is fabricated using printed circuit board technology. Numerical findings are experimentally verified. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Investigation of Electromagnetic Obstacle Detection for Visually Impaired Users: A Comparison With Ultrasonic Sensing

    Page(s): 3047 - 3057
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    The use of electromagnetic (EM) fields for obstacle detection to aid mobility of visually impaired people is presented in this paper. The method proposed is based on the launch of EM pulses and on the measurement of the reflected signal which explores a region in front of the user of about 3 m. A laboratory system is set up, its performances (detecting the presence and the distance of obstacles) are investigated, and the measurements are compared with the data measured by an ultrasonic obstacle detection system. Results show that, with the EM system, all the obstacles tested (up to a minimum size of 3 cm × 3 cm, at a distance of 3 m) are correctly detected, as well as some specific targets (a chain, a pole, etc.) that are not visible by the ultrasonic system. The EM system has been tested in indoor and outdoor cluttered scenarios at the presence of real obstacles (single and multiple), and in all cases, it detects their presence with a signal-to-noise ratio ranging from 10 to 23 dB. Despite the use of a laboratory system, still not specifically designed for daily use, this paper demonstrates the possibility of adopting EM held pulses for obstacle detection, highlighting advantages with respect to ultrasonic systems and addressing future research activity to design an improved ad hoc EM system. View full abstract»

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  • Error Analysis and Gyro-Bias Calibration of Analytic Coarse Alignment for Airborne POS

    Page(s): 3058 - 3064
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (581 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Position and Orientation System is integrated measurement equipment for airborne remote sensing system. The calibration of gyro biases is an effective way to reduce azimuth misalignment and navigation error of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS). According to the analytic-coarse-alignment principle, the sensitivities of Euler angles with respect to inertial sensor biases are analyzed uniquely. The errors of Earth rotation rate in body frame caused by initial misalignment are obtained. Based on the transformation model of gyro biases, a novel analytic calibration of gyro biases with arbitrary double position is proposed. The simulation and experiment results show that the method can accurately calibrate the gyro biases, improve the precision of initial alignment and inertial navigation for SINS, and verify the efficiency of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703