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Communications Magazine, IEEE

Issue 10 • Date October 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • IEEE Communications Magazine - Front cover

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): c1 - C1
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2 - 4
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  • Member relations [The President's Page]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 6 - 8
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  • Jack Salz – a memorial article [Society News]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 10 - 12
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  • Conference calendar

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 14 - 16
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  • Book reviews (4 books reviewed)

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 18 - 22
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  • Global Communications Newsletter

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 4
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  • New products

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 30
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  • Product spotlights

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 32
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  • Military communications [Guest Editorial]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 36
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  • Responsive communications jamming against radio-controlled improvised explosive devices

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 38 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (802 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Responsive communications jamming is an emerging technology for electronic-warfare applications. In contrast to state-of-the-art barrage jammers, which continuously jam entire frequency bands irrespective of current signal activities, responsive jammers regularly perform wideband scans of the radio spectrum and are thus able to react to observed signals. By this means, the available transmit energy can be focused on currently relevant spectral areas, which potentially leads to significantly improved jamming efficiencies. In this article, we provide a tutorial overview of this jamming technology with focus on vehicle- or convoy-protection jamming against radio-controlled improvised explosive devices (RCIEDs). Bringing in experience from our product development as well as from theoretical studies, we discuss various system design aspects of responsive anti-RCIED jammers and point out the main technological challenges. In particular, the issues of jam-duration optimization and time synchronization of multiple responsive jammers are discussed in some detail. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple-UAV coordination and communications in tactical edge networks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 48 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (142 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Unmanned aerial vehicles are becoming prevalent in tactical networks as they are proving to be an extremely flexible platform for a variety of applications. Increasingly, UAVs need to cooperate with each other in order to perform complex tasks such as target monitoring and prosecution, information gathering and processing, and delivery between disconnected portions of the network. However, UAV cooperation in tactical scenarios represents a major challenge from both the coordination and communication perspectives. In fact, cooperating UAVs must achieve a high degree of coordination in order to accomplish complex tasks in a dynamic and uncertain environment. In turn, as UAVs interact with other entities, the effective coordination of multiple-UAV operations requires specific support in terms of efficient communication protocols and mechanisms exploiting UAVs as mobile assets that facilitate and hasten critical information flows. This article presents a series of considerations and lessons learned that we have collected in our experience with multiple- UAV coordination and communications in tactical edge networks, and discusses some of the main components of a middleware we specifically designed to support multiple-UAV operations. View full abstract»

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  • Cooperative communication techniques for future-generation HF radios

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 56 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (583 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast of the United States in 2005, it severely damaged the telecommunications infrastructure, isolating the area from the outside world. With all the high-end emergency communication gear in its path being knocked out by the hurricane, highfrequency (HF) amateur radio systems played a critical role in rescue and recovery operations. Such tragic incidents have resulted in re-appreciation of the "good old" HF technology that has been an essential part of worldwide information transmission since the advent of radio. HF systems traditionally have been associated with analog voice and very-low-rate data transmission. With the shift from analog to digital in voice communication and increasing demands for high-rate data transmission (e.g., email, Internet, FTP), HF communication has been going through a renaissance. Innovative techniques are required to push the capacity limits of the HF band. Our tutorial provides a contemporary overview of HF communication and discusses cooperative diversity as an enabler to support the challenging expectations of future-generation HF communication systems. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic interference on tactical radio systems from collocated medical equipment on military camps

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 64 - 69
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1251 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    On military camps for joint international operations, the intersystem interference can be highly unpredictable, and situation changes can occur very fast. For such situations it is highly important to perform intersystem interference analyses not only for intentional transmitters but also for electromagnetic interference from other electric equipment. One example of such an interference source to consider is medical equipment in field hospitals since the hospitals can contain a large amount of interfering equipment. In this article, we show examples of necessary safety distances between medical equipment and tactical radio systems at military camps for international missions. We give an example of how wideband electromagnetic interference can degrade the performance even for a wideband frequency hopping army combat radio. View full abstract»

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  • Radio-to-router interface technology and its applicability on the tactical edge

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 70 - 77
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Tactical wireless and mobile networks are the primary networking infrastructure in the Global Information Grid (GIG) to provide end-to-end connectivity to the warfighters at the tactical edge. The highly dynamic nature of tactical edge networks raise a number of challenging issues related to data transport and service delivery in the tactical environment. To address some of these issues, DoD waveforms have increasingly leveraged layer 2 link information to make smart cross-layer multihop routing decisions. Although there has been some measure of success in providing higher end-to-end data delivery, the lack of standard interfaces between the radio and router have led to interoperability issues in environments with a heterogeneous mix of radio systems. As a result, there has been increased desire to standardize radio-to-router interfaces (R2RIs) as a means to separate radio and router functionality and to allow greater interoperability between systems. In this article, we examine three R2RI protocols currently being vetted through the Internet Engineering Task Force and currently integrated or under consideration in DoD radio systems (RFC 5578, R2CP, and DLEP), and identify their current use and applicability in the tactical edge. Furthermore, we identify some challenges in implementing any R2RI scheme into emerging systems. View full abstract»

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  • Topics in automotive networking and applications [Series Editorial]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 80 - 81
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  • Toward reproducibility and comparability of IVC simulation studies: a literature survey

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 82 - 88
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (253 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Intervehicle communication is currently transitioning from an academic exercise to a commercially attractive and feasible technology. However, many aspects of IVC protocols, their parameters and configurations, as well as application-specific adaptations are still to be studied. One of the key tools used is simulation. Looking back at recent years in IVC research, tremendous improvements in precision and realism of simulation models concerning all its aspects can be observed. These models offer a vast number of parameters, enabling investigation of a huge variety of different scenarios. We reviewed simulation studies published at major vehicular network conferences from 2009 to 2011 with a key focus on reproducibility and comparability of the published simulation studies. We are glad to present a clear trend toward a consolidated set of established standards, models, and tools. However, looking at individual papers, we commonly find key information (e.g., the used model) missing. This limits both the reproducibility and comparability of simulations conducted. We further present commonly used basic building blocks of simulations that can serve as a first step toward deriving an agreed-upon set on which IVC simulations can be based. We advocate providing all essential information as set out in this article to help keep future research reproducible and comparable. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of intervehicle spacing distributions on connectivity of VANET: a case study from measured highway traffic

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 90 - 97
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Connectivity is an important property for information dissemination in a vehicular ad hoc network. Basically, connectivity ensures that a message from a source can be spread to reach all the vehicles in the network. Over the past few years, there have been a significant number of studies on connectivity models for vehicular ad hoc networks. Most of them rely on the key assumption that the intervehicle spacing distribution is exponential. However, based on a new empirical analysis, it is shown that during most periods of the day the intervehicle spacing distribution can better be described by other statistical distributions. This certainly affects the connectivity analysis. In this article, we discuss how the connectivity of a vehicular ad hoc network in a highway traffic scenario will change when the intervehicle spacing distribution is not exponential. View full abstract»

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  • Beaconing as a service: a novel service-oriented beaconing strategy for vehicular ad hoc networks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 98 - 105
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Vehicular ad hoc networks are designed to increase traffic safety by enabling fast reactions of drivers in critical situations. Vehicles exchange beacon messages about their current state and position using wireless communication to establish a certain level of awareness. Based on the received information, the collision probability with neighboring vehicles can be calculated. To calculate a collision probability accurately, highly up-to-date knowledge about the movement of potential collision partners is required. Due to the dynamic network topology, vehicles are supposed to send periodic beacons at an increased transmit rate. However, as wireless communication suffers from packet interference issues in saturated communication channels, an increased beacon rate also raises the interference probability. Thus, decreasing interference by increasing the awareness level seems contradictory. To overcome this issue, we introduce our beaconing as a service (BaaS) approach, which follows two core aspects: first, controlling the beacon rate intelligently with respect to the real benefit of a message transmission (e.g., when a vehicle detects a potential collision situation); and second, utilizing the overall communication bandwidth, which is divided into several communication channels. In this sense BaaS specifies a context-aware request/response beaconing strategy utilizing multiple channels simultaneously. View full abstract»

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  • Topics in integrated circuits for communications [Series Editorial]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 106 - 107
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  • RF digital-to-analog converters enable direct synthesis of communications signals

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 108 - 116
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (741 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article discusses the practical application of RF digital-to-analog converters to communication systems such as cable distribution, wireless communications infrastructure base stations, wireless backhaul, and other such systems. The key specifications driving the development of RF DAC technology are reviewed, as are some common radio architectures used to implement those systems. Challenges associated with the design of RF DACs are described, and some trade-offs and possible solutions are discussed. Design considerations of the package and the printed circuit board design are reviewed. Measured results of an RF DAC suitable for cable head-end transmitters are presented. The features and performance of RF DACs provide an enabling solution for software defined radio systems targeted toward multicarrier, multiband, multistandard radio transmitters. View full abstract»

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  • An energy-efficient polar transmitter for IEEE 802.15.6 body area networks: system requirements and circuit designs

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 118 - 127
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1099 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article discusses the radio system requirements and design trade-offs of a low-power 2.3/2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.6-narrowband transmitter for body area network applications. The IEEE 802.15.6 narrowband PHY adopts nonconstant envelope DPSK modulations. Transmitter architecture selection is a major challenge because it needs to provide both amplitude and phase modulation, with good efficiency and strict requirements on modulation accuracy and linearity for non-constant envelope modulations. A PLL-based polar transmitter with a Sigma-Delta digitally controlled power amplifier (ΣΔ-DPA) is employed for its excellent energy efficiency. Finally, this article discusses the circuit design considerations and implementation results. With balance between analog and digital implementation, and careful planning of the radio system, the polar transmitter presented in this article can meet all of the specifications defined in IEEE 802.15.6 with abundant margin, while having extremely low power consumption of 5.4 mW and excellent energy efficiency of 5.4 nJ/bit. View full abstract»

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  • Tongue drive: a wireless tongue- operated means for people with severe disabilities to communicate their intentions

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 128 - 135
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1077 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Assistive technologies (ATs) can enable individuals with severe disabilities to communicate their intentions to other devices or individuals, particularly allowing them to control their environments via computers. In this article, we have introduced the basic concept and development of a new wireless tongue-operated AT, called Tongue Drive System (TDS), that can wirelessly detect users' tongue movements using an array of magnetic sensors and a small magnetic tracer secured on the tongue, and translate them into a set of user-defined commands in real time, which can then be used to communicate with target devices in the users' environments. Our goal is to provide users with an unobtrusive, minimally invasive, low-power, high-bandwidth, wireless, wearable, easy-to-use, and aesthetically appealing solution that is superior to other existing ATs for people with the most severe physical disabilities. The performance of the latest TDS prototype has been evaluated by both able-bodied subjects and patients with high-level spinal cord injuries. Results have demonstrated that the TDS can indeed offer its users much higher communication bandwidth compared to EEGbased brain computer interfaces. View full abstract»

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  • Time synchronization over ethernet passive optical networks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 136 - 142
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (262 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Time synchronization is critical when using Ethernet passive optical networks as a mobile backhaul to support time-sensitive services. This article presents an overview of time synchronization methods over EPON. It outlines the requirements and challenges particular to the EPON link delay asymmetry, and presents the technical solution recently approved by IEEE. Performance analysis and prototype results demonstrate that this technical solution meets various time synchronization requirements. The article then reviews the major standard efforts on EPON time synchronization that employ this solution, IEEE Std 802.1ASTM-2011 Clause 13. With this standard in place, EPON can play its part in time distribution networks. View full abstract»

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  • Antenna selection in LTE: from motivation to specification

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 144 - 150
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (233 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transmit antenna selection technology has been adopted for the uplink by the next generation Long Term Evolution wireless standard in order to harness the spatial diversity offered by multiple antennas at the mobile transmitter, while keeping the hardware complexity and cost of a mobile low. In TAS, the number of RF chains for processing/up-conversion is smaller than the number of available antenna elements, so at any time the signals can only be transmitted from a (dynamically optimized) subset of antenna elements. As a result, the training procedure for AS needs to be carefully engineered. In LTE, this is accomplished by reusing the wideband sounding reference signal for the purpose of AS training. Furthermore, new mechanisms are required to facilitate feedback from the receiver (the base station) to the transmitter about which subset is optimal and should thus be used by the mobile. In LTE, this is accomplished by employing a unique masking technique on the downlink control channel that eliminates the feedback overhead at the expense of a minor increase in complexity at the mobile. This article provides an in-depth and systematic overview of all physical and higher layer features in the LTE standard that enable TAS. Also highlighted are the variety of technical and standardization challenges that drove the specification of AS in LTE, and the aspects of the LTE standard that are impacted by AS. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Communications Magazine covers all areas of communications such as lightwave telecommunications, high-speed data communications, personal communications systems (PCS), ISDN, and more.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Osman Gebizlioglu
Huawei Technologies